Atheism and health

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The prestigious Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.[1]

Concerning atheism and health, there is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism [2]

The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[1]

The Iona Institute reported:

A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.[3]

In December of 2003, the University of Warwick reported:

Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.[4]

See also: Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide and Atheism and alcoholism

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[5] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[6] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[7]

Atheism, sexuality and longevity

See also: Atheism and sexuality and Atheism and marriage and Atheist marriages

Men who are satisfied with their sexual lives have greater longevity.[8]

In 2011, The Daily Beast conceded in an article entitled Why Are Christians Having Better Sex Than the Rest of Us?, "The devout are actually having better sex than the rest of us."[9]

Research shows that among women, religious women (especially evangelical/low church Protestant women) are more sexually satisfied than irreligious women.[10][11][12]

Social science data also reports that Hispanic men are more sexually satisfied than other ethnic groups in the United States.[13] Hispanics are known for their religiosity. For example, in 2015, BloombergView reported concerning the United States: "According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, only 3 percent of U.S. atheists and agnostics are black, 6 percent are Hispanic, and 4 percent are Asian. Some 82 percent are white. (The relevant figures for the population at large at the time of the survey were 66 percent white, 11 percent black, 15 percent Hispanic, 5 percent Asian.)"[14] See also: Western atheism and race

In the United States, the Republican Party has a large segment of religious conservatives and they are influential within the party.[15] ABC News reported that "More Republicans Satisfied With Sex Lives Than Democrats".[16]

For more information, please see: Atheism and sexuality

Atheism and its effect on societal cognitive abilities

See: Atheism and intelligence

Atheism and alcoholism

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[17]

See also: Atheism and alcoholism

Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).

Secular countries/regions and alcoholism

Secular Europe:

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[17]


Australia:

An Australian National Council on Drugs (ANCD) report indicated that 20% of Australians drink at levels putting them at risk of lifetime harm.[18]

For more information, please see: Godless Australia and alcoholism


Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[19] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[20]

Asian countries:


History of communism:

Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[19] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[20]

Atheism, alcoholism and anger

Atheism, alcoholism and anger

Irreligion, alcoholism and various generations in the United States


Recent generations in the United States:

American Atheism, gender, race and alcoholism

Binge drinking and brain damage

A 2012 study suggests that a habit of binge drink risks serious brain damage including increasing memory loss later in adulthood.[21]

Currently, there is a downward trend in intelligence scores in secular countries (see: Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries).

Atheism, binge drinking and suicide

Binge drinking is a potent risk factor for suicide.[22] Atheists have a higher suicide rate than the general population.

Atheism and illegal drug use and drug addition

Studies indicate that religious individuals are less likely to engage in illegal drug use than atheists/nonreligious.[23]

See also: Atheism and drug addiction

Studies indicate that religious individuals are less likely to engage in illegal drug use than atheists/nonreligious.[23]

According to Science Daily:

Young Swiss men who say that they believe in God are less likely to smoke cigarettes or pot or take ecstasy pills than Swiss men of the same age group who describe themselves as atheists. Belief is a protective factor against addictive behaviour. This is the conclusion reached by a study funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.[24]

Atheism and suicide

See main article: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression

Although there are recent studies relating to atheism being a causal factor for suicide for some individuals, an early proponent of atheism being a causal factor for suicide was the Reverend Dr. Robert S. MacArthur.[25] In 1894, the New York Times stated the following in relation to atheism and suicide:

Dr. Martin urged that a great cause of suicide was atheism. It was, he said, a remarkable fact that where atheism prevailed most, there suicides were most numerous. In Paris, a recent census showed one suicide to every 2,700 of the population. After the publication of Paine's "Age of Reason" suicides increased.[26]
Pitzer College sociologist Phil Zuckerman stated concerning suicide rates: "this is the one indicator of societal health in which religious nations fare much better than secular nations."

