Atheism and culture
- 1 Atheism: Geographic/cultural diversity
- 2 Atheism: Art, music and poetry
- 3 Atheism and dance
- 4 Atheism and humor
- 5 Atheism, culture and morality
- 5.1 Atheism and mass murder
- 5.2 Soviet Union and culture
- 5.3 Atheism and uncharitableness
- 5.4 Atheism and pornography
- 5.5 Atheism, pedophilia/pederasty and NAMBLA
- 5.6 Immorality of prominent atheists
- 5.7 Irreligion and domestic violence
- 5.8 Atheism and profanity
- 5.9 Atheism and bestiality
- 6 Atheist worldview/Atheist beliefs
- 7 Atheism and social organization
- 8 Atheism and social dysfunction
- 9 Atheism, rites and rituals
- 10 Views on atheists: Distrust among atheists and by theists
- 11 Atheist population and linguistic diversity
- 12 Atheism and architecture
- 13 Secular left's denial of objective beauty
- 14 Depressing nature of French atheist art
- 15 Irreligion and superstition
- 16 Atheism and science/technology
- 17 Secular Europe and inherited cultural artifacts from Christianity
- 18 Secular nations with Protestant cultural legacies
- 19 Atheism and health habits
- 20 Atheism and a lack of holidays
- 21 Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries
- 22 Richard Dawkins positively commenting on Christian culture
- 23 Ritualistic atheists
- 24 See also
- 25 Notes
Atheism: Geographic/cultural diversity
See also: Atheism and diversity
As far as the issue of diversity within the atheist population, compared to Christianity, atheism has a significantly less degree of geographic/cultural, racial, gender and personal wealth diversity (see: Atheism and diversity).
Atheism: Art, music and poetry
Relative to Christianity, which has a large collection of art, music and poetry associated it, atheism has a very small collection of art, music and poetry associated with it (see: Atheist art and Atheist music and Atheist poetry).
A common explanation for the relatively small amount of atheist art/music/poetry is the uninspiring nature of atheism (see: Atheism and inspiration).
Atheism and dance
See also: Atheism and dance
Many cultures have religious dances that people take part in. Dance is deeply a part of African life. According to the book African Dance, "Dance is the soul of Africa". Africa has one of the lowest rates of atheism and nones in the world. See also: Western atheism and race
Andrew Brown wrote in The Guardian in an article entitled You can't dance to atheism :
|“|| ...a religion is a philosophy that makes you dance. It pleased me because the book itself can be read as a history of how philosophy grew from dance...
There aren't any overwhelming and inspiring collective atheist rituals...
If I'm right, then liberal, individualistic atheism is impossible as an organising principle of society because any doctrine that actually works to hold society together is indistinguishable from a religion. It needs its rituals.
As far as nontheistic Buddism, an article entitled A Rare Day of Buddhist Dances declares:
|“||As Buddhism grew and spread from India, its views and practices absorbed, rather than annihilated, the cultural heritage of its host countries, including traditions traditions of dance and movement. Most of the dances are therefore, very old, or at least have very old elements contained within them. Buddhism emphasizes meditation...||”|
Traditional dances in atheistic Japan
See also: Japanese dance
Shintoism is a theistic religion.
Japanese dance, as we know it today, is an amalgamation of five original, separate dance forms. Foremost amongst these is the kagura (神楽), the ritualistic dancing and music associated with the Shinto faith, which still forms the basis of Shrine festivals (祭り matsuri) today.
For more information, please see: Japanese dance.
Sumo wrestling and ritual dancing
Sumo is a traditional Japanese style of wrestling that has existed in Japan for over 2,000 years. As a professional sport, sumo wrestling does not exist outside of Japan. Because of its long history in Japan, sumo wrestling is often referred to as Japan's national sport. It is not officially Japan's national sport, however. The cultural research of Helen Gremillion of Indiana University in Bloomington indicates that sumo wrestlers are a reflection of Japanese ideals in terms of tradition.
Sumo wrestlers are usually very large, appearing overweight to the point of obesity. They train to gain weight. Sumo wrestlers eat large amounts of food each day and drink large amounts of beer with their meals.
On September 27, 2008, Japan Today declared:
|“||Not only is the life expectancy of sumo wrestlers 10 years less than the average population, they also suffer higher incidences of kidney and liver problems. Wrestlers are also subject to hormonal imbalances, signaled by serious weight problems and voice changes. While much of this may be the result of the unusual diet and harsh training, many of the same symptoms are also present in steroid abusers.||”|
A video of summo wrestler Yokozuna Hakuho engaging in ritual dance can be seen HERE.
Ron Prescott Reagan
Time magazine noted: "It is widely known that Ron's parents have not managed to see a single ballet performance of their son, who is clearly very good, having been selected to the Joffrey second company, and is their son nonetheless. Ron talks of his parents with much affection. But these absences are strange and go back a ways." Ronald and Nancy Reagan went to see their son dance at the Lisner Auditorium on Monday, May 18, 1981. The elder Reagan commented in his White House diary that his Ron's performance was reminiscent of Fred Astaire.
Despite being a talented dancer, Ronald Prescott Reagan has not come up with a single atheist dance form.
Atheism and humor
See also: Atheism and humor
Although the secular left is known for ridiculing religion since at least the time of French Revolution (see: Atheism and mockery), the secular left is known for its humorlessness when it comes to others mocking of its ideology (See also: Atheism and humor and Atheism and intolerance).
The writer James Thurber declared:
|“||The leftists have made a concerted attack on humor as an antisocial, antiracial, antilabor, antiproletarian stereotype,” Thurber wrote in 1960, “and they have left no stereotype unused in their attacks, from ‘no time for comedy’ to the grim warnings that humor is a sickness, a sign of inferiority complex, a shield and not a weapon.||”|
Heywood Gould wrote in Heatstreet:
|“|| The left is trying to remake the world and feels immune to ridicule. It condemns humor as a bourgeois plot to make the oppressed laugh at and accept their exploitation.
Bernie Sanders admits he has a “bad sense of humor.” He won’t need it once his Revolution comes,
When Jerry Seinfeld revealed that fellow comedians had warned him away from colleges because they “were too PC,” he was savaged by the left media. Columnist Amanda Marcotte accused him of making excuses for being “a second rate hack.”
Soviet Union and the Department of Jokes
Listverse declares in its article 10 Bizarre Ways The Soviet Union Controlled Its People
|“|| For comedians in the Soviet Union, every attempt at humor had to be read from a government-approved list of comedic material. Each year, comedians were required to submit every joke they’d written to a section of The Ministry of Culture called The Department of Jokes, and they couldn’t crack a single one until it had been approved.
Jokes against the state, of course, were forbidden, as was everything even remotely edgy. Even jokes against the United States had to be tame. When the list came back, comedians were usually left with just a handful of tame jokes about their mother-in-laws.
