The decision of United States v. Aluminum Co. of America (ALCOA), 148 F.2d 416 (2d Cir. 1945), established that a highly successful business that obtains a monopoly due to its success can be held in violation of the antitrust laws against "monopolization". In this decision, the famous appellate Judge Learned Hand ruled against ALCOA because it "effectively anticipated and forestalled all competition." Id. at 431.