The same New York Times article quotes the Reverend Dr. MacArthur describing suicide in the following manner:

It is mean and not manly; it is dastardly and not daring. A man who involves his innocent wife and children in financial disaster and disgrace and takes his life and leaves them to bear the burden he was unwilling to bear, is a coward.[26]

In 2004, the American Journal of Psychiatry reported the following:

Religiously unaffiliated subjects had significantly more lifetime suicide attempts and more first-degree relatives who committed suicide than subjects who endorsed a religious affiliation. Unaffiliated subjects were younger, less often married, less often had children, and had less contact with family members. Furthermore, subjects with no religious affiliation perceived fewer reasons for living, particularly fewer moral objections to suicide. In terms of clinical characteristics, religiously unaffiliated subjects had more lifetime impulsivity, aggression, and past substance use disorder. No differences in the level of subjective and objective depression, hopelessness, or stressful life events were found.[27]
According to a study by the Barna Group regarding charitable giving:"The typical no-faith American donated just $200 in 2006, which is more than seven times less than the amount contributed by the prototypical active-faith adult ($1500).[28] A number of studies have confirmed that there is an inverse relationship to doing volunteer work and depression.[29] Please see: Atheism and depression

The website Adherents.com reported the following in respect to atheism and suicide:

Pitzer College sociologist Phil Zuckerman compiled country-by-country survey, polling and census numbers relating to atheism, agnosticism, disbelief in God and people who state they are non-religious or have no religious preference. These data were published in the chapter titled "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns" in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005). In examining various indicators of societal health, Zuckerman concludes about suicide:

"Concerning suicide rates, this is the one indicator of societal health in which religious nations fare much better than secular nations. According to the 2003 World Health Organization's report on international male suicides rates (which compared 100 countries), of the top ten nations with the highest male suicide rates, all but one (Sri Lanka) are strongly irreligious nations with high levels of atheism. It is interesting to note, however, that of the top remaining nine nations leading the world in male suicide rates, all are former Soviet/Communist nations, such as Belarus, Ukraine, and Latvia. Of the bottom ten nations with the lowest male suicide rates, all are highly religious nations with statistically insignificant levels of organic atheism."[30]

Australian online opinion writer and lecturer in ethics and philosophy at several Melbourne theological colleges, Bill Muehlenberg, in his essay "The Unbearable Heaviness of Being (in a World without God)" states the following:

Announcing, and believing, that God is dead has consequences. And it is we who suffer the most for it. We cannot bear the whole universe on our shoulders. We were not meant to. We must let God be God. Only then can men be men. Only then can we find the way forward to be possible, and the burdens not insurmountable.[31]

Ex-Christians, self-esteem and suicide

See also: Ex-Christians, self-esteem and suicide and Atheism and self-esteem and Ex-atheists

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[32] There are studies indicating that lower self-esteem is associated with suicidality.[33]

Richard Dawkins' book "The God Delusion" along with a community college biology class, have been linked to the tragic suicide of Jesse Kilgore.[34] Kilgore had several discussions with friends and relatives in which he made it clear Dawkins' book had destroyed his belief in God. This loss of faith is considered the cause of his suicide which is not surprising given that there is evidence which suggest that atheism can be a causal factor for suicide for some individuals.[25]

Jesse's father is quoted as saying "If my son was a professing homosexual, and a professor challenged him to read [a book called] 'Preventing Homosexuality'… If my son was gay and [the book] made him feel bad, hopeless, and he killed himself, and that came out in the press, there would be an outcry. He would have been a victim of a hate crime and the professor would have been forced to undergo sensitivity training, and there may have even been a wrongful death lawsuit. But because he's a Christian, I don't even get a return telephone call."

Jesse's blog remained online after his death.[35]

At the same time, there is a significant portion of the atheist population who suffer from excess self-esteem/pride issues (see: Causes of atheism).