For the next year, they could only tell jokes from their approved list. Improvisation was strictly forbidden. The only way a comedian could keep an act fresh was to steal gags from the competition. Plagiarism was fine, as long as the material you stole was approved.
North Korean ban on sarcasm
North Korea practices state atheism and belief in God is actively discouraged. Open Doors, an organization based in the United States, has put North Korea at the very top of its list of countries where Christians face significant persecution - for 12 years in a row.
Tina Nguyen wrote about North Korea at Vanity Fair:
|“||Kim Jong Un just can’t take a joke. The last time the North Korean dictator found himself on the receiving end of some gentle ribbing, as the subject of James Franco and Seth Rogen’s assassination comedy The Interview, Kim’s repressive regime allegedly hacked Sony Pictures, apparently in retaliation. Now, the absolutist leader is taking his hostility toward humor to a farcical new extreme, banning all sarcasm throughout the Hermit Kingdom in an attempt to crack down on dissent and quash any further laughs at his expense.||”|
The Finnish news organization Gbtimes says about North Korea in their article Laughing at the humorless, "No one really knows anything about North Korea, except that it’s a funny country where hardly anyone ever laughs."
Atheism and humor: Additional information
Atheism, culture and morality
Atheism and mass murder
See also: Atheism and mass murder
It is estimated that in the past 100 years, governments under the banner of atheistic communism have caused the death of somewhere between 40,472,000 and 259,432,000 human lives. Dr. R. J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, is the scholar who first coined the term democide (death by government). Dr. R. J. Rummel's mid estimate regarding the loss of life due to communism is that communism caused the death of approximately 110,286,000 people between 1917 and 1987. See: Atheism and mass murder
Theodore Beale notes concerning atheism and mass murder:
|“|| Apparently it was just an amazing coincidence that every Communist of historical note publicly declared his atheism … .there have been twenty-eight countries in world history that can be confirmed to have been ruled by regimes with avowed atheists at the helm … These twenty-eight historical regimes have been ruled by eighty-nine atheists, of whom more than half have engaged in democidal acts of the sort committed by Stalin and Mao…
The total body count for the ninety years between 1917 and 2007 is approximately 148 million dead at the bloody hands of fifty-two atheists, three times more than all the human beings killed by war, civil war, and individual crime in the entire twentieth century combined.
The historical record of collective atheism is thus 182,716 times worse on an annual basis than Christianity’s worst and most infamous misdeed, the Spanish Inquisition. It is not only Stalin and Mao who were so murderously inclined, they were merely the worst of the whole Hell-bound lot. For every Pol Pot whose infamous name is still spoken with horror today, there was a Mengistu, a Bierut, and a Choibalsan, godless men whose names are now forgotten everywhere but in the lands they once ruled with a red hand.
Is a 58 percent chance that an atheist leader will murder a noticeable percentage of the population over which he rules sufficient evidence that atheism does, in fact, provide a systematic influence to do bad things? If that is not deemed to be conclusive, how about the fact that the average atheist crime against humanity is 18.3 million percent worse than the very worst depredation committed by Christians, even though atheists have had less than one-twentieth the number of opportunities with which to commit them. If one considers the statistically significant size of the historical atheist set and contrasts it with the fact that not one in a thousand religious leaders have committed similarly large-scale atrocities, it is impossible to conclude otherwise, even if we do not yet understand exactly why this should be the case. Once might be an accident, even twice could be coincidence, but fifty-two incidents in ninety years reeks of causation!
The lowering of a societies morality produces crassness and vulgarity in a societies written and spoken word (see: Atheism and profanity) and its art and music.
Soviet Union and culture
|“|| Peter wrote that his views changed slowly, as he came to see the fruit of atheism. Part of this realisation came when he was working as a journalist in Moscow, during the final years of the Soviet Union. His depiction of this godless society was sobering. He wrote of the riots that broke out when the vodka ration was cancelled one week; the bribes required to obtain anaesthetics at the dentist or antibiotics at the hospital; the frightening levels of divorce and abortion; the mistrust and surveillance; the unending official lies, manipulation and oppression; the squalor, desperation and harsh incivility. Peter wrote of how traffic stops dead in Moscow when rain begins to fall, as every driver fetches wind-screen wipers from their hiding places and quickly fits them to their holders. Any wipers left in place when the car is parked are stolen as a matter of course.
The atheist, humanistic ideology of the state, he believed, had even affected the Russian language. Peter spoke to a descendant of an exile, whose grandparents had fled Moscow in the days of Lenin. Having been brought up to speak pure Russian in his American home—the elegant, literary language of his parents—he was shocked when he visited Russia to hear the coarse, ugly, slang-infested and bureaucratic tongue that was now spoken, even by educated professionals.
Atheism and uncharitableness
- See also: Atheism and charity and Atheist nonprofit scandals and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression
Concerning the issue of atheism and uncharitableness, the evidence indicates that per capita charitable giving by atheists and agnostics in America is significantly less than by theists, according to a study by the Barna Group:
|“||The typical no-faith American donated just $200 in 2006, which is more than seven times less than the amount contributed by the prototypical active-faith adult ($1500). Even when church-based giving is subtracted from the equation, active-faith adults donated twice as many dollars last year as did atheists and agnostics. In fact, while just 7% of active-faith adults failed to contribute any personal funds in 2006, that compares with 22% among the no-faith adults.||”|
A comprehensive study by Harvard University professor Robert Putnam found that religious people are more charitable than their irreligious counterparts. The study revealed that forty percent of worship service attending Americans volunteer regularly to help the poor and elderly as opposed to 15% of Americans who never attend services. Moreover, religious individuals are more likely than non-religious individuals to volunteer for school and youth programs (36% vs. 15%), a neighborhood or civic group (26% vs. 13%), and for health care (21% vs. 13%).
- See also: Atheism, social justice and hypocrisy
Atheism and pornography
See also: Atheism and pornography
In 2003, Arena magazine magazine listed Flynt as #1 on the "50 Powerful People in Porn" list. Flynt is paralyzed from the waist down due to injuries sustained from a 1978 assassination attempt by the serial killer Joseph Paul Franklin.
