The Abbasid Caliphate was the name given to the dynasty that succeeded The Umayyad Caliphate in control of most of the Middle East in the 8th century. The Caliphate ruled significant parts of the Middle East until the mid-13th century when the capital of the Caliphate, Baghdad, was attacked and destroyed by the Mongol armies under Hulagu. The dynasty lasted in ceremonial form until the early 16th century under the control of the Ottoman Caliphate. After the destruction of Baghdad, the Abbasid lands were absorbed by the Mamluk dynasty in Egypt and the Mongol Il Khanate of Persia.
- Nuttall Encyclopedia of General Knowledge, article on Abbasides originally published in 1907 written by Reverend James Wood