Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 - 1860), was an important German philosopher of the 19th Century. He profoundly affected Friedrich Nietzsche, and was among the first to contend that at its center, the universe is not a rational place. He was inspired by Plato and Immanuel Kant.
Schopenhauer's father chose his son's first name because of its identical spelling in German, French and English.
Schopenhauer wrote "The World as Will and Idea" and "On the Will to Nature" in 1836.
Schopenhauer and pessimissim
See also: Atheism, agnosticism and pessimism
According the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
|“|| Schopenhauer’s pessimism is the most well known feature of his philosophy, and he is often referred to as the philosopher of pessimism. Schopenhauer’s pessimistic vision follows from his account of the inner nature of the world as aimless blind striving.
Because the will has no goal or purpose, the will’s satisfaction is impossible. The will objectifies itself in a hierarchy of gradations from inorganic to organic life, and every grade of objectification of the will, from gravity to animal motion, is marked by insatiable striving. In addition, every force of nature and every organic form of nature participates in a struggle to seize matter from other forces or organisms. Thus existence is marked by conflict, struggle and dissatisfaction.