Atheism and child pornography
Atheistic Denmark and child pornography
The 2003 book entitled Overcoming Violence Against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem written by authors Rahel Nardos; Mary K. Radpour; William S. Hatcher and Michael L. Penn, declared:
|“||The largest source of commercial child pornography is Denmark. Denmark became the world's leading producer of child pornography when, in 1969, it removed all restrictions on the production and sale of any type of pornographic material. "The result," notes Tim Tate, "was a short-lived explosion in adult pornography, and the birth of commercial child pornography. In his work, Tate links the global spread of child pornography to two men: Willy Strauss, founder of Bambina Sex, the world's first child-pornography magazine, founded in 1971; and Peter Theander, founder of Colour Climax Corporation and the producer of a short, professionally made pornographic film series entitled Lolita. Lolita depicts the sexual abuse of prepubescent boys and girls. Although Danish law at the time rendered the work of Strauss and Theander legal, by 1979 when Denmark finally banned the production and sale of child pornography it had already become such a financial success on the international market that it has proven to be nearly impossible to bring its spread under control.||”|
Suzanne Ost, in her 2009 book Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming: Legal and Societal Responses published by Cambridge University Press, wrote about the child pornography created by Denmark/Holland during this period: "Taylor and Quayle note that the material produced during this period still constitutes the largest part of child pornography that is currently available, having been transferred into digital format and uploaded onto the internet."
Other atheistic countries and child pornography/child prostitution
Atheism, pedophilia/pederasty and NAMBLA
Some of the well known atheist advocates of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) are:
2. Harry Hay (1912 - 2002) was an liberal advocate of statutory rape and the widely acknowledged founder and progenitor of the activist homosexual agenda in the United States. Hay joined the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) in 1934. Harry Hay was an atheist. He was a vociferous advocate of man/boy love. In 1986, Hay marched in a gay parade wearing a shirt emblazoned with the words "NAMBLA walks with me."
Immorality of prominent atheists
James Randi is a leader within the atheist community. Brian Thompson, former James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) Outreach Coordinator, wrote:
|“|| But I no longer identify with this community of benevolent know-it-alls, because not all of them are the best folks in the world. In fact, a good percentage of the top ten worst humans I’ve ever met are prominent members of the skeptics’ club. They’re dishonest, mean-spirited, narcissistic, misogynistic. Pick a personality flaw, and I can probably point you to someone who epitomizes it. And that person has probably had a speaking slot at a major skeptical conference.
I grew particularly disgusted with the boys’ club attitude I saw among skeptical leaders and luminaries. The kind of attitude that’s dismissive of women, sexually predatory, and downright gross. When I first started going to skeptical conferences as a fresh-faced know-it-all, I started hearing things about people I once admired. Then I started seeing things myself. Then I got a job with the JREF, and the pattern continued.
Irreligion and domestic violence
The abstract for the 2007 article in the journal Violence Against Women entitled Race/Ethnicity, Religious Involvement, and Domestic Violence indicated:
|“||The authors explored the relationship between religious involvement and intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. They found that: (a) religious involvement is correlated with reduced levels of domestic violence; (b) levels of domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; (c) the effects of religious involvement on domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; and (d) religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence.||”|
A September 9, 2012 article at Atlantic Wire wrote about the noted atheist John Lennon:
|“||But people have mostly forgotten that Lennon was also physically abusive towards women. "I used to be cruel to my woman," he said, citing the lyrics to "Getting Better" in a Playboy interview near the end of his life. "Physically—any woman. I was a hitter. I couldn't express myself and I hit. I fought men and I hit women." In his biography The Lives of John Lennon, Albert Goldman also maintains that Lennon was guilty of spousal abuse.||”|
Atheism and profanity
See also: Atheism and profanity
Studies indicate that atheists engage in more profanity than Christians/theists and are more likely to believe that obscene language is acceptable to engage in. Use of profanity by individuals is negatively correlated with conscientiousness and agreeableness.
For more information, please see: Atheism and profanity
Atheism and bestiality
- See also: Atheism and bestiality
In areas of the Western World where there is a significant amount of atheists and evolutionary belief, there have been notable problems related to bestiality (see: Atheism and bestiality and Evolutionary belief and bestiality and Bestiality and secular Europe).
Vice News, a global news channel which broadcasts documentaries about current topics, reported in 2014 concerning secular Europe:
|“||Bestiality is having a weird renaissance in Europe. Perhaps ironically, it kicked off when activists succeeded in banning the practice in places like Germany and Norway. In the background, something else emerged simultaneously: an animal-sex-tourism industry, which has been blossoming in Denmark.||”|
A 2015 Jerusalem Post article indicates "Copenhagen has for long been the bestiality capital of Europe and has attracted many tourists mainly visiting to have sex with animals. Legislation against this practice was only enacted this year."
On July 1, 2013 the Daily Mail reported that bestiality brothels were spreading quickly through Germany. In addition, the Daily Mail reported that there "are even 'erotic zoos' which people can visit to abuse animals ranging from llamas to goats."
In 2014, according to Danish journalist Margit Shabanzahen, a Danish man who ran a business catering to people who have sex with horses said that he had buses of people arriving at his business.
In February 2010, the UK news website Metro reported:
|“||Given the illicit nature of the product, precise figures on animal pornography video sales are difficult to find, but the Dutch newspaper Algemeen Dagblad, in a 2007 survey, found that distributors in the Netherlands were responsible for some 80 percent of bestiality videos worldwide.||”|
Below is a list of areas where bestiality has recently posed notable problems and has been reported in news outlets:
- Secular Europe and bestiality
- Denmark and bestiality
- Germany and bestiality
- Netherlands and bestiality
- Sweden and bestiality
- Britain and bestiality
- Australia and bestiality
- Washington state and bestiality
First "bestiality rights" organization was founded in secular Europe
The first so called "bestiality/zoophile rights" group, called Equality for All, has its roots in secular Europe and formed in the '90s. It is located in the Czech Republic. According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll, 16% of Czech citizens responded that "they believe there is a God" which the lowest rate among the countries of the European Union.
In 2005, the Pew Forum reported:
|“||According to a 2002 Pew Global Attitudes survey, there are striking differences in public opinion between the U.S. and European countries on issues such as the importance people attach to religion in their lives and the linkage they perceive between belief in God and morality. The survey shows that a large majority of Americans consider religion important in their personal lives and closely associate religion and morality. Furthermore, Pew Forum surveys over several years show that Americans are generally more comfortable with religion playing a major role in public life. In contrast, Europeans generally place much less importance on religion in their lives, and general indicators show that major churches in Europe are declining in terms of membership, recruitment of clergy, financial contributions and overall public influence. The Pew Forum convened distinguished experts Peter Berger, John Judis and Walter Russell Mead to analyze these differences between the U.S and Europe and to assess their impact on transatlantic relations.||”|
Atheist worldview/Atheist beliefs
Atheism and politics
- Atheism and communism (China, North Korea and Vietnam are communist countries)
According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."
