Atheism and intelligence

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In Britain, which is a country less religious than many countries, the evidence suggests that teenagers have lower IQ scores than their counterparts did a generation ago.[1] See: Intelligence trends in secular countries

In terms of trends, intelligence test scores (IQ test scores) are rising in many religious countries countries while in some irreligious countries, IQ scores are falling (see: Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries).

Socioeconomic factors can cause differences in regional intelligence levels (for example, wealth which can affect the quality of education, health care and nutrition). Although social scientists have disputes about the accuracy of IQ scores in a given region, regions do vary in terms of their IQ scores.[2][3][4]

Within various countries, standardized intelligence test scores related to the issue of atheists/agnostics vs. theists intelligence scores often yield conflicting results.[5] Part of the problem is that social scientists use variant definitions of atheism.[6][7]

Denmark, Sweden. Great Britain, Norway and Australia are less religious than many regions of the world (see: Secular Europe and Irreligion in Australia).

Thomas Hally wrote:

In many areas phenotypic intelligence has been increasing (the Flynn Effect) while genotypic intelligence is decreasing due to the negative association between intelligence and that which is known as ³dysgenic fertility´. Gains of as much as 7.5 IQ points in phenotypic intelligence are much greater than the 0.43 IQ points per generation in the world-wide genotypic IQ that had been estimated for the period 1950-2000. The situation in the industrially developed world appears to follow the lead of the United States and a handful of other developed nations in so far as the phenotypic IQ has been increasing at a greater rate as a result of environmental improvements.

In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Great Britain and Australia phenotypic intelligence has stabilized and now is declining.[8]

The Daily Mail reported in 2014, "Evidence suggests that the IQs of people in the UK, Denmark and Australia have declined in the last decade."[9]

Brain researchers have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheists and the religious. See: Atheism and the brain

In terms of the various atheist populations in the world, there is a significant amount of variance as far as the cultures they reside in terms of their regional intelligence levels as can be seen in the resources given directly below.

See:

In addition, as far as individuals and a given population at large, the irreligion/religion of a family/society does have an effect on intelligence and this will be covered shortly.

Brain researchers have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheists and the religious (See: Atheism and the brain).

Atheists and religious individuals have significant differences in terms of the various types of intelligence (See: Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences).

Contents

Atheism, intelligence and the United States

See also: American atheism and intelligence and Atheism, intelligence and the General Social Survey

Citing data from the General Social Survey (GSS), Theodore Beale writes: "..the two most common types of atheists are the High Church atheists with +2SD IQs (128+) and Low Church atheists with -2SD IQs (65-72). Note that the Low Church atheists actually outnumber the High Church atheists, 22.9 to 17.2 percent."[10] (click on the graph above to enlarge)

In the United States, social scientists define atheism in various ways which makes determining the number of atheists in the United States more difficult to determine.[11] See also: Definition of atheism and Attempts to dilute the definition of atheism and Definitions of atheist and agnostic

Atheism, as defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and other philosophy reference works, is the denial of the existence of God.[12]

In his article How Many Americans are Atheists? Fewer than You Might Think, Bradley Wright wrote:

Another quality measure is offered by the General Social Survey, probably the best-known, most rigorous social survey out there. It gives respondents a series of statements about their beliefs in God, and it asks which come closest to what they believe. The 2010 survey found that:

• 3% of Americans “don’t believe in God.” • (Another 6% reported that they “don’t know whether there is a God and don’t believe there is any way to find out,” i.e., agnostics.)[13]

The General Social Survey (GSS) is the "largest project funded by the Sociology Program of the National Science Foundation. Except for the U.S. Census, the GSS is the most frequently analyzed source of information in the social sciences."[14]

As you can see above, the social scientists at the General Social Survey do not define as strictly as encyclopedias of philosophy and many other reference works.[15] As a result, in reporting their survey results there is some overlap with individuals who some may consider to be merely agnostics.

Citing data from the General Social Survey, Theodore Beale writes about atheist intelligence quotient (IQ) scores:

"..the two most common types of atheists are the High Church atheists with +2SD IQs (128+) and Low Church atheists with -2SD IQs (65-72). Note that the Low Church atheists actually outnumber the High Church atheists, 22.9 to 17.2 percent...

Now, the statistically naive might look at this chart, note that the +2SD theists only account for 3.5 percent of the theistic population, and assume that this means there are more highly intelligent atheists than highly intelligent theists. This is not the case. As it happens, there are 11.4x more +2SD theists who either know God exists or believe God exists despite having the occasional doubt than there are +2SD atheists who don't believe God exists.[16]

In a 2010 article, Beale writes:

Never forget that the smarter and more knowledgeable act put on by many atheists is inevitably nothing more than that, an act, and one that has absolutely no basis in empirical reality except for a three-point average advantage in IQ which is almost surely a statistical artifact of their insignificant numbers and self-selected identification.[17]

Weak atheism and individuals with low intelligence

See also: Weak atheism and intelligence

Weak Atheism (sometimes referred to as "negative atheism") describes a belief system and philosophical stance whereby a person lacks a belief in God/gods. Using this very broad definition of definition of atheism, there are atheists who argue that babies are atheists (Of course, atheists cannot verify what is in the minds of babies).[18] Also, using this very broad definition of definition of atheism, it could be argued that individuals with severe mental disabilities and/or individuals born with extremely low IQs are more apt to be weak atheists (Of course, this also would be difficult to verify in many cases). This helps explain why the General Social Survey (GSS) data has twice as many low IQ atheists as high IQ atheists.[19]

United States, atheism, socioeconomic data and intelligence

See also: American atheists, socioeconomic data and intelligence and Western atheism and race

In 2015, BloombergView reported concerning the United States:

According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, only 3 percent of U.S. atheists and agnostics are black, 6 percent are Hispanic, and 4 percent are Asian. Some 82 percent are white. (The relevant figures for the population at large at the time of the survey were 66 percent white, 11 percent black, 15 percent Hispanic, 5 percent Asian.)