Atheism, gender and suicide

See also: Atheism, gender and suicide and Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women and Atheism and suicide

Survey data and website tracking data of prominent atheists' websites indicate that in the Western World, atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women (see: Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women).[36]


Science Daily reports:

Many studies have identified a strong link between suicide and diagnosable mental illness, especially depression. So because women suffer from depression at a much higher rate than men, they would seem to be at higher risk for suicide. But women actually commit suicide about one-fourth as often as men.[37]

Atheism, marriage and suicide

See also: Atheism and marriageability and Atheism and suicide and Atheism, marriage and suicide

Christian apologist Michael Caputo wrote:

Recently the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life has published its mammoth study on Religion in America based on 35,000 interviews... According to the Pew Forum a whopping 37% of atheists never marry as opposed to 19% of the American population, 17% of Protestants and 17% of Catholics.[38]

Vox Day declared that according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) "more than half of all atheists and agnostics don’t get married."[38]

According the website Marriage and Family Encyclopedia:

Marital status has a strong association with rates of completed suicide. Suicide rates are higher in the divorced and widowed than in single people, who in turn have higher suicide rates than married people. This protective effect of marriage on suicide is stronger for men than for women, although it is found for both men and women (Gove 1972).[39]

Atheism and European suicide in the 17th century

Chandak Sengoopta, in a book review of Georges Minois's work History of Suicide: Voluntary Death in Western Culture wrote:

Suicide became a prominent issue in England from the turn of the seventeenth century. The number of suicides, it was reported, had risen alarmingly and in the preface to his 1733 work, The English Malady, physician George Cheyne declared that he had been spurred to write it "by the late Frequency and daily Encrease of wanton and uncommon self-murders" (p. 181). According to Cheyne, the spread of atheism as well as the gloomy, melancholy-inducing climate of England were responsible for the rise in suicides; while his explanations were not always accepted, virtually nobody seems to have doubted that England had become the world capital of suicides. As Minois explains, there undoubtedly was a rise in the rates of reported suicides but, as far as one can tell from the available data, it was a European rather than an exclusively English phenomenon.[40]

Atheism, uncharitableness and depression

See also: Atheism and depression and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression

A number of studies have confirmed that there is an inverse relationship to doing volunteer work and depression.[29] The atheist population does less charitable works and volunteering per capita than the theist population (see: Atheism and uncharitableness).

Atheism and loneliness

Denmark has the highest proportion of single-dwellers, at 24%.[41]

See also: Atheism and loneliness

Loneliness has been linked to numerous physical and mental health problems.[42]

Compared to religious cultures where an extended family and a sense of community prevails, secular countries are often lonelier societies. In addition, Numerous studies and other data indicate that atheists have lower emotional intelligence and lower social skills (see: Atheism and emotional intelligence and Atheiam and social skills).

For more information, please see:

Atheism and obesity

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[43]

See also: Atheism and obesity

According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[44]

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[43] In addition, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[45]

Please see:

Studies on religion and self-control plus diet/exercise and obesity

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[46] In terms of physical activity/athleticism vs. slothfulness, please see: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism and Atheism and hedonism and Atheist nerds

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[47] Furthermore, a 2012 Queen's University study published in Psychological Science found that religion replenishes self-control.[48] Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.[49]

For more information, please see: Atheism and obesity

Sigmund Freud's view of religion

Sigmund Freud in his laboratory

See also: Sigmund Freud's view of religion

Psychologist Sigmund Freud was a proponent of atheism who argued that theism was detrimental to mental health.[50] Oxford Professor Alister McGrath, author of the book The Twilight of Atheism, stated the following regarding Freud:

One of the most important criticisms that Sigmund Freud directed against religion was that it encourages unhealthy and dysfunctional outlooks on life. Having dismissed religion as an illusion, Freud went on to argue that it is a negative factor in personal development. At times, Freud's influence has been such that the elimination of a person's religious beliefs has been seen as a precondition for mental health.

Freud is now a fallen idol, the fall having been all the heavier for its postponement. There is now growing awareness of the importance of spirituality in health care, both as a positive factor in relation to well-being and as an issue to which patients have a right. The "Spirituality and Healing in Medicine" conference sponsored by Harvard Medical School in 1998 brought reports that 86 percent of Americans as a whole, 99 percent of family physicians, and 94 percent of HMO professionals believe that prayer, meditation, and other spiritual and religious practices exercise a major positive role within the healing process.[50]

Freud remains popular among postmodern literary academics, who use his anti-Christian pseudoscience as a basis for their own anti-Christianity and moral relativism, even though his theories were disproved decades ago.

