Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence

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Atheists have higher suicide rates than theists. See: Atheism and suicide

Howard Gardner at Harvard University has identified various distinct intelligences: interpersonal, intrapersonal, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, musical–rhythmic, bodily–kinesthetic, and naturalistic.[1] See: Theory of multiple intelligences and Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences

In terms of emotional/intrapersonal intelligence, atheists have higher suicide/depression rates than theists (see: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression and Atheism and alcoholism).

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[2][3] Furthermore, a 2012 Queen's University study published in Psychological Science found that religion replenishes self-control.[4][5] Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.[6][7] See also: Atheism and hedonism and Atheism and health

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[8][9] There are studies indicating that lower self-esteem is associated with suicidality.[10][11]

Atheist Eddie Tabash on atheist cantankerousness

See also: Atheism and social intelligence and Atheist factions

The American, atheist activist Eddie Tabash said in a speech to the Michigan Atheists State Convention, "Since we are a bit of a cantankerous, opinionated lot...".[12]

Atheism and anger

See also: Atheism and anger and Atheism and bitterness and Militant atheism, alcoholism and anger

An angry atheist speaking to a woman with a Bible in her hand. The Christian philosopher James S. Spiegel says the path from Christianity to atheism among several of his friends involved moral slippage such as resentment or unforgiveness.[13] See: Atheism and unforgiveness

On January 1, 2011, CNN reported:

People unaffiliated with organized religion, atheists and agnostics also report anger toward God either in the past, or anger focused on a hypothetical image - that is, what they imagined God might be like - said lead study author Julie Exline, Case Western Reserve University psychologist.

In studies on college students, atheists and agnostics reported more anger at God during their lifetimes than believers.[14]

Various studies found that traumatic events in people's lives has a positive correlation with "emotional atheism".[15]

The atheist and lesbian Greta Christina told the journalist Chris Mooney on the Point of Inquiry podcast, "there isn't one emotion" that affects atheists "but anger is one of the emotions that many of us have ...[it] drives others to participate in the movement".[16]

Although anti-theists, militant atheists and New Atheists give the general public the perception that atheists are exceedingly angry individuals, research indicates that the atheist population as a whole is not angrier than the general population (see: Various types of atheists/non-believers and anger).

Jesus Christ and Christendom have emphasized the important of forgiveness and in the last few decades mental health specialists have increasingly seen the importance of forgiveness to alleviate anger and other emotional problems within individuals.[17]

For more information please see: Atheism and anger

Militant atheism, alcoholism and anger

Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former militantly atheistic Soviet Union.[18]

See also: Militant atheism, alcoholism and anger

The Barna Group found that atheists and agnostics in America were more likely, than theists in America, to look upon the following behaviors as morally acceptable: illegal drug use; excessive drinking; sexual relationships outside of marriage; abortion; cohabitating with someone of opposite sex outside of marriage; obscene language; gambling; pornography and obscene sexual behavior; and engaging in homosexuality/bisexuality.[19]

Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For additional information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).

Alcoholism had been linked to poor anger control both as a cause and effect of alcoholism.[20]

For more information, please see: Militant atheism, alcoholism and anger

Mental health and irreligion/religion and other studies

The prestigious Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.[21]

Concerning atheism and health, there is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism [22] The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[23]

The Iona Institute reported:

A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.[24][25]

In December 2003, the University of Warwick reported:

Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.[26]

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[27] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[28] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[29]

Atheism and loneliness

Denmark has the highest proportion of single-dwellers, at 24%.[30]

See also: Atheism and loneliness

Loneliness has been linked to numerous physical and mental health problems.[31][32] See: Atheism and health

Compared to religious cultures where an extended family and a sense of community prevails, secular countries are often lonelier societies. In addition, numerous studies and other data indicate that atheists have lower emotional intelligence (see: Atheiam and emotional intelligence).

For more information, please see:

Indian anthropologist's commentary on lonelineness in atheistic Denmark

The Indian anthropologist Prakash Reddy found Denmark to be a neat and tidy, cozy little society, stiff, rigid and seemingly full of practical, down-to-earth but lonely people, isolated from each other and lacking much sense of religion. Compared to the teeming villages of India, a Danish hamlet seemed deserted and closed. To an Indian, accustomed to constant close contact in an extended family and community, Danish life was cold if not nonexistent.[33]

In 1993, Reuters reported:

Indian anthropologist Prakash Reddy has turned the tables on Western colleagues who put Third World cultures under the microscope.