The Christian Anti-Defamation Commission (CADC) declared about irreligion and politics:
|“||Because politics is downstream from culture, once the people become irreligious and corrupt, the politicians will reflect their ethos. No representative form of government can be preserved once the people are given over to selfishness and moral corruption.||”|
Atheism and economics
In terms of its social organization and in terms of social harmony, the atheist population currently has a number of deficiencies and historically has had a number of deficiencies as is covered in the articles below:
Atheism and gender/racial issues
Atheism vs. Islam
Due to atheists/irreligious populations having sub-replacement levels of birth, secular European countries have engaged in a high amount of immigration in terms of Muslims. In several of these countries, there is now conflict between native ethnic populations and Muslims (see: Atheism vs. Islam).
Communist countries that currently practice torture
Atheism and history
Atheism and sexuality
See also: Atheism and sexuality
A social science study also reports that Hispanic men are more sexually satisfied than other ethnic groups in the United States. Hispanics are known for their religiosity (See also: Western atheism and race).
In addition, atheist/agnostic populations have sub-replacement levels of fertility (see: Atheism and sexuality).
On December 23, 2012, Professor Eric Kaufmann who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London wrote:
|“|| I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.
On the other hand, the secular West and East Asia has very low fertility and a rapidly aging population... In the coming decades, the developed world's demand for workers to pay its pensions and work in its service sector will soar alongside the booming supply of young people in the third world. Ergo, we can expect significant immigration to the secular West which will import religious revival on the back of ethnic change. In addition, those with religious beliefs tend to have higher birth rates than the secular population, with fundamentalists having far larger families. The epicentre of these trends will be in immigration gateway cities like New York (a third white), Amsterdam (half Dutch), Los Angeles (28% white), and London, 45% white British. 
Michael Blume, a researcher at the University of Jena in Germany, wrote "Most societies or communities that have espoused atheistic beliefs have not survived more than a century." Blume also indicated concerning concerning his research on this matter: "What I found was the complete lack of a single case of a secular population, community or movement that would just manage to retain replacement level."
Atheism, rites and rituals
Views on atheists: Distrust among atheists and by theists
See: Views on atheists
UK study finds atheists widely distrusted - even among themselves
See also: Atheist factions
In 2015, the Christian Post reported in a story entitled Atheists Widely Distrusted, Even Among Themselves, UK Study Finds:
|“|| Distrust of atheists is "deeply and culturally ingrained" among people, and even many atheists are not able to trust each other, according to a new study carried out by the psychology department at Nottingham Trent University in England.
Published in the International Journal for The Psychology of Religion, the study, "The Robustness of Anti-Atheist Prejudice as Measured by Way of Cognitive Errors," was conducted with 100 participants from the U.K. ....
The study shows that "anti-atheist prejudice is not confined either to dominantly religious countries or to religious individuals, but rather appears to be a robust judgment about atheists."
The Independent reports about the participants of the study:
|“|| Professor Leah Giddings and Thomas Dunn led the study with 100 online participants from the United Kingdom, 70 of whom were women and whose average age was 21.
A total of 43 per cent of the contributors were atheist, 33 per cent were Christian and the remainder belonged to other faiths.
Americans and Canadians distrust atheists as much as rapists
On December 10, 2011, USA Today reported in a story entitled Study: Atheists distrusted as much as rapists:
|“|| The study, conducted among 350 Americans adults and 420 Canadian college students, asked participants to decide if a fictional driver damaged a parked car and left the scene, then found a wallet and took the money, was the driver more likely to be a teacher, an atheist teacher, or a rapist teacher?
The participants, who were from religious and nonreligious backgrounds, most often chose the atheist teacher.
The study is part of an attempt to understand what needs religion fulfills in people. Among the conclusions is a sense of trust in others.
"People find atheists very suspect," Shariff said. "They don't fear God so we should distrust them; they do not have the same moral obligations of others. This is a common refrain against atheists. People fear them as a group."
Atheist population and linguistic diversity
Atheist population and its geographic distribution
Europe has 23 officially recognized languages. In addition, it has migrants who tend to come from religious countries.
An essay entitled Multilingual Europe declares:
|“|| The 2012 Eurobarometer Report “Europeans and their languages” was published last month and makes fascinating reading. To begin with, it’s always heartening to see the value the European Union places on linguistic and cultural diversity:
There are 23 officially recognised languages, more than 60 indigenous regional and minority languages, and many non-indigenous languages spoken by migrant communities. The EU, although it has limited influence because educational and language policies are the responsibility of individual Member States, is committed to safeguarding this linguistic diversity and promoting knowledge of languages, for reasons of cultural identity and social integration and cohesion, and because multilingual citizens are better placed to take advantage of the economic, educational and professional opportunities created by an integrated Europe. A mobile workforce is key to the competitiveness of the EU economy. (p. 2)
It is even more heartening to see that this vision is shared by the majority of Europeans: almost all Europeans (98%!) think that learning at least one foreign language is important for the future of their children. And the current generation is itself well on the way towards that goal: with 46% of the population, monolingual Europeans are now in the minority. 19% of Europeans are bilingual, 25% are trilingual and 10% speak four or more languages.
Translation of the Origin of the Species
Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics (see also: Causes of evolutionary belief). Charles Darwin's evolutionary book The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life has been translated into 35 languages. See also: Social Darwinism and Evolutionary racism
Christianity and linguistic diversity
See also: Global Christianity
In terms of its geographic distribution, Christianity is the most globally diverse religion (See also: Global Christianity). The Bible has been translated into 518 languages and 2,798 languages have at least some portion of the Bible. In addition, the Christian community is far more evangelistic than the atheist community and Christian missionaries are throughout the world.
Due to its wider geographical diversity and its missionary and Bible translation efforts, collectively speaking, the Christian community has a greater degree of linguistic and cultural intelligence than the atheist community.
Atheism and architecture
See also: Atheism and architecture
Postmodernism is an antichristian, far-left, 20th century worldview and academic movement characterized by denial of objective truth, and which asserts that assertions of objective knowledge are essentially impossible.
The Christian apologist Norman Geisler wrote about postmodernism: "In short, the root of Post-modernism is atheism and the fruit of it is relativism — relativism in every area of life and thought." Atheists played a significant role in terms of postmodernist leadership and its following (see: Postmodernism and atheists).
The architect of the first postmodern modern building said that he designed it with no design in mind.
Jackie Craven, a writer who writes on architecture, indicates about postmodern architecture:
|“||Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement, yet contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideas with traditional forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise, and even amuse. Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways. Buildings may incorporate symbols to make a statement or simply to delight the viewer.||”|
Ravi Zacharias on postmodern architecture
|“|| I remember lecturing at Ohio State University, one of the largest universities in this country. I was minutes away from beginning my lecture, and my host was driving me past a new building called the Wexner Center for the Performing Arts.
He said, “This is America’s first postmodern building.”
I was startled for a moment and I said, “What is a postmodern building?”
He said, “Well, the architect said that he designed this building with no design in mind. When the architect was asked, ‘Why?’ he said, ‘If life itself is capricious, why should our buildings have any design and any meaning?’ So he has pillars that have no purpose. He has stairways that go nowhere. He has a senseless building built and somebody has paid for it.”
