Alexander v. Choate
In Alexander v. Choate, 469 U.S. 287, 293 (1985), the U.S. Supreme Court held that "Title VI [of the Civil Rights Act of 1954] itself directly reaches only instances of intentional discrimination."
Justice Thurgood Marshall wrote the opinion for the unanimous court. The facts arose from Tennessee proposed reducing the number of annual days of inpatient hospital care covered by its state Medicaid program. The question presented was whether the effect upon the handicapped that this reduction will have is cognizable under § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or its implementing regulations. The Court held that it is not.