American History Homework Four Answers - Model

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Lecture - Questions - Student Answers

1. What was the "Revolution of 1800"?

The Revolution of 1800 was the first peaceful change in power by a vote. It was a change from Adams to Jefferson. (Isaac Z.)
The “Revolution of 1800” was the presidential election of 1800; the first peaceful change in authority due to an election in modern history between Adams and Jefferson. The group with power, the Federalist Party, with John Adams as their leader, was defeated by a group not in power, the Democratic-Republican Party, whose leaders were Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. What I found interesting was that John Adams’ own vice president, Jefferson, was running against him. Adams must have been even more frustrated with Jefferson when he won the election. (Veronika F.)

2. If you were the president, would you have approved the Louisiana Purchase? Explain.

... [B]ack then the Constitution was new. Perhaps because the men who wrote it were still alive, and still in power, taking a bit of liberty with it would be allowed. I'm not saying the Constitution is evolving, but right after a house is finished and the occupants move in is when the most projects need to be done. There were one or two things they forgot to put in the Constitution, and its best that they took care of them while it was still new. No one today can take liberty with the Constitution, or read between the lines, they weren't around when it was written. (Steven M.)
I would not have approved the purchase. It may be constitutionally sound but I don't think the government should unnecessarily work to expand its jurisdiction. My solution would have been for Napoleon to abandon the territories ...." (Daniel N.)
Yes, it was a great deal. The land was cheap, and it could have held great natural resources. (Steve H.)

3. Identify a cause of the War of 1812.

One of the causes of the War of 1812 was England harassing American sailors and forcing them to sail English ships. (Olivia F.)
One of the reasons was the impressment of sailors into the British fleets, when the British would sometimes round up American sailors and force them to work on their ships. Another reason was that there were many unresolved issues from the Revolutionary War. (Joseph M.)
The cause of the War of 1812 was the thought that England was provoking Indians to attack the United States. (Leonard G.)
The war in 1812 first started when the British attacked the American Ships by boarding them and harassing the American sailors. The war continued for quite sometime until England wanted to fight no more. On Christmas Eve, England agreed to end the war with the Treaty of Ghent, and the United States ended up not having to give up any of its land. (Amanda S.)
It started when some members of Congress accused it of starting Indian attacks against the United States. As an insult to injury, the English [later] came and burnt down the Capitol Building and White House. (Bethany S.)
The "war hawks." (Karen N.) Teacher's note: The war hawks were about a dozen congressmen, led by Henry Clay, who demanded war with England for the reasons mentioned in the answers above.
The ... growth of the American frontier. (Kara L.)

4. Describe what you like most about the Monroe Administration.

I appreciate the Monroe Administration for its conservative values the progress and peace associated with the times, but I believe that its most important accomplishment was effectively establishing the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine essentially told Europe to leave the Americas alone. This was one of the first important foreign policy moves that our country made, and to this day it is often cited. (Rachel N.)
The best part about the Monroe Administration to me, was his 'Monroe Doctrine' because not only was it necessary, it shows how he took the initiative to take on the Europeans without causing conflict. The fact that it is still cited today is proof of its effectiveness. (Danielle R.)
One of the most lasting things about the Monroe Administration was the Rush-Bagot Treaty between the United States and Canada, which completely demilitarized the United States-Canadian border. This treaty continues today, and saves the United States millions in military costs and enables us to use our military in other, more necessary, spots. (Duncan B.)
Monroe's administration was a period of great diplomacy. ... In 1819, American diplomats negotiated with Spain to give up its claims to Oregon. In addition, Russia agreed to a similar pact in 1824. (Meredith Y.)
... America prospered under his leadership. (Steve H.)