...Craig Keener, in his huge review of claims of miracles in a wide variety of cultures, concludes that routine rejection of the possibility of the supernatural represents an impulse that is deeply Eurocentric.[20]

Research in the United States indicates that the daily pressures associated with being in the low income bracket reduces IQ by 13 points.[21] African-American and Hispanic Americans are more likely to live in poverty in the United States. The poverty rate for Blacks and Hispanics is more than double that of non-Hispanic Whites.[22] In addition, schooling increases IQ scores and many racial minorities in the United attend low quality, inner city public schools with high drop out rates.[23][24]

Asian atheism and intelligence: China and intelligence

See also: Asian atheism and intelligence and Asian atheism

China has the world's largest atheist population.[25][26]

Razib Khan points out in Discover Magazine, "most secular nations in the world are those of East Asia, in particular what are often termed “Confucian societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian."[27]

The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia among whites.[28] See: Atheist population and Global atheism and Western atheism and race

China has the world's largest atheist population. [29][30] China is a communist country and the Communist Party of China requires its members to be atheists (see: Atheism and communism).[31]

Unless otherwise indicated, the national IQ scores given below for Asian, European countries and Australia comes from the work carried out from 2002 to 2006 by Richard Lynn, a British Professor of Psychology, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish Professor of Political Science, who performed IQ studies in more than 80 countries.[2]

China has the 5th highest national IQ in the world with a score of 105.[2] China's Zhejiang province is China's Christianity heartland.[32] In 2005, the Chinese Journal of Endemiology (Owned by China ‘s ministry of health) reported that Zhejiang province had the highest IQ of all the provinces in China with an average IQ of 115.8 which was markedly higher than China's average IQ at the time which was a score of 103.4.[32]

In the latter part of the 20th century and throughout the 21st century, China has seen a rapid growth of evangelical Christianity within their nation, increased economic development and a leap in intelligence scores.[33][34] See also: Growth of Christianity in China and Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and East Asia and global desecularization

In addition, compared to China, Singapore and South Korea (which have higher degrees of religion/religious freedom} have higher national IQ scores of 108 and 106 respectively.[2] In addition, Hong Kong, which has a greater degree of religiosity than China as a whole and greater religious freedom than mainland China, has a regional IQ score of 108.[2] See also: China, state atheism and persecution

European atheism and intelligence

Secular Europe and IQ scores

See also: European atheism and intelligence and Secular Europe

In 2014, the Pew Research Forum indicated that Europe will go from 11% of the world's population to 7% of the world's population by 2050.[35]

From a global perspective, Europe is more secular/atheistic than the rest of the world although it does have a considerable amount of religious immigrants who have higher birth rates (see: Secular Europe).

According to a poll measuring religious identification in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, 16% identify as non-religious/agnostic and 7% of EU citizens identify as atheists.[36][37]

The 2010 eurobarometer poll found that on total average, of the EU27 population, 51% "believe in a God", 26% believe in "some sort of spirit or life force" and 20% had neither of these forms of belief.[38]

As briefly mentioned above, Europe is presently experiencing desecularization forces through: religious immigrants who have higher fertility rates than moderately religious and the sub-replacement level of fertility of the irreligious in many European countries. This trend is expected to continue and the secular population is projected to plateau by 2050, or as early as 2021 (see also: European desecularization in the 21st century and Growth of global desecularization).[39]

IQ scores reported for various irreligious European countries

  • UK: National IQ is 100.[2]

IQ scores of the more religious countries of Italy and Switzerland

Italy and Switzerland are among the top three countries in national IQ scores and they are more religious than the irreligious countries cited above. The national IQ scores of Italy and Switzerland were reported to be 102 and 101 respectively.[2]

The Christian Post reported in 2007 concerning Switzerland:

But proponents of creationism contend that most Swiss want creationism taught alongside evolution in biology class.

A survey commissioned by the Christian organization Pro Genesis earlier this year found 80 percent of Swiss want creationism taught in schools, according to swissinfo. Meanwhile, an international survey last year found 30 percent of Swiss reject evolution – one of the highest rates in Europe.[40]

Irreligious Australia and intelligence

Australia's national IQ is 98..[2] The Daily Mail reported in 2014, "Evidence suggests that the IQs of people in the UK, Denmark and Australia have declined in the last decade."[41]

See also: Irreligious Australia and intelligence

After WWII, Australia has become a very secular country.[42]

According to the Sydney Morning Herald:

Australia is one of the least devout countries in the Western world, although two-thirds of its population identifies itself as Christian, an international survey comparing religious expression in 21 countries has found.

Religion does not play a central part in the lives of many Australians: 48 per cent of Australians surveyed said they did not partake in personal prayer and 52 per cent said they rarely attended a place of worship for religious reasons.[43]

In the 2011 Australian census, 22.3% of Australians (or 4,796,787 people) identified themselves as having "no religion" which was more than 3 percent higher (and 1,090,232 people more) than in the 2006 census and was the second largest category.[44] Another 2.014 million (9.4%) were in the "not-stated or inadequately-defined" category: thus more than 31% of Australians did not state a religious affiliation in the 2011 census.[45]

Australia's falling national IQ

Australia's national IQ is 98.[2] Evidence suggests that the IQs of people in Australia have declined in the last decade."[46]

Latino atheism and intelligence

See also: Latino atheism and intelligence

National IQ of Cuba compared to more religious Latino countries

Culturally, Cuba is considered to be Latin American. The non-religious/atheists are about 24% of Cuba's population.[47] The national IQ of Cuba is 85.[2]

In Argentina, where 10.3% describe themselves as atheist, agnostics, or having no religion, the national IQ is 93.[48][2] In addition, the more religious Latino countries of Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Bolivia also have higher national IQ scores than Cuba.[2]

After the 1959 communist revolution, the government of Cuba did not restrict religious practice to the extent that was done in the Soviet Union. However, the large atheist population in Cuba compared to other Latino nations, was caused by its communist history (see: Atheism and communism).