Reddy, of Sri Venkateswara University at Tirupati in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, spent four months in the village of Hvilsager--population 104--on Denmark's Jutland peninsula.

His study, published in book form in English under the title "Danes are like that!" expresses dismay at the loneliness he found and the hope that India would not have to pay the same price for prosperity.

"The most fundamental question that should bother every social scientist in the East is: Is there no way of achieving development without sacrificing the human values and the way of life cherished by homo sapiens?" he asked....

Reddy said he found a neat and tidy, cozy little society, stiff, rigid and seemingly full of practical, down-to-earth but lonely people, isolated from each other and lacking much sense of religion.

Compared to the teeming villages of India, the Danish hamlet seemed deserted and closed. To an Indian, accustomed to constant close contact in an extended family and community, Danish life was cold if not nonexistent, Reddy said.

"Coming from an Indian village, I was used to seeing people in the streets . . . but here in Denmark not a single soul was sighted and, except for the sound of a passing automobile, absolute silence prevailed," Reddy wrote.[34]

Emotional/intrapersonal intelligence, atheist parents and academic performance

See also: Atheism and academic performance and Atheism and intelligence

Parental involvement is positively correlated with student academic performance.[35]

Emotional/intrapersonal intelligence is important in terms of human performance in the intellectual realm. For example, the social scientists Andrea L. Duckworth and Martin Seligman found that higher degrees of self-discipline better predict higher academic grades than IQ scores do among adolescents.[36]

Atheists commonly have lower emotional intelligence and social intelligence as can be seen in the social science data, historical data and other data given in the articles given directly below:

Prominent atheists and poor relationship with father/mother/parents

The Cambridge Companion to Atheism which was edited by the atheist philosopher Michael Martin declared:

Continuity and discontinuity in any identity may be a function of interpersonal networks, especially involving intimate relations. Apostasy and conversion can both be seen as a rejection of parental identity and parental beliefs. It “might well be symptomatic of familial strain and dissociation... apostasy is to be viewed as a form of rebellion against parents” (Caplovitz and Sherrow, 1977:50).[37]

In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.[38] See also: Atheism and its retention rate in individuals and Atheism and marriage

A troubled/non-existent relationship with a father is theorized to influence a person to become an atheist.[39] Dr. Paul Vitz wrote a book entitled Faith of the Fatherless in which he points out that after studying the lives of more than a dozen leading atheists he found that a large majority of them had a father who was present but weak, present but abusive, or absent.[40][41] Dr. Vitz also examined the lives of prominent theists who were contemporaneous to their atheist counterparts and from the same culture and in every instance these prominent theists had a good relationship with his father.[42] Dr. Vitz has also stated other common factors he observed in the leading atheists he profiled: they were all intelligent and arrogant.[43]

The book Atheist Persona: Causes and Consequences by John J. Pasquini, Th.D. indicates that many of the prominent atheists (and prominent practical atheists) who had dysfunctional/absent fathers that he lists in his book also had dysfunctional/absent mothers.[44] See also: Atheism and poor relationships with parents and Irreligion and domestic violence

In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.[45] See also: Atheism and its retention rate in individuals

The General Social Survey (GSS) data on atheism uses a broad definition of atheism which can include agnostics.[46]

The abstract for journal article An Assessment of the Role of Early Parental Loss in the Adoption of Atheism or Irreligion by Frank L. Pasquale indicates:

Early parental loss or trauma has been proposed by some as a significant factor in the adoption of atheist, non-theist, or irreligious worldviews. Relevant empirical data, however, have been limited, impressionistic, methodologically questionable, or limited to historically prominent figures. Survey data from the GSS and a study of affirmatively non-theistic and irreligious secular group affiliates in the U.S. do not provide evidence of disproportionately high rates of early parental loss among individuals who describe themselves as “atheist(ic)” or “anti-religious,” reject belief in God, or express strong anger about religion. Loss of a parent or other loved may play a role in turns toward, as well as away from, God and religion for some. There is also evidence of comparatively high rates of parental loss in the lives of historically prominent figures, both religious and non-religious. Present results, however, do not support the hypothesis that early loss is a disproportionately frequent experience in the lives of (“ordinary”) atheistic or irreligious people.[47]

Study: Nonreligious soldiers are less able to cope with traumatic combat experiences

See also: There are no atheists in foxholes

Reverend William T. Cummings is famous for declaring There are no atheists in foxholes.[48]