5. Explain what is meant by "Jacksonian Democracy."

Jacksonian Democracy refers to the political movement of President Andrew Jackson and his supporters. This movement valued greater rights for the common man and was opposed to any signs of aristocracy in the nation. Jacksonian democracy was aided by the feeling of equality among the people of the newer settlements in the South and West. It was also aided by the extension of the vote in eastern states to men without property; in the early days of the United States, many places had allowed only male property owners to vote. Jacksonian Democracy favored geographical expansion. (Natalie D.)
The Jacksonian Democracy included these beliefs
a. Jacksonians believed voting rights to be extremely important.
b. Jacksonians had the belief that it was American’s "destiny" to settle the west.
c. Jacksonians believed that the rotation of political appointees was very important and that it would help the common man to become more involved.
d. Jacksonians believed in a Federal Government with limited power.
e. Jacksonians were extremely opposed to banks (The national bank in particular) (Jess S.)
The Jacksonian Democracy was when Andrew Jackson won the presidential election of 1828 by drawing in the votes of the middle and lower class. He was the first President who was born in a log cabin and advertised how he could relate to the common man. Sarah Palin is now doing this in the 2008 Presidential elections by showing how she can relate to the general public. (Jenna N.)
Jacksonian Democracy seems to be a system where certain ethnic groups [the Scotch-Irish] vote for someone of the same ethnicity. [Jackson was Scotch-Irish] (Daniel N.)

6. Explain what the Marshall Court is known for.

The Marshall Court is known for the outrageous expansion of federal power. Almost every one of Chief Justice Marshall's noteworthy decisions expanded the power of the federal government with no 'check and balance' exercised until the end of his thirty-five year service. (Katie B.)
Expansion of federal power. Marbury v. Madison established judicial power in declaring an Act of Congress unconstitutional. (Will M.)
The Marshall Court achieved many things under Chief Justice John Marshall. It's known for making many important decisions, including cases that expanded federal power, established that a state law could be invalidated if it was unconstitutional, established that federal banks could not be taxed by a state, and many others. (Kara H)
The Marshall Court is known for expanding the Supreme Court’s power. The Marshall Court established many important decisions, such as the power of judicial review to declare an Act of Congress, or a state law, unconstitutional. (Sarah W.)

7. Identify the figures in the cartoon, provide an approximate date, and describe the likely viewpoint of the cartoonist:

Bruin.jpg

The text in the cartoon from left to right (clockwise direction) is:

John Bull: Pray Mr Bruin try if you can make up this little Difference between us-The Wasps and Hornets have Stung me so hard I wish I had never disturbed their Nests.
Columbia: I thank you Mr Bruin but I cannot trust the Bull. 'Tho he has promised to draw his HORNS he must be safe bound to the Stake before I treat with him.
Bruin: Let me unite your hands Madam-Johny and I have been very friendly since I sent him my Fleet to take care of----
In the cartoon, the figure on the left is John Bull, the British national symbol (much like Uncle Sam is for the United States). His weight makes it clear that the cartoon was not drawn by an Englishman.[1] (Duncan B.)
The cartoon was engraved by William Charles in New York around 1813. It refers to the English-Russian War of 1812. Charles depicts John Bull (Britain), Columbia (the United States) and a bruin (the bear traditionally representing Russia). William Charles shows that he believes that the United States does not need Britain or Russia to succeed. In fact, Britain has stayed past her welcome. Now the only thing that Britain has in the United States is her ‘horns’ which need to be withdrawn. (Jenna N.)
bull=England, bear=Russia, woman with American flag=America. The cartoonist must have been an American describing how Russia is trying to make a treaty between America and England and America refuses to comply until England's "horns are bound to the stake." At the same time England is begging to make peace and America (the wasps and hornets) is stinging him so hard he wishes he hadn't disturbed them. (Will M.)
... It was probably drawn by a very pro-American cartoonist, who wanted the treaty to be tough on England. When "John Bull" says "The wasps and hornets have stung me so hard I wish I had never disturbed their nests," I think he is referring to Britain being beaten by America, which did not happen. The lady saying "Though he has promised to draw his horns he must be safe bound to the stake before I treat with him" refers to America wanting the treaty to be tough on England. (Addison D.M.)
... The viewpoint is Democratic-Republican, not Federalist .... (Aran M.) Teacher's note: Can you figure out why?[2]
... "... The Wasps and Hornets have stung me so hard ..." which likely symbolizes the victory that the Americans believed they had achieved. (Anna M.) (emphasis added)
... The “Wasps and Hornets” John Bull speaks of are probably the privateers licensed by the United States Government to commit piracy against the British. Despite the increase in competence displayed by the American forces in the latter stages of the fighting, it was the privateers who had truly brought the war to Britain. Because of the piracy British trade was crippled. The resulting shortage of goods infuriated the British people (they had not counted on feeling the effects of an actual war) and they quickly called for an end to the conflict, wishing they “had never disturbed (the) Nests.” ... (Joe B.)