In addition, religious individuals were not allowed to join the Cuban Communist Party due to religion being incompatible to the party's Marxist philosophy.

African atheism and intelligence

See also: African atheism and intelligence

African IQ scores are a matter of controversy among social scientists.[4][3] See also: African atheist IQ scores

Africa and atheist art/atheist music/atheist architecture

See also: Atheist art and Atheist music and Atheism and architecture

Watoto Children's Choir from Kampala, Uganda.

The atheist population does not have a tradition of children's choirs singing atheist songs.

Howard Gardner at Harvard University has identified various distinct intelligences: interpersonal, intrapersonal, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, musical–rhythmic, bodily–kinesthetic, and naturalistic.[49]

Despite atheism existing for thousands of years and predating Christianity, there is a small proportion of atheist art compared to religious art. For example, Wikipedia, which again was founded by an atheist and agnostic, has no article on "Atheist art", but Wikipedia does have an article on Christian art. Similarly, there is a small proportion of atheist music compared to religious music.

An atheist posted to atheist Sam Harris' discussion board: "This idea started when I googled “atheist art”. You see I was expecting to find art. Instead, what you get is a whole bunch of knockoffs of famous religious art that has been disfigured and mutilated. This made me slightly ashamed."[50]

Individuals advocating irreligion in Africa have been dated to go back several millennia.[51] Although, there are artistic and musical achievements when it comes to African Christian art and African Christian music (for example African art museums displaying African Christian art), there has been a lack of significant African achievements when it comes to African atheist art and African atheist music.

Africa has many beautiful church buildings. Wikipedia, which again is a online encyclopedia found by an atheist and agnostic, has a church architecture article which features an entire section on Ethiopian church architecture.[52] However, there is not a single notable example of African atheist architecture (see also: Atheism and architecture).

Important factors for intelligence and the effect of biblical Christianity

See also: Protestant cultural legacies and Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Harvard University historian Niall Ferguson declared: "Through a mixture of hard work and thrift the Protestant societies of the North and West Atlantic achieved the most rapid economic growth in history."[53] See: Protestant work ethic Higher societal wealth and better nutrition is positively correlated with intelligence.[54][55][56] (Picture: Protestant church pulpit)

Factors such as greater wealth with its attendant better quality of education/health/nutrition help increase IQ scores.[57][58][59]

Developed countries with greater wealth, better educational systems and nutrition often have a cultural heritage of Christianity and often have significant Christian populations within them.[60][61] In terms of economic development, biblical Christianity has historically had a positive affect on countries.[62]

The atheist and Harvard University historian Niall Ferguson declared: "Through a mixture of hard work and thrift the Protestant societies of the North and West Atlantic achieved the most rapid economic growth in history." (See: Protestant work ethic and capitalism).[63]

Many irreligious countries, particularly Nordic countries, have cultural legacies of Protestantism which affects their current cultures as cultural legacies are often slow to disappear (see: Protestant cultural legacies).

As noted above. China has the world's largest atheist population. However, as noted above, in the latter part of the 20th century and throughout the 21st century, China has seen a rapid growth of evangelical Christianity within their nation, increased economic development and a leap in intelligence scores.[64][65] See also: Growth of Christianity in China

Flynn effect on intelligence: Religious/secular nations trends

The Flynn effect is the significant and long-sustained increase intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present.[66] In many parts of the world, such as the developing world, biblical Christianity is seeing rapid growth (see: Global Christianity) which has the potential to improve their economies and thus improve their societal cognitive abilities as well given the link between economic well-being and increased cognitive abilities.[67][68] Furthermore, religiosity has a positive correlation with health and increased health has a beneficial effect on intelligence (see: Atheism and health).

In some secular economically developed countries, the Flynn effect has ceased and their scores on standardized intelligence tests are falling (See: Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries)[69]

Atheism and the brain

See also: Atheism and the brain and Atheism and reason

Study involving magnetism, brain function and the posterior medial frontal cortex

See also: Atheism and the brain and Atheism and logic and Atheism and logical fallacies and Causes of atheism

Satirical graphic used by the Freedom From Atheism Foundation (FFAF). The FFAF shared Dr. Joel McDurmon's article entitled Atheists embarrassed: study proves atheism uses less brain function with their supporters.[70]

Dr. Joel McDurmon at the organization American Vision wrote about a University of York study involving magnetism and brain function:

This has to be embarrassing . . . if you’re an atheist. A new study performed at the University of York used targeted magnetism to shut down part of the brain. The result: belief in God disappeared among more than 30 percent of participants.

That in itself may not seem so embarrassing, but consider that the specific part of the brain they frazzled was the posterior medial frontal cortex—the part associated with detecting and solving problems, i.e., reasoning and logic.