I said, “So his argument was that if life has no purpose and design, why should the building have any design?”
He said, “That is correct.”
I said, “Did he do the same with the foundation?”
All of a sudden there was silence.
You see, you and I can fool with the infrastructure as much as we would like, but we dare not fool with the foundation because it will call our bluff in a hurry.
Soviet Union and Museums of Atheism
Wikipedia on church architecture
On April 23, 2016, Wikipedia, a wiki founded by an atheist and agnostic, declares in its church architecture article:
|“||These large, often ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. But far more numerous were the parish churches scattered across the Christian world, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals, the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and often demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration.||”|
Wikipedia on postmodern architecture
In its April 23, 2016 article on postmodern architecture, Wikipedia does not describe postmodern architecture in terms of it being sublime, great or prestigious.
In fact, Wikipedia's article on postmodern architecture indicates that Alex Todorow says:
|“||When [he] was young, a sure way to distinguish great architects was through the consistency and originality of their work...This should no longer be the case. Where the Modern masters' strength lay in consistency, ours should lie in diversity.||”|
Secular leftists often put an excessive focus on diversity and often fail to focus on excellence.
Secular left's denial of objective beauty
|“|| There is no discussion of it because by convincing the public that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, the Left has placed it beyond the realm of discussion. According to the Left, beauty is a matter of taste, and arbitrary taste at that. There is no discussion of taste because to give reasons to prefer tasteful to tasteless things is elitist, nasty, uncouth and inappropriate. To have taste implies that some cultures produce more works of art and better than others, and this raises the uncomfortable possibility that love of beauty is Eurocentric, or even racist. To admire beauty has become a hate crime.
If beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then there is no difference between fine art as opposed to mere decoration, no difference between Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa and wallpaper. Obviously there is a difference: we decorate an otherwise useful tool to make it more pleasing to look at or handle, like painting details on a car or putting embroidered images on fabric. Popular art is meant for entertainment; it is meant to please the eye and wile away the time. But an episode of I Love Lucy is not made for the same purpose as Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake. Art is not meant to be useful. When you hold a baby in your arms and look at him, merely look at the wonder and miracle of new life, you don’t do that because the baby is useful.
If beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then there is no such thing as training the taste. One can sit down and watch well done popular entertainment – for example, a Mickey Mouse cartoon – with pleasure and enjoyment, and no study is needed to prepare you to appreciate and understand it. But to sit down and read Milton’s Paradise Lost for pleasure, one needs a passing familiarity with classical and Biblical figures to which he alludes, and one’s pleasure is increased if one is familiar with the epic models, the Virgil and Homer, on whose themes Milton plays out so creative and striking a variation.
If beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then anything, anything at all, can be declared to be beautiful merely by the artist...
Depressing nature of French atheist art
Michael C. Sullivan wrote in his book In Search of a Perfect World: A Historical Perspective on the Phenomenon of Millennialism and Dissatifaction with The World As It Is:
|“||Yet, the communications media of the 1990s still expressed a end-of-age weariness, cynicism and apprehension. Savvy media watchers and art critics resurrected the French literary term Fin de siecle (end of a century, age or period) from the 1890s to describe certain aspects of contemporary art and society. The historic meaning of the term, which originated from an 1888 French play, encompasses an attitude that is free of social or moral traditions or conventions — even decadent. It also expressed a general malaise in French society, in which in which alcoholism, atheism, crime and immorality were rampant.||”|
Irreligion and superstition
See also: Irreligion and superstition
In September 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported:
|“|| The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging religion, won't create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass superstition. And that's not a conclusion to take on faith -- it's what the empirical data tell us.
"What Americans Really Believe," a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that traditional Christian religion greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of astrology. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians....
This is not a new finding. In his 1983 book "The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener," skeptic and science writer Martin Gardner cited the decline of traditional religious belief among the better educated as one of the causes for an increase in pseudoscience, cults and superstition. He referenced a 1980 study published in the magazine Skeptical Inquirer that showed irreligious college students to be by far the most likely to embrace paranormal beliefs, while born-again Christian college students were the least likely.
Atheism and science/technology
See also: Atheism and science
Atheism and the foundation of modern science
See also: Christianity and science
The birth of modern science occurred in Christianized Europe. Sociologist Rodney Stark investigated the individuals who made the most significant scientific contributions between 1543 and 1680 A.D., the time of the Scientific Revolution. In Stark's list of 52 top scientific contributors, only one (Edmund Halley) was a skeptic and another (Paracelsus) was a pantheist. The other 50 were Christians, 30 of whom could be characterized as being devout Christians. Sir Francis Bacon, sometimes referred to as "the Father of Modern Science", wrote in his essay entitled Of Atheism the following: "I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the Talmud, and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is without a mind."
Secular Europe and inherited cultural artifacts from Christianity
Secular Europe has a large collection of excellent art, music, literature and architecture which it inherited from its past culture when Christianity was more dominant.
- Christian art
- Christian paintings
- Famous Cathedrals
- Johann Sebastian Bach
- George Frideric Handel
- T.S. Eliot (American born and moved to England at age 25)
- C.S. Lewis
Secular nations with Protestant cultural legacies
The atheist and Harvard University historian Niall Ferguson declared: "Through a mixture of hard work and thrift the Protestant societies of the North and West Atlantic achieved the most rapid economic growth in history." See: Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
The article The Surprising Discovery About Those Colonialist, Proselytizing Missionaries published in Christianity Today notes:
|“|| In his fifth year of graduate school, Woodberry created a statistical model that could test the connection between missionary work and the health of nations. He and a few research assistants spent two years coding data and refining their methods. They hoped to compute the lasting effect of missionaries, on average, worldwide...
One morning, in a windowless, dusty computer lab lit by fluorescent bulbs, Woodberry ran the first big test. After he finished prepping the statistical program on his computer, he clicked "Enter" and then leaned forward to read the results.
"I was shocked," says Woodberry. "It was like an atomic bomb. The impact of missions on global democracy was huge. I kept adding variables to the model—factors that people had been studying and writing about for the past 40 years—and they all got wiped out. It was amazing. I knew, then, I was on to something really important."
Woodberry already had historical proof that missionaries had educated women and the poor, promoted widespread printing, led nationalist movements that empowered ordinary citizens, and fueled other key elements of democracy. Now the statistics were backing it up: Missionaries weren't just part of the picture. They were central to it...
Areas where Protestant missionaries had a significant presence in the past are on average more economically developed today, with comparatively better health, lower infant mortality, lower corruption, greater literacy, higher educational attainment (especially for women), and more robust membership in nongovernmental associations.
In short: Want a blossoming democracy today? The solution is simple—if you have a time machine: Send a 19th-century missionary."