Cause of Friedrich Nietzsche's insanity still a matter of speculation

Currently, there is an ongoing debate on whether atheism was a causal factor for Friedrich Nietzsche's insanity or whether it was caused purely through disease.

See also: Cause of Friedrich Nietzsche's insanity

Currently, there is an ongoing debate regarding whether atheism was a causal factor for Friedrich Nietzsche's insanity or whether it was caused strictly by disease.[51]

An article published on the Hong Kong Baptist University website offers the following regarding the cause of Friedrich Nietzsche's insanity:

Trying to explain what caused his insanity can only be a matter of speculation. Some people believe it was the result of a physical illness. Others interpret his suffering as that of a true prophet, almost as if he were accepting the punishment on behalf of those who could not see mankind's tendency towards self-destruction so clearly. Still others regard his final fate as a natural outcome of his philosophical outlook.[52]

The Russian-born psychoanalyst and writer Lou Andreas-Salomé, who had a brief and tempestuous affair with Nietzsche, believed that Nietzsche's philosophy can be viewed as a reflection of his psychology and that his madness was the result of his philosophizing.[53] In addition, the French historian René Girard asserted that Nietzsche's philosophy led to his insanity.[54]

See also

External links

Atheism and despair:

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mueller, Dr. Paul S. et al. (December 2001). "Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for clinical practice". Mayo Clinic Proceedings vol. 76:12, pp. 1225-1235. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic Proceedings website on July 20, 2014.
  2. Multiple references:
  3. Multiple references:
  4. University of Warwick (December 2003). "Psychology researcher [Dr. Stephen Joseph] says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism". Scienceblog. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
  5. Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
  6. "About us." The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
  7. "Research library". Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
  8. The Best Reason to Have Sex by Philip Weiss, Men's Journal
  9. Why Are Christians Having Better Sex Than the Rest of Us? by Tucker Carlson, The Daily Beast, November 11, 25, 2008
  10. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States By Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, Stuart Michaels, page 115
  11. Why Are Christians Having Better Sex Than the Rest of Us? by Tucker Carlson, The Daily Beast, November 11, 25, 2008
  12. Christian Women Have More Sexual Fun, Relationship Center in Springfield Missouri
  13. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States By Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, Stuart Michaels, page 114
  14. The Atheism Gap By Stephen L. Carter, BloombergView, Mar 27, 2015 4:26 PM EDT
  15. How Many Highly Religious Conservative Republicans Are There?, Gallup Organization statistics
  16. More Republicans Satisfied With Sex Lives Than Democrats, ABC News
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Data and statistics" (September 2014 or bef.). Health topics/Disease prevention/Alcohol use. Retrieved from World Health Organization (WHO)/Regional office for Europe on May 23, 2015.
  18. Mower, Jane (November 19, 2013). "One in eight deaths of young Australians attributable to alcohol: National Council on Drugs report". Australian Broadcasting Corporation website/News. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Pomerlau, Joceline, et. al. (May-June 2008). "Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: A cross-sectional study of eight countries". Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 351-9. Retrieved from PubMed.gov on May 23, 2015.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Anderson, Sandra C. and Hibbs, Valerie K. (October 1992). "Alcoholism in the Soviet Union" [first page]. International Social Work, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 441-53 [fee or registration required for full article]. First page retrieved from Sage journals/International Social Work on May 23, 2015.
  21. Multiple references:
  22. O'Connell, H. and Lawlor, B.A. (October–December 2005). "Recent alcohol intake and suicidality—a neuropsychological perspective". Irish Journal of Medical Science, vol. 174, no. 4., pp. 51-4
  23. 23.0 23.1 Multiple references:
  24. Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Foerderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung [Swiss National Science Foundation] (October 3, 2013). "Believers consume fewer drugs than atheists". Science Daily website/Science News. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Multiple references:
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Atheism a cause of suicide; Dr. MacArthur preaches on the sin and cowardice of self-destruction" (September 17, 1894). New York Times, p. 2. Retrieved from nytimes.com on July 24, 2014.