In other words, when you shut down the part of the brain most associated with logic and reasoning, greater levels of atheism result.[71]

(To read about some of the functions of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), please read the article: Posterior medial frontal cortex)

Religious individuals and thicker cerebral cortices

According to the Journal of the American Medical Association - Psychiatry, people who place a high importance of religion in their lives have thicker cerebral cortices and may be better able to fight depression.[72][73] See: Atheism and depression

Thicker cerebral cortices in individuals is positively associated with higher intelligence.[74]

See also: Religion and education

Religiosity and larger frontal lobes

Graphic of cerebral lobes. Light brown section of the graphic depicts the area of the frontal lobe. (Click on graphic to enlarge)

See also: Religiosity and larger frontal lobes

According to Scientific American:

Several studies have revealed that people who practice meditation or have prayed for many years exhibit increased activity and have more brain tissue in their frontal lobes, regions associated with attention and reward, as compared with people who do not meditate or pray.[75]

The Centre for Neuro Skills says about the frontal lobes and their function:

The frontal lobes are considered our emotional control center and home to our personality. There is no other part of the brain where lesions can cause such a wide variety of symptoms (Kolb & Wishaw, 1990). The frontal lobes are involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior. The frontal lobes are extremely vulnerable to injury due to their location at the front of the cranium, proximity to the sphenoid wing and their large size. MRI studies have shown that the frontal area is the most common region of injury following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (Levin et al., 1987).[76]

Study on emotional intelligence and religiosity

A 2004 study by Ellen Paek examined the extent to which religious orientation/behavior and found significant positive correlations were found between level of religious commitment and an individual's perceived emotional intelligence.[77] See also: Atheism and emotional intelligence

The role of emotional intelligence in higher thinking

According to the prominent brain researcher Antonio Damasio and other brain researchers, emotions play a critical role in high-level cognition and allow individuals to make better decisions.[78]

Recent intelligence trends in secular Europe/Australia and the religious United States

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world.[79] In Sweden, phenotypic intelligence is now declining.[80]

See also: Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries

To a certain extent intelligence is heritable and the link between higher IQ individuals having fewer kids is known as dysgenic fertility.[81]

Michael Blume, a researcher at the University of Jena in Germany, wrote about the sub-replacement level of fertility among atheistic populations: "Most societies or communities that have espoused atheistic beliefs have not survived more than a century."[82] Blume also indicated concerning concerning his research on this matter: "What I found was the complete lack of a single case of a secular population, community or movement that would just manage to retain replacement level."[83] See also: Atheism and sexuality

Professor Eric Kaufmann's academic work and his book Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth? argue using a wealth of demographic data that due to the higher birth rates of religious conservatives (and the below replacement level of the irreligious) and religious immigration to the Western World, atheism/secularism will decline in the Western World as early as 2021 or by 2050.[84][85][86][87]

As noted above, in his paper, The Rise and Fall of the World's IQ, Thomas Hally wrote:

In many areas phenotypic intelligence has been increasing (the Flynn Effect) while genotypic intelligence is decreasing due to the negative association between intelligence and that which is known as ³dysgenic fertility´. Gains of as much as 7.5 IQ points in phenotypic intelligence are much greater than the 0.43 IQ points per generation in the world-wide genotypic IQ that had been estimated for the period 1950-2000. The situation in the industrially developed world appears to follow the lead of the United States and a handful of other developed nations in so far as the phenotypic IQ has been increasing at a greater rate as a result of environmental improvements.

As noted above, in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Great Britain and Australia phenotypic intelligence has stabilized and now is declining.[88]

As noted above, the Daily Mail reported in 2014, "Evidence suggests that the IQs of people in the UK, Denmark and Australia have declined in the last decade."[89]

In godless Denmark, phenotypic intelligence is now declining.[90]

In 2012, it was reported that Norway was the eighth most godless country on earth.[91]

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 46 - 85% of Swedes were agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[92] In 2012, it was reported to be the 4rth most godless place on earth.[93] Sweden also has the 3rd highest rate of belief in evolution as far as Western World nations.[94] See also: Sexual immorality and Sweden

Denmark has the highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[95] In addition, in 2005 Denmark was ranked the third most atheistic country in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 43 - 80% of Danes are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[96]

According to Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and an article on Belief.net, Britain (which was the fountainhead of Darwinism) has become one of the most godless places on earth.[97] In 2012, Great Britain was reported to be the sixth most godless country on earth.[98]

Post World War II, Australia has become a highly secularized country.[99]

Atheism, intelligence and dysfunctional individuals/families/communities

In atheistic Sweden, 81 percent of women said they had been harassed at some point after the age of 15 - compared to the EU average of 55 percent.[100] See: Irreligion and domestic violence

Children in dysfunctional homes/communities and/or homes/communities with financial problems often perform poorer on intelligence tests as result.[101][102]

As far as a comparison between atheistic/theistic homes/individuals, see:

For more information, including how economic/societal deterioration is lowering intelligence scores in some secular countries, please see: Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries

Atheism, alcoholism, binge drinking and intelligence

Atheists and atheistic cultures commonly have more frequent problems with alcoholism and binge drinking (see: Atheism and alcoholism).

Alcoholism causes cognitive impairment.[103]

A 2012 study suggests that a habit of binge drink risks serious brain damage including increasing memory loss later in adulthood.[104][105]

Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences

Atheists are often accused of lacking moral intelligence and social intelligence. The atheist PZ Myers declared, "...I don’t object to bestiality in a very limited set of specific conditions..."[106][107] See: Atheism and bestiality

See also: Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences

There are forms of intelligence that contribute to human performance that are more difficult to precisely measure than the types of intelligence commonly measured by standard IQ tests.

As noted above. Howard Gardner at Harvard University developed the theory of multiple intelligences which has identified various distinct intelligences: interpersonal, intrapersonal, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, musical–rhythmic, bodily–kinesthetic, and naturalistic.[108] Gardner later suggested that moral intelligence may merit being included in his multiple intelligence model.[109]

For information related to atheism and various forms of intelligence, please see Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences

Moral intelligence and atheism

See also: Atheism and moral intelligence

Howard Gardner suggested that moral intelligence may merit being included in his multiple intelligences model.[110] As far as moral intelligence, not possessing a religious basis for morality, atheists are fundamentally incapable of having a coherent system of morality. For example, atheists have been the biggest mass murderers in history (see: Atheism and mass murder). For more information please see: Atheism and morality and Atheism and hedonism

Also, atheists within the United States have developed a reputation of uncharitableness as they gave far less to charities, even if church donations are not counted (see: Atheism and uncharitableness).