Honors Questions

H1. Jefferson seems to receive better treatment by historians than he deserves. Why?

The most blatant and obvious answer to this question is that Jefferson was a old day liberal, and liberals like to exalt other liberals, even if the recognition is not valid. Now, I am by no means denying that Thomas Jefferson was a brilliant man, and one of the more brilliant founding fathers for that matter, which is an accomplishment in a league of its own. However, I am saying that by the time Jefferson’s second term was finished, his popularity ratings were not very good indeed, mostly for his LOSS in the “First Barbary” War (or the War with Tripoli). I am not anti-American by any standards, in fact I am extremely pro-USA. But to make it sound like we won a war, when we really did not is wrong. The fact that Jefferson was a liberal is one of the ONLY reasons that they did this. I say this because if Jefferson claimed to be a Conservative, he would have been charged with overseeing one of the biggest losses in American War history. (Jonathan L.)

H2. Explain the impact of the War of 1812 on the Federalist Party.

The Federalist Party was effectively ended after the War of 1812, because many Federalists gathered at the Hartford Convention in 1814 drawing up plans to leave the United states, because they were friends of the English, but at the same time, the United States signed a peace treaty with England, making the Federalists look like idiotic traitors. ... (Christina F.)

H3. Discuss any debate topic or mystery related to 1800-1840.

Is it wrong for a politician to cut a deal with another politician like the "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Clay? Compromise is common in politics. If politicians never made deals very little would be accomplished. But bargains quickly become dishonest when men exclude a particular man or group to overcome him. During an election it is not moral to cut a deal in order to cause an outcome that the people voted against. (Steven M.)
States can nullify an Act of Congress that is deemed unconstitutional. Whether or not states can secede from the United States depends on how they were created, and whether our country consists of separate states united to make a country, or if the states are divisions of land within a country. Many of the states began as land bought by the US. government, and can be considered states that are owned by the government, or in debt by the amount of money the government has spent on them .... (Cole N.)

H4. How did the North and South feel about tariffs, and why?

The North liked tariffs because it was mainly businesses and high tariffs meant less competition with their products from imports. The South disliked the tariffs because it was made up of farms and plantations and tariffs meant that they had to pay more money for materials and equipment and didn’t make it any easier for them to sell cotton. (Katie B.)
The North supported tariffs, the South opposed them. The North believed tariffs were a good idea because they dissuaded importation of goods, therefore prompting Americans to create industry in America. The North also supported them because they made domestic products more affordable than imported ones and protected domestic industry. ... (Addison D.M.)
The North felt that the tariffs were good, a stone hitting two birds simultaneously, for not only did it bring a profit to America directly through the tariff, but it also improved the chances of homeland businesses by making foreign products more expensive. (Cole N.)
... The South didn't like tariffs because tariffs didn't help them sell more cotton. (Kara L.)

H5. How did slavery begin to affect other constitutional rights, such as freedom of speech? Do you see an issue today causing a similar infringement of the right to free speech?

Several students commented on how abortion and gay rights today cause an infringement on the free speech of people who criticize these activities as immoral. Several students observed that "hate speech" laws are an example of infringement of free speech today similar to efforts to censor abolitionists before the Civil War.

References

  1. Note to readers: you can see a normal drawing of John Bull at http://www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/JohnBull.htm.
  2. Because the Federalists were pro-British, and the cartoon is anti-British.
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