Emancipation of slaves in the British Empire became a major cause by the 1800s, when abolitionists such as William Wilberforce and John Wesley began speaking out against the evils of the system. Wilberforce was supported in his efforts by John Newton, a slave trader who became a Christian and then opposed the slave trade.
The African-American author and political columnist Thomas Sowell wrote:
|“||While slavery was common to all civilizations, as well as to peoples considered uncivilized, only one civilization developed a moral revulsion against it, very late in hits history…not even the leading moralists in other civilizations rejected slavery at all…. Moreover, within Western civilization, the principle impetus for the abolition of slavery came first from very conservative religious activists – people who would today be called ‘the religious right.’…this story is not ‘politically correct’ in today’s terms. Hence it is ignored, as if it never happened.”||”|
The website Cultural Front notes:
|“|| In chapter 6 of Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell highlights cultural legacies. He opens with disturbing descriptions of how longstanding cultural patterns and beliefs influenced violent conflicts among generations of families in Kentucky during the 19th century.
The compelling research findings concerning long-term and deeply held values led Gladwell to the conclusion that cultural legacies are powerful forces. They have deep roots and long lives. They persist, generation after generation, virtually intact, even as the economic and social demographic conditions that spawned them have vanished, and they play such a role in directing attitudes and behavior that we cannot make sense of our world without them. He goes on to note the possibilities of “taking cultural legacies seriously” in order to learn “why people succeed and how to make people better.”
Atheist apologists and the issue of Protestant cultural legacies
When atheist apologists cite various favorable economic statistics of irreligious countries which formerly had a strong presence of Protestantism (typically in Northern Europe), they generally do not mention the issue of the effects of cultural legacies (see: Irreligious countries with Protestant cultural legacies).
Increased wealth in a society or for individuals positively affects a number of areas such as health.
Atheism and health habits
- Atheism and health
- Atheism and alcoholism
- Atheism and drug addiction
- Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism
- Atheism and obesity
- New Atheism leaders and unhealthy lifestyles
Atheism and mental health habits
- Atheism and depression
- Religiousity and larger frontal lobes
- Atheism and the brain
- Atheism and irrationality
- Atheism and logical fallacies
- Atheism and apathy
Atheism and a lack of holidays
See also: Atheism and Christmas
In December 2003, the University of Warwick reported:
|“||Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.||”|
Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries
Richard Dawkins positively commenting on Christian culture
Christianity may be our best defense against aberrant forms of religion
Richard Dawkins on the King James Bible
Richard Dawkins wrote:
|“|| For some reason the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science (UK) was not approached for a donation in support of Michael Gove's plan to put a King James Bible in every state school. We would certainly have given it serious consideration, and if the trustees had not agreed I would gladly have contributed myself. In the event, it was left to "millionaire Conservative party donors".
I am a little shocked at the implication that not every school library already possesses a copy. Can that be true?...
Ecclesiastes, in the 1611 translation, is one of the glories of English literature (I'm told it's pretty good in the original Hebrew, too). The whole King James Bible is littered with literary allusions, almost as many as Shakespeare (to quote that distinguished authority Anon, the trouble with Hamlet is it's so full of clichées). In The God Delusion I have a section called "Religious education as a part of literary culture" in which I list 129 biblical phrases which any cultivated English speaker will instantly recognise and many use without knowing their provenance: the salt of the earth; go the extra mile; I wash my hands of it; filthy lucre; through a glass darkly; wolf in sheep's clothing; hide your light under a bushel; no peace for the wicked; how are the mighty fallen.
A native speaker of English who has never read a word of the King James Bible is verging on the barbarian.
Richard Dawkins sings Christmas carols
See also: Atheism and Christmas
|“|| Scientist and atheist Richard Dawkins has admitted he does celebrate Christmas - and enjoys singing traditional Christmas carols each festive season.
The writer and evolutionary biologist told singer Jarvis Cocker that he happily wishes everyone a Merry Christmas - and used to have a tree when his daughter was younger.
Dawkins wrote at the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science website:
|“||Nor do I shy aware from singing the familiar and much loved Christmas songs that I sang for years in choir or at home. Silent Night still can bring a tear to my eye because it recalls memories of childhood.||”|
Christian leaders or the leaders of other theistic religions do not sing the relatively few atheist songs which exist.
- See also: Atheism, rites and rituals
The Christian Post reported:
|“|| In a new study of the various types of nonbelievers, researchers from The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga say "one of the most interesting and unexpected" types they examined is the "ritual" atheist or agnostic, who finds some value in religious teachings and practices.
Those who fall into this category, according to the researchers, are nonbelievers who may have a philosophical appreciation for certain religious teachings, who like being part of a community, who want to stay in touch with their ethnic identity or who simply find beauty in certain religious traditions, symbols or rituals.
"The implication of this particular typology is that you could be sitting next to somebody in church right now who may, in fact, not buy into the theology that the rest of the congregation buys into," said principal researcher Christopher F. Silver in an interview with The Christian Post.
See also: American atheists and church attendance
- Christianity and culture
- Kariamu Welsh; Elizabeth A. Hanley; Jacques D'Amboise (1 January 2010). African Dance, page 7, Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60413-477-3
- Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. "The Global Religious Landscape". Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- You can't dance to atheism by Andrew Brown
- A Rare Day of Buddhist Dances
- Sumo wrestling at Japan.org
- Sumo Wrestlers Compared to Bodybuilder by Matthew Lee
- What you can learn from a Sumo Wrestlers Diet - video, Alpha Labs Direct
- How to eat like a sumo wrestler
- Sumo shows its hypocrisy
- "20 Questions: Ron Reagan", by Betsy Rothstein, The Hill, September 24, 2008.
- White House Diary: May 18, 1981, reaganlibrary.com; accessed September 2, 2014.
- The Atheist Delusion Movie (2016) HD
- The Atheist Delusion Movie (2016) HD
- Atheists & Agnostics in America Tend to be Politically Liberal
- Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
- James Adair (2007). Christianity. JBE Online Books. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “Although the Civil Constitution called for religious liberty, which was extended to Jews as well as Christians, many revolutionaries pushed for the establishment of a new state religion, either the Cult of Reason (atheists) or the Cult of the Supreme Being (Deists). Changes toAlthough the Civil Constitution called for religious liberty, which was extended to Jews as well as Christians, many revolutionaries pushed for the establishment of a new state religion, either the Cult of Reason (atheists) or the Cult of the Supreme Being (Deists). Changes to the calendar eliminated references to Christian holidays, and even the ancient seven-day week, and a ist of officially recognized saints included such famous thinkers such as Socrates, Jesus, Marcus Aurelius, and Jean-Jacques Rosseau. A period of political persecution, often with religious overtones, broke out, known as the Reign of Teror. Thousands of people were executed by the guillotine, including many of the original leaders of the French Revolution.”