King Solomon repeatedly indicates that fools are wicked in the book of Proverbs (Proverbs:13:9; 14:8,16-18). The psalmist King David wrote: "The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good." — Psalms 14:1 (KJV) See also: Atheism and moral depravity and Militant atheism and Atheist bullying

Social/interpersonal intelligence and atheism

See also: Atheism and social intelligence and Atheism and arrogance and Atheism and autism

Asian atheism and social intelligence

In comparison to Asian atheism (Asian cultures are known for stressing social harmony), Western atheists have lower social intelligence (see: Atheism and social intelligence).

Western atheism and social intelligence

Jacques Rousseau wrote in the Daily Maverick: "Elevatorgate..has resulted in three weeks of infighting in the secular community. Some might observe that we indulge in these squabbles fairly frequently."[111] See: Atheist factions

The atheist Neil Carter wrote:

Friends of mine have noted lately how biting and critical the atheist community can be, not only toward outsiders, but even toward its own members. Has there ever been a subculture more prone to eating its own than this one? I really don’t know.[112]
David Silverman is the president of the American Atheists organization.

Blair Scott served on the American Atheists board of directors. Mr. Scott formerly served as a State Director for the American Atheists organization in the state of Alabama. On December 1, 2012 he quit his post as a director of outreach for the American Atheist due to infighting within the American atheist movement.[113]

Mr. Blair wrote:

I have spent the last week mulling over what I want to do at this point in the movement. I’m tired of the in-fighting: at every level. I am especially tired of allowing myself to get sucked into it and engaging in the very behavior that is irritating..me.[114]

In addition, Western atheists have lower rates of marriage than Western theists (see: Atheism and marriage).

Atheists often have poor relationships with their parents (see: Atheism and poor relationships with parents).

For additional information, please see:

Atheism and social intelligence: Militant atheism

Joseph Stalin, the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953, patronised the League of Militant Atheists, whose chief aim, under the leadership of Yemelyan Yaroslavsky, was to propagate militant atheism and eradicate religion. See: Militant atheism

Militant atheism (Russian: воинствующий атеизм) is a term applied to atheism which is hostile towards religion. Militant atheists have a desire to propagate the doctrine, and differ from moderate atheists because they hold religion to be harmful.

Militant atheism was an integral part of the materialism of Marxism-Leninism, and significant in the French Revolution, atheist states such as the Soviet Union, and Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (See: Atheism and communism). The term militant atheism has also been applied to antireligious political thinkers.

According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[115]

It is estimated that in the past 100 years, governments under the banner of atheistic communism have caused the death of somewhere between 40,472,000 and 259,432,000 human lives.[116] Dr. R. J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, is the scholar who first coined the term democide (death by government). Dr. R. J. Rummel's mid estimate regarding the loss of life due to communism is that communism caused the death of approximately 110,286,000 people between 1917 and 1987.[117] See also: Atheism and mass murder

Atheism vs. theism and wars/violence

Studies on the correlation between atheism and high-functioning autism

Autism affects the amygdala, cerebellum, and multiple other parts of the brain.

See also: Atheism and autism

In 2011, the University of Boston published a study on the correlation between atheism and high-functioning/mild autism.[118]

On September 19, 2011, the Discover Magazine website had an article indicating that there were empirical results showing a positive correlation between atheism and high functioning autism and the article declared:

This is why the empirical results on the correlation between atheism and high functioning autism are important...

...some people were angry that I seemed to suggest that atheists were antisocial weirdos. Well, there is some data to back that up.[119]

On May 30, 2012, Matthew Hutson wrote at Psychology Today website that the findings of the study at Boston University entitled Religious Belief Systems of Persons with High Functioning Autism have been replicated by other studies.[120]

The notion that autism causes atheism has certainly not been proved and criticisms of press insensitivity towards the issue have been leveled.[121]

Vox Day has written about atheists being "socially autistic".[122][123][124]

Emotional/intrapersonal intelligence and atheism

Atheists have higher suicide rates than theists. See: Atheism and suicide

See also: Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence

Emotional/intrapersonal intelligence is important in terms of human performance in the intellectual realm. For example, the social scientists Andrea L. Duckworth and Martin Seligman found that higher degrees of self-discipline better predict higher academic grades than IQ scores do among adolescents.[125] See also: Atheism and academic performance

In terms of emotional/intrapersonal intelligence, atheists have higher suicide/depression rates than theists (see: Atheism and suicide and Atheism and depression and Atheism and alcoholism).

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[126][127] Furthermore, a 2012 Queen's University study published in Psychological Science found that religion replenishes self-control.[128][129] Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.[130][131] See also: Atheism and hedonism

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[132][133] There are studies indicating that lower self-esteem is associated with suicidality.[134][135]

Numerous studies report that athletes tend to be more religious than non-athletes.[136]

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence and atheism

See also: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism and Atheism and health and Atheism and dance and Atheism and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence involves intelligence related to body movement, performing actions and physical control. It involves strength in physical movement and fine motor control.[137] Social science data indicates that atheists are less involved in sports than theists and that religious beliefs tend to increase sports performance (see: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism).

Furthermore, there is scientific data indicating that fitness increases IQ.[138]

Musical–rhythmic intelligence/artistic intelligence and atheism

See also: Atheism and musical–rhythmic intelligence and artistic intelligence and Atheist art and Atheist music

Christians and other religious faiths historically are prolific in terms of producing musical/art works related to their faith and many great works have been produced over the centuries.

As mentioned above, despite atheism being around since at least ancient Greece, there has not been a strong tradition of creating musical and artistic works related to atheism (see: Atheist art and Atheist music).