  27. Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004). "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [abstract]. The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8. Abstract retrieved from National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med on July 24, 2014.
  28. "Atheists and agnostics take aim at Christians" (June 11, 2007). Barna Update. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Science of happiness/Caring/Review of Key Studies on Caring/Volunteering" (May 2010 or bef.). The Pursuit of Happiness website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  30. Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004). "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [summary]. The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8. Summary retrieved from Adherents.com on July 25, 2014. Website contains link to article at American Journal of Psychiatry website.
  31. Muehlenberg, Bill (May 26, 2008). "The unbearable heaviness of being (in a world without God)". CultureWatch. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  32. Multiple references:
  33. Multiple references:
    • Thompson, Angus H. (November-December 2010). "The suicidal process and self-esteem". Crisis, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 311-6. Retrieved from National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med on May 23, 2015.
    • Villa-Manzano, A. I. (November-December 2009). "[Risk factors found in suicide attempters]" [abstract]. Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 643-6. Abstract retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  34. Unruh, Bob (November 20, 2008). "Dad links son's suicide to 'The God Delusion'". WorldNetDaily. Retrieved on February 18, 2015.
  35. Kilgore, Jesse (December 17, 2008). [Archive of] What Say You? Archive of NewBlog.com. Retrieved from December 17, 2008 archive at Internet Archive on May 23, 2015.
  36. Multiple references:
  37. Washington University in St. Louis (November 12, 1998). "Why women are less likely than men to commit suicide". ScienceDaily website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Ammi, Ken (June 11, 2009). "Atheism". Creation Ministries International. Retrieved on July 19, 2014.
  39. cited in Ponzetti, James J., ed. (2003). "Suicide—marital status and the family". International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family (New York: MacMillan), p. 1599. Retrieved from JRank Marriage and Family Encyclopedia/Suicide on May 23, 2015.
  40. Sengoopta, Chandak (July 1999). "[Review of History of Suicide: Voluntary Death in Western Culture by George Minois (1999)]". H-Net Humanities and Social Sciences Online/H-Ideas. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  41. Barford, Vanessa (April 8, 2013). "Is modern life making us more lonely". BBC News website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  42. Multiple references:
    • Harmon, Katherine (March 2, 2012). "Why loneliness can be deadly". Live Science website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
    • Booth, Robert (October 12, 2014). "Number of severely lonely men over 50 set to rise to 1m in 15 years". The Guardian.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Multiple references:
  44. Newport, Frank, et al. (December 23, 2010). "Very religious Americans lead healthier lives". Gallup [polling] website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  45. Multiple references:
  46. Mayo Clinic Staff (May 13, 2014). "Causes [of obesity]". Mayo Clinic website/Diseases and Conditions/Obesity/Basics. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  47. Multiple references:
  48. Multiple references:
  49. Multiple references:
    • McCullough, Michael E. et al. (2000). "Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review". Health Psychology. vol. 19:3. pp. 211-222. Retrieved from University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website on July 24, 2014.
    • Puchalski, Christina M. (October 2001). "The role of spirituality in health care". Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 352–357. Retrieved from National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, PubMed Central website on May 23, 2015.
  50. 50.0 50.1 McGrath, Alister (February 28, 2005). "The twilight of atheism". Christianity Today website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  51. Multiple references:
  52. Palmquist, Stephen (1995). "Chapter 19: Nietzsche's moral breakthrough". The Tree of Philosophy (Hong Kong: Philopsychy Press). Retrieved from Hong Kong Baptist University website on July 25, 2014.
  53. Salomé, Lou (1988). Nietzsche [preview] (University of Illinois). Translation of Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken (1894) translated by Mandel, Elise and Mandel, Theo S. Preview retrieved from Amazon.com on July 25, 2014.
  54. Girard, René (March 1, 1988). "Chapter 4: Strategies of madness—Nietzsche, Wagner and Dostoevsky" [preview]. To Double Business Bound (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press), pp. 61-82+. Preview retrieved from GoogleBooks on July 25, 2014.