- William Belsham (1801). Memoirs of the reign of George III. to the session of parliament ending A.D. 1793, Volume 5. G.G. & J. Robinson. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “Reign of this portentous period, it has been eloquently tenor, and energetically observed, " that the reign of atheism in France was avowed the reign of terror. In the full madness of their career, in the highest climax of their horrors, they shut up the temples of God, abolished His worship, and proclaimed death to be an eternal sleep:-in the very centre of Christendom, Revelation underwent a total eclipse, while atheism, performing on a darkened theatre its strange and fearful tragedy, confounded the first elements of society, blended every age, rank, and sex ,indiscriminate proscription and massacre, and convulsed all Europe to its centre, that the imperishable memorial of these events might teach the last generations of mankind to consider religion as the pillar of society, the parent of social order, and the safe-guard of nations." It is wonderful that, amid the horrors of this dismal period, while "the death dance of democratic revolution" was still in rapid movement, among the tears of affliction, and the cries of despair, "the masque, the song, the theatric scene, the buffoon laughter, went on as regularly as in the gay hour of festive peace."”
- William Kilpatrick (2012). Christianity, Islam, and Atheism: The Struggle for the Soul of the West. Ignatius Press. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “Actually, it's helpful to think in terms of two Enlightenments: the Enlightenment that cut itself off from God. The former led to the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, the abolition of slavery, and the civil rights movement. The latter led to the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror, the suppression of church by state, and the godless philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche and their offspring-National Socialism and communism. More recently the abandonment of God has led to the regime of cultural relativism that regards rights as arbitrary constructions. It's this second Enlightenment tradition that Cardinal Ratzinger referred to when he wrote, "The radical detachment of the Enlightenment philosophy from its roots ultimately leads it to dispense with man." Actually this transition happened no "ultimately" but almost immediately. The first instance occurred when Enlightenment worship of abstract "reason" and "liberty" degenearated quickly into the mass murders committed during the antireligious Reign of Terror in France. "Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name", said Madam Rolande as she faced the statue of Liberty in the Place de la Revolution movements before her death at the guillotine. She was one of the early victims of a succession of secular systems based on rootless notions of "liberty", "equality", and "reason". As many historians have pointed out, the atheist regimes of modern times are guilty of far more crimes than any committed in the name of religion. Communist governments alone were guilty of more than one hundred million murders, most of them committed against their own people.”
- Notable & Quotable: The Humorless Left, From Stephen E. Kercher’s “Revel With a Cause: Liberal Satire in Postwar America.”, Wall Street Journal
- Beyond a Joke: Why Millennials are Losing their Sense of Humor
- You Pretend to work and Putin pretends to pay you
- 10 Bizarre Ways The Soviet Union Controlled Its People
- Elizabeth Raum. North Korea. Series: Countries Around the World. Heinemann, 2012. ISBN 1432961330. p. 28: «North Korea is an atheist state. This means that people do not pray in public or attend places of worship. Buddhist temples exist from earlier times. They are now preserved as historic buildings, but they are not used for worship. A few Christian churches exist, but few people attend services. North Koreans do not celebrate religious holidays.»
- Repressive, atheist North Korea has a surprising relationship with Christian missionaries
- [Brilliant: Kim Jong Un Bans Sarcasm in North Korea] by Tina Nguyen, Vanity Fair
- Laughing at the humorless, gbtimes
- Multiple references:
- Anticommunist (April 14, 2004). "The Human Cost of Communism - 100 million". UK Indymedia. Retrieved from June 7, 2013 archive at Internet Archive.
- "The Black Book of Communism". Harvard University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences website: Cold War Studies.
- Rummel, R. J. (November 1993). "How many did communist regimes murder?" University of Hawaii website; Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War.
- White, Matthew (February 2011). "Source list and detailed death tolls for the primary megadeaths of the twentieth century". Necrometrics.
- Higgins, David (June 22, 2007). "Memory and ideology: Washington's newest statue is the Victims Of Communism Memorial". Sarasota Magazine website. Retrieved from October 8, 2007 archive at Internet Archive.
- Radosh, Ronald (February 2000). "The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression". First Things [journal] website.
- Rummel, R. J. (November 1993). "How many did communist regimes murder?" University of Hawaii website; Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War.
- Atheism article - communism section - Vox Day quote
- Britain needs God
- Pew Research Center - Global Religious Landscape 2010 - religious composition by country.
- Multiple references:
- Burke, Daniel, Religion News Service (May 13, 2009). "Religious people make better citizens, study says". Pew Research Forum. Archived on March 10, 2013 by Internet Archive.
- Campbell, David and Putnam, Robert (November 14, 2010). "Religious people are 'better neighbors'". USA Today website.
- "Atheists and agnostics take aim at Christians" (June 11, 2007). Barna Update.
- Multiple references:
- Gottesdiener, Laura (February 23, 2010). "10 celebs you didn't know were atheists". Salon.
- Flynt writes, "I have left my religious conversion behind and settled into a comfortable state of atheism": see the epilogue of Flynt, Larry and Ross, Kenneth (June 1, 2008). An Unseemly Man: My Life as Pornographer, Pundit, and Social Outcast.
- "I am not saying he don't believe in God. I am just saying I don't believe in God. That puts me at odds with him." "Larry Flynt and Jerry Falwell" [transcript] (January 10, 1996). Larry King Live. Transcript from CNN.com
- "Larry Flynt". One News Page.
- Multiple references:
- Flynt, Larry and Ross, Kenneth (June 1, 2008). An Unseemly Man: My Life as Pornographer, Pundit, and Social Outcast, pp. 170–171.
- "Larry Flynt". One News Page.
- Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
- Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming: Legal and Societal Responses by Suzanne Ost, Cambridge University Press, page 29, 2009
- Nardos, Rahel, et. al. (2003). Overcoming Violence Against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem, p. 59.
- Abbott, Matt C. (August 22, 2010). "The mind of a pederast". RenewAmerica.
- Bronski, Michael (October 31, 2002). "The real Harry Hay". The Phoenix.com.
- Kincaid, Cliff, Accuracy in Media (January 7, 2010). "Twisted: administration's 'safe schools czar' and the North American Man-Boy Love Association". WorldTribune.com.
- Multiple references:
- Lord, Jeffrey (October 5, 2006). "Special report: when Nancy met Harry". The American Spectator website.
- Kincaid, Cliff, Accuracy in Media (January 7, 2010). "Twisted: administration's 'safe schools czar' and the North American Man-Boy Love Association". WorldTribune.com.