Musical/artistic talent can be enhanced through practice and the atheist creed of "there is no God" is not an inspiring creed that produces a significant amount of music/art. For example, despite Wikipedia being founded by an atheist and an agnostic, there are no articles specifically devoted to the topics of atheist music or atheist art at Wikipedia, but Wikipedia does have articles devoted specifically to Christian art and Christian music.

See also: Argument from beauty

Naturalistic intelligence

evolutionary theory opponent
The creation scientist Jonathan Sarfati, who was a New Zealand chess master, is able to play chess against multiple players blindfolded and he remains undefeated in these types of chess matches.[139]

See also: Atheism and science and Christianity and science and Arguments against evolution and Intelligent design and Atheism and naturalistic intelligence

In the both the physical sciences and social sciences atheism has had a negative effect on science (see: Atheism and science).

Scientific revolution birthed in Christianized Europe

Atheists rarely point out that the scientific revolution was birthed in a Christianized Europe (see: Christianity and science).

Atheism and the suppression of science

See also: Atheism and the suppression of science and Suppression of alternatives to evolution

Given that atheists/evolutionists actively discriminate against creationist and religious conservatives in academia and other places, atheists pointing out a higher prevalence of atheists relative to their numbers belonging to high-profile scientific organizations or being awarded various distinctions is disingenuous (see: Suppression of alternatives to evolution and Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed).[140]

For more information, please see: Atheism and the suppression of science

Atheism and pseodoscientific ideologies and pagan ideologies

In addition, there is a significant segment of atheists who engage in the erroneous ideologies/worldviews of scientism, nature worship and neo-paganism so a certain degree of preoccupation/obsession with pseudoscience, naturalistic philosophy and scientific endeavors is not surprising within some members of the atheist community.[141] See also: Irreligion and superstition and Evolution as a secular origins myth and Evolution and Cases of Fraud, Hoaxes and Speculation

Scientific community and grasp of logic, statistics and history/philosophy of science

As far as atheists in the scientific community, Vox Day correctly points out that many atheist scientists (and scientists in general) have a poor grasp of logic, statistics, the history/philosophy of science and other matters which often causes them to reach erroneous conclusions and engage in pseudoscience.[142] Moreover, due to the poor ethics of many atheist/secular scientists, scientific fraud has become a significant problem within the scientific community.[143]

Reluctance of evolutionists to debate and past debate record

At the present time, there is a reluctance of many prominent evolutionists/atheists/agnostics to debate key points of their errant ideologies (see: Creation scientists tend to win the creation vs. evolution debates and Atheism and cowardice). For example, the agnostic Richard Dawkins has repeatedly refused to debate strong Christian debaters concerning the existence of God and he has repeatedly refused to debate creation scientists and intelligent design theorists (see: Instances of Richard Dawkins ducking debates). In addition, when atheists/agnostics do debate the issue of the existence of God, they typically do poorly (see: Atheism and debate).

For more information, please see: Atheism and the suppression of science

Collective verbal–linguistic intelligence and atheism

The Bible has been translated into 518 languages and 2,798 languages have at least some portion of the Bible.[144] Charles Darwin's book The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life has merely been translated into 35 languages.[145]

See also: Atheist community and verbal–linguistic intelligence

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics (see also: Causes of evolutionary belief).[146] Charles Darwin's evolutionary book The Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life has been translated into 35 languages.[147]

In terms of its geographic distribution, Christianity is a more global religion than most, if not all, religions (See also: Global Christianity).[148][149] The Bible has been translated into 518 languages and 2,798 languages have at least some portion of the Bible.[150] In addition, the Christian community is far more evangelistic than the atheist community and Christian missionaries are throughout the world.

Collectively speaking, the Christian community has a greater degree of linguistic and cultural intelligence than the atheist community. See also: Atheist population and Western atheism and race and Social Darwinism and Evolutionary racism

See also: Incidents concerning the website of the American Atheists

Militant atheism and intelligence

Research indicates that anger takes resources away from the executive decision making of the prefrontal cortex part of the brain.[151] The foolish nature of atheists and their irrational anger and bouts of rage towards God and/or Christians often causes militant atheists to behave irrationally (See: Atheism and hatred of God).[152]

The militant Soviet atheists who aggressively attempted their atheistic communist ideology around the world had their empire collapse due to their corrupt atheist leaders implementing many foolish policies. Furthermore, the historical data indicates that large sectors of the Soviet Union's populace failed to adopt atheism in significant numbers despite great efforts to try to make this occur.[153]

New Atheism, a recent form of militant atheism, has a reputation for shallow arguments. For example, atheist philosopher Dr. Michael Ruse declared concerning Richard Dawkins' book The God Delusion: "The God Delusion makes me embarrassed to be an atheist."[154]

Dr. William Lane Craig is one of Christianity's leading defenders and many individuals over the years have attempted to arrange a debate between Dr. Craig and Richard Dawkins. Richard Dawkins has offered various ruses on why he will not debate William Lane Craig, which Dr. Craig supporters have shown were inconsistent and merely a dodge to avoid debating one of Christianity's strongest advocates.[155][156]

On May 14, 2011, the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph published a news story entitled "Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God".[157] In The Daily Telegraph article Dr. Daniel Came, a member of the Faculty of Philosophy at Oxford University was quoted as writing to fellow atheist Richard Dawkins concerning his refusal to debate Dr. William Lane Craig, "The absence of a debate with the foremost apologist for Christian theism is a glaring omission on your CV and is of course apt to be interpreted as cowardice on your part."[158] In October 2011, Dr. Craig went to England and the Daily Telegraph declared that Dawkins is either a fool or a coward for his refusal to debate William Lane Craig plus declared that Dawkins is a "proud man" and a "coward" who puts on an "illiterate, angry schtick" for the public.[159]

Atheism, intelligence, logical fallacies and other matters

One the notions that is prevalent among the atheist community is that atheism is the result of higher intelligence (see: Causes of atheism). This notion is especially prevalent in the New Atheist community.[160]