The abstract for the Journal of Religion and Health article entitled Religiosity as a Moderator of Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Predicting Traumatic Stress Among Combat Soldiers declares:

Based on a sample of 54 Israeli soldiers (51 % non-religious, 49 % religious) surveyed upon their return from combat, this study investigates the moderating role of religiosity as a factor that may strengthen cognitive processing tied to the belief in oneself to persevere (i.e., self-efficacy) after trauma and/or as a factor tied to enhanced external social support that religious individuals in particular may benefit from by their involvement in a religious community. Findings revealed (1) social support was tied to greater resilience within the general sample; (2) religious soldiers were less susceptible to traumatic stress than non-religious soldiers; and (3) religiosity moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and traumatic stress but not the relationship between social support and traumatic stress. Implications of findings are discussed.[49]

See also

External links

Notes

  1. Multiple Ingelligence
  2. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  3. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  4. Religion Replenishes Self-Control, Psychological Science, June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University
  5. Study finds religion helps us gain self-control
  6. Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C., Health Psychol. 2000 May;19(3):211-22.
  7. The role of spirituality in health care, roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 October; 14(4): 352–357.
  8. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/rejection-of-christianity-and-self.html
  9. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/atheists-and-self-esteem-part-2.html
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21190929
  11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20602903
  12. Atheists Speak Up - Eddie Tabash - Part 2 of 4
  13. Christian Philosopher Explores Causes of Atheism
  14. Anger at God common, even among atheists
  15. When atheists are angry at God by Joe Carter at FirstThings.com website
  16. Greta Christina - Why Are You Atheists So Angry?
  17. Indian J Psychiatry. 2009 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 153–156. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.49459, PMCID: PMC2755173, Forgiveness: A note for psychiatrists by Prakash Gangdev
  18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18245818
  19. http://www.barna.org/barna-update/article/5-barna-update/58-practical-outcomes-replace-biblical-principles-as-the-moral-standard
  20. [
  21. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  22. Religious Involvement, Spirituality, and Medicine: Implications for Clinical Practice
  23. The psycho-social benefits of religious practice by Iona Institute
  24. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  25. Psychology researcher says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism - Scienceblog and University of Warwick
  26. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/
  27. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/about/
  28. Research on Spirituality, Theology and Health - Duke University
  29. Is Modern life making us more lonely, BBC, 8 April 2013
  30. Why Loneliness Can Be Deadly by Katherine Harmon, Live Science Contributor, March 02, 2012 02:24pm ET
  31. [Number of severely lonely men over 50 set to rise to 1m in 15 years], The Guardian, Robert Booth,Sunday 12 October 2014 19.01 EDT
  32. India Anthropologist Finds Denmark Wanting : Research: He laments the loneliness and lack of human values in remote village and asks if prosperity can be achieved without such sacrifices, LA Times archives, June 20, 1993, CHRISTOPHER FOLLETT, REUTERS
  33. India Anthropologist Finds Denmark Wanting : Research: He laments the loneliness and lack of human values in remote village and asks if prosperity can be achieved without such sacrifices, LA Times archives, June 20, 1993|CHRISTOPHER FOLLETT | REUTERS
  34. Parent involvement and student academic performance: A multiple mediational analysis
  35. Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents, Andrea L. Duckworth and Martin Seligman, Positive Psychology Center, University of Pennsylvania
  36. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, edited by Michael Martin, page 302, published in 2006
  37. http://www.christianpost.com/news/study-atheists-have-lowest-retention-rate-compared-to-religious-groups-78029/ Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  38. http://www.leaderu.com/truth/1truth12.html
  39. Vitz, Paul, The Psychology of Atheism, September 24, 1997 (lecture notes taken by an audience member).
  40. Anders, Kerby, Atheists and Their Fathers (Probe Ministries)
  41. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/augustine/arch/vitz.txt
  42. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/augustine/arch/vitz.txt
  43. Atheist Persona: Causes and Consequences by John J. Pasquini, 2014, University Press of America, page 3
  44. http://www.christianpost.com/news/study-atheists-have-lowest-retention-rate-compared-to-religious-groups-78029/ Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  45. How Many Americans are Atheists? Fewer than You Might Think by Bradley Wright, January 26, 2012
  46. An Assessment of the Role of Early Parental Loss in the Adoption of Atheism or Irreligion by Frank L. Pasquale1
  47. http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0609D&L=ads-l&P=15696
  48. Religiosity as a Moderator of Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Predicting Traumatic Stress Among Combat Soldiers, Journal of Religion and Health