- Baldwin, Hon. Steve (2002). "Child molestation and the homosexual movement". Regent University Law Review, vol. 14, pp. 267-282. The Architecture of Modern Political Power
- Multiple references:
- Delany, Samuel R. (2006). About Writing: Seven Essays, Four Letters, and Five Interviews (Middletown: Wesleyan), p. 36.
- "Introduction" (2001). Contemporary Literary Criticism, ed. Hunter, Jeffrey W., vol. 141 (Gale Cengage). eNotes.com
- Freedman, Carl (2009). Conversations with Samuel R. Delany (Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi), p. 143.
- Myers, P. Z. (March 31, 2014). "When will this situation improve?" Pharyngula.
- Sweden stands out in domestic violence study Published: 05 Mar 2014 08:3
- Ellison, C. G., Trinitapoli, J. A., et al. (November 2007). "Race/ethnicity, religious involvement, and domestic violence" [abstract with link to full article]. Violence Against Women, doi: 10.1177/1077801207308259, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1094-1112. Abstract from PubMed.gov
- Wagner, David (September 19, 2012). "John Lennon and Chris Brown have something in common". The Wire website.
- Multiple references:
- "Practical outcomes replace biblical principles as the moral standard" (September 10, 2001). Barna Update.
- Jay, Timothy and Janschewitz, Kristin (May/June 2012). "The Science of Swearing". Observer, vol. 25, no. 5. The Association for Psychological Science website.
- Ritter, Ryan S., Preston, J. L. et al. (June 18, 2013). "Happy tweets: Christians are happier, more socially connected, and less analytical than atheists on Twitter" [abstract]. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1948550613492345. Abstract: Sage Journals Subscription required for full article.
- Jay, Timothy and Janschewitz, Kristin (May/June 2012). "The Science of Swearing". Observer, vol. 25, no. 5. The Association for Psychological Science website
- Bestiality brothels are 'spreading through Germany'
- Denmark’s Bestiality Problem: It’s Legal by Barbie Latza Nadeau, The Daily Beast, 10/14/2014
- The Crime of Bestiality/Zoophilia: Sexual Assault of an Animal
- Does having sex with animals harm anyone?
- Sex with Animals (SWA): Behavioral Characteristics and Possible Association with Penile Cancer. A Multicenter Study
- Study Links Bestiality and Penile Cancer; Women’s Health Risk Too?
- Horse sex story was online hit by Danny Westneat, Seattle Times - December 30, 2005
- The International Handbook of Animal Abuse and Cruelty: Theory, Research, edited by Frank Ascione, pages 217-218
- Vice News report on bestiality upsurge in Europe
- Suggestions for the anti-Semitic slurs list by By MANFRED GERSTENFELD Jerusalem Post, 2015
- Vice News report on bestiality upsurge in Europe, video documentary features testimony of journalist Margit Shabanzadeh
- Aug 20 2009 article at Browardbeach.com entitled Those Who Practice Bestiality Say They're Part of the Next Sexual Rights Movement
- Eurobarometer Poll in 2010
- Secular Europe and Religious America: Implications for Transatlantic Relations
- Investigating atheism: Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on July 17, 2014. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
- God's politics, Christian Anti-Defamation Commission (CADC) website
- Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London
- Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful
- Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?
- Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series
- Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- Atheism is doomed: the contraceptive Pill is secularism's cyanide tablet, The Telegraph, By Ed West. Last updated: March 15th, 2010
- The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States By Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, Stuart Michaels, page 115
- Why Are Christians Having Better Sex Than the Rest of Us? by Tucker Carlson, The Daily Beast, November 11, 25, 2008
- Christian Women Have More Sexual Fun, Relationship Center in Springfield Missouri
- The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States By Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, Stuart Michaels, page 114
- 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious, Tuesday, April 30, 2013
- Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful
- Atheists Widely Distrusted, Even Among Themselves, UK Study Finds, Christian Post, 2015
- Anti-atheist distrust ‘deeply and culturally ingrained’, study finds, The Independent, 2015
- Multiple references:
- Kosmin, Barry A., et al. (2008). "American nones: Profile of the no religion population". American Religion Survey website [Trinity College, Hartford, CT]. Retrieved from Internet Archive.
- Britt, Robert Roy (February 28, 2009). "Women more religious than men". Live Science website.
- Study: Atheists distrusted as much as rapists
- Bible translations
- Darwin in translation
- A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, May 23, 2013
- Multilingual Europe
- Ravi Zacharias on Postmodern Architecture at Ohio State
- John F. MacArthur, "Think Biblically!"
- A Response to Philosophical Postmodernism by Norman L. Geisler
- Modernism - Picture Dictionary of Modern Architecture
- Militant Atheist Objects: Anti-Religion Museums in the Soviet Union by Crispin Paine
- Church architecture- Wikipedia.
- Postmodern architecture - Wikipedia
- How We’ve Been Robbed of Beauty by the Left
- Adherents.com - suicide rates
- In Search of a Perfect World: A Historical Perspective on the Phenomenon of Millennialism and Dissatifaction with The World As It Is by Michael C. Sullivan, page 118
- Look Who's Irrational Now by Mollie Ziegler Hemingway, Wall Street Journal, September 19, 2008
- Bacon, Francis, Of Atheism
- Bumbulis, Michael, Ph. D. (November 24, 1996). "Christianity and the birth of science; The evidence; Clue #1. The founders/fathers of modern science were shaped by a culture that was predominantly Christian." Lambert Dolphin's Library. Archived at Internet Archive on July 20, 2014.
- Williams, Alex (August 2004). "The biblical origins of science; a review of For The Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-hunts and the End of Slavery by Rodney Stark", Journal of Creation, vol. 18:2, pp. 49–52.
- Bacon, Francis (1601). The Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral, of Francis Ld. Verulam Viscount St. Albans; "Of atheism". Authorama.
- The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China By Hugh Whelchel on September 24, 2012
- Christianity Today, The Surprising Discovery About Those Colonialist, Proselytizing Missionaries, January 8, 2014
- William Wilberforce (1759-1833)
- Sowell, Thomas (2005) The real history of slavery. In Black Rednecks and White Liberals. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books
- Outliers & Cultural Legacies
- Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
- Youngman, Henny (1980 or bef.). Earliest attestation. Retrieved from GoogleBooks.
- Professional Atheist Dawkins Says Christianity ‘Bulwark Against Something Worse’, by Thomas D. Williams, Ph.D, Breitbart News Network, Jan 12, 2016
- Richard Dawkins says Christianity is world's best defence against radical Islam, Christianity Today, January 2016
- Why I want all our children to read the King James Bible by Richard Dawkins
- Why I celebrate Christmas, by the world's most famous atheist, The Daily Mail]
- Why I celebrate Christmas, by the world's most famous atheist, The Daily Mail
- A very atheist Christmas by Richard Dawkins
- Researchers: 'Ritual' Atheists and Agnostics Could Be Sitting Next to You in Church