Furthermore, arrogant atheists who assert that atheism is the result of intelligence often commit two logical fallacies. First, they commit the genetic fallacy (The genetic fallacy is a logical fallacy wherein an argument is based on the circumstances of something's origin or history when that origin or history has nothing to do with the present value of that something).[161] Second, given the mixed results of atheists vs. theists in terms of intelligence test scores and given that atheists often do poorly on measures of intelligence related to the multiple theories of intelligence, atheists often commit the fallacy of exclusion in this matter (see: Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences).[162]

A far as the depth of knowledge that the religious community possesses, a study found a positive correlation between a persons level of education and belief in God (see: Religion and education). Additionally, as alluded to above, in 2011, Vox Day pointed out that there are over eleven times the number of high intelligent theists as atheists given the larger size of the theist community.[163] In addition, atheists and secularists rarely point out that universities such as Harvard, Princeton, Oxford, Cambridge, and many others were founded by Christians (see also: Atheism and academia).[164][165]

Miron Zuckerman meta-study

Vox Day

A meta-study conducted by Miron Zuckerman, a psychologist at the University of Rochester, examined 63 studies that measured intelligence and religiosity which found that atheists scored higher on intelligence tests.[166]

Vox Day's criticisms of Zuckerman's study

Vox Day pointed out that:

1. Metastudies are often unreliable (researchers can arbitrarily pick which studies they include or exclude)

2. The atheist population is skewed as far as a predominance of caucasians (IQ tests are biased against racial minorities,[167][168] see also: Western atheism and race)

3. Given the relative size of the atheist population compared to the much larger theist population, there are still many more intelligent theists than atheists (as noted above there are over eleven times the number of high intelligent theists relative to the number of high intelligent atheists)[169]

Dr. William M. Briggs criticisms of Zuckerman's study

In an article entitled Do Atheists Really Have Higher IQs than Believers?, Dr. William M. Briggs offered a number of criticisms in Miron Zuckerman's study including:[170]

1. The authors of Zuckerman's study call "atheism 'non-religiosity', a category which is fuzzy and which probably includes some theists, of a sort."

2. He questioned whether it was reasonable to compare modern Europe to the developing countries of Africa.

3. "Religions were also hugely different (is it the same to believe in animism as Protestant Christianity?)."

4. The measures of religiosity differed at different locations.

5. The mechanism to measure IQ was different in different locations.

6. "The samples, particularly in developed countries, were college kids, but elsewhere more non-college and precollege people were used."

7. "Data of every flavor was observed, data that should not be mixed without an idea of how to combine the uncertainty inherent in each study and in how, say, kinds of IQ measurements map to other kinds of IQ measurements. In other words, they mixed data which should not be mixed, because nobody has any idea how to make these corrections."

8. In the scope of history, atheism is largely a recent development and there is an endless list of highly intelligent theists throughout history.

Randy Olson's criticism of Zuckerman's study

In his article entitled The myth of the smarter Atheist, Randy Olson wrote:

One of the few peer reviewed scientific articles I could find on the topic had the straightforward name, “Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations.” This article analyzes IQ and religiosity data from “137 countries that represent 95% of the world population” and claims to show that nations with more intelligent citizens tend to have more Atheists...

What we see is a fairly weak relationship between national religiosity and average national IQ. Once we get up to about 20% of the population being Atheist, the IQ of the population flatlines at around 100 from then on. Even worse, in the ~0% Atheist range, there’s a wide range of national IQs from 64 to 100+ — with a cluster of low-IQ nations that appear to be driving the “trend.”

If we focus on the lowest IQ nations in the above chart, we notice that several of them are poor nations in e.g. Africa. That led me (and others who have reviewed the topic) to wonder whether the wealth of a nation better predicts the average intelligence of its citizens. After all, the more wealthy the average citizen is, the more time they have to dedicate to intellectual pursuits...

Indeed, if we look at income per capita instead of religiosity, we already see a much better correlation with average IQ. The correlation between religiosity and IQ is too weak to suggest that religiosity predicts intelligence on the national level. Anyone who claims otherwise is grasping at straws...

The take-away message? To my knowledge, no amount of research has shown that Atheists are notably smarter than highly religious folks. It’s time we put this myth of the smarter Atheist to rest.[171]

Other flaws in Zuckerman's study

Socioeconomic factors:

As noted above, research in the United States indicates that the daily pressures associated with being in the low income bracket reduces IQ by 13 points.[172] Africa is a very religious region and many Africans live in abject poverty. The same applies to India.

Furthermore, poorer individuals are more religious and they often have lower access to quality education (attend low quality, public schools in the inner city) and health care plus face other factors which would negatively affect their intelligence score tests (nutrition, poor children are more likely to ingest lead paint which causes intellectual impairment, etc.)[173] [174][175]

Failed to take into account multiple intelligences theory:

In addition, the study only looked at analytic intelligence and did not look at other forms of intelligence such as creative intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, etc.[176] See: Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences.

Atheism, intelligence and the state of global atheism

An irony of the assertion that intelligence is a causal factor for atheism is that in terms of global market share, there has been a longstanding trend of global decline in terms of the percentage of people who are atheists in the world and militant atheists in the Western World have no plan in place to reverse or slow this trend (see: Global atheism and Global atheism statistics).[177] And this is a global trend that is expected to affect Western atheism due to an influx of religious immigrants and the higher rate birth rate of religious conservatives.[178]

Adam Lee: Atheist movement repeatedly making the same mistakes

One of the marks of intelligence and wisdom is the ability to learn from mistakes.

According to the atheist Adam Lee:

However, no movement is without its flaws, and the atheist community in particular has shown a lamentable tendency to make some of the same mistakes over and over. Too often, we atheists have failed to notice our own blind spots, needlessly chased away potential allies or otherwise blundered in ways that's kept our cause from being as influential as it could be....

The atheist movement's roots in mostly white, mostly male, mostly upper-class people show all too clearly in its tendency to parade the same faces over and over, on the boards of influential secular organizations, on the speaker lineups of major atheist conferences and in the news stories that get written about the movement. Too often, an all-white or all-male slate is seen as the unremarkable norm. [179]

For additional information, please see:

See also

Other articles:

External links

Notes

  1. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 WORLD RANKING OF COUNTRIES BY THEIR AVERAGE
  2. 3.0 3.1 Book Review: IQ and the Wealth of Nations, Nature
  3. 4.0 4.1 Controversial study of African IQ levels is 'deeply flawed', Science Daily, January 21, 2010
  4. Do Atheists Really Have Higher IQs than Believers?, Dr. William M. Briggs
  5. How Many Americans are Atheists? Fewer than You Might Think by Bradley Wright, January 26, 2012
  6. The Rise and Fall of the World's IQ by Thomas Hally
  7. Are we becoming more STUPID? IQ scores are decreasing - and some experts argue it's because humans have reached their intellectual peak, Daily Mail, 2014
  8. Mailvox: The distribution of atheist intelligence
  9. How Many Americans are Atheists? Fewer than You Might Think by Bradley Wright, January 26, 2012
  10. Multiple references:
  11. How Many Americans are Atheists? Fewer than You Might Think by Bradley Wright, January 26, 2012
  12. About the General Social Survey
  13. Multiple references:
  14. Mailvox: The distribution of atheist intelligence
  15. Always call their bluff
  16. Are babies born atheists? by Matt Slick
  17. Mailvox: The distribution of atheist intelligence
  18. The Atheism Gap By Stephen L. Carter, BloombergView, Mar 27, 2015 4:26 PM EDT
  19. Poverty Stresses The Brain So Much That It's Like Losing 13 IQ Points, Business Insider, 2013
  20. U.S poverty rates
  21. Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores
  22. Drop out rates
  23. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  24. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  25. Most atheists are not white & other non-fairy tales, Discover magazine
  26. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, May 23, 2013
  27. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  28. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  29. 32.0 32.1 [China's Christian Province had the highest IQ in China in 2005], Examining Atheism
  30. Are human beings becoming smarter, BBC, March 2, 2015
  31. 10 projections for the global population in 2050 By Rakesh Kochhar, Pew Research Forum, February 3, 2014
  32. Cultur de Europa
  33. Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383 (European Union: European Commission), p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-02, retrieved 14 August 2013 The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  34. "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
  35. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann
  36. Swiss Evangelicals Heat Up Creationism Debate, Christian Post, 2007
  37. Are we becoming more STUPID? IQ scores are decreasing - and some experts argue it's because humans have reached their intellectual peak, Daily Mail, 2014
  38. Stephanie Painter, Vivienne Ryan and Bethany Hiatt, (15 June 2010). "Australians losing the faith". Newspaper. West Australian Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 15 June 2010
  39. God's OK, it's just the religion bit we don't like
  40. 2011 Census QuickStats. Australian Bureau of Statistics (30 October 2012). Retrieved on 2013-02-25.
  41. Irreligion in Ausralia
  42. Are we becoming more STUPID? IQ scores are decreasing - and some experts argue it's because humans have reached their intellectual peak, Daily Mail, 2014
  43. Religion in Cuba
  44. "Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias" (PDF). 6 August 2008. A very detailed survey on belief and religious practice f life. (Spanish)
  45. Multiple Ingelligence
  46. Atheist post at Sam Harris' discussion board
  47. M.B. Mat'e, The History of Freethinking in Ancient Egypt (1956), no. 3.
  48. Wikipedia - Church architecture
  49. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China By Hugh Whelchel on September 24, 2012
  50. Received wisdom: Average IQ is falling in Britain and beyond, explains Philip Hunter by Philip Hunt, March 21, 2012, Published in April 2012 issue of Prospect Magazine
  51. IQ and the Wealth of Nations
  52. Food for thought – diet does boost your intelligence By Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent, The Telegraph, 2001
  53. Received wisdom: Average IQ is falling in Britain and beyond, explains Philip Hunter by Philip Hunt, March 21, 2012, Published in April 2012 issue of Prospect Magazine
  54. IQ and the Wealth of Nations
  55. Food for thought – diet does boost your intelligence By Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent, The Telegraph, 2001
  56. Global Christianity – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population, Pew Forum, December 10, 2011
  57. These Were Christian Nations
  58. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China By Hugh Whelchel on September 24, 2012
  59. Are human beings becoming smarter, BBC, March 2, 2015
  60. Raven, John (2000). The Raven's Progressive Matrices: Change and Stability over Culture and Time. Cognitive Psychology 41, 1–48 (2000) doi:10.1006/cogp.1999.0735. John Raven, 30 Great King Street, Edinburgh EH3 6QH, Scotland. http://eyeonsociety.co.uk/resources/RPMChangeAndStability.pdf
  61. Global Christianity – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population, Pew Forum, December 10, 2011
  62. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China By Hugh Whelchel on September 24, 2012
  63. Atheists embarrassed: study proves atheism uses less brain function
  64. Atheists embarrassed: study proves atheism uses less brain function
  65. [1]
  66. [2]
  67. [3]
  68. Ask the Brains, Scientific American, Dec 23, 2011
  69. Frontal lobes, The Centre for Neuro Skills
  70. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Paek, Ellen (2006). "Religiosity and perceived emotional intelligence among Christians". Personality and Individual Differences (International Society for the Study of Individual Differences) 41 (3): 479–490
  71. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  72. The Rise and Fall of the World's IQ by Thomas Hally
  73. How the world's IQ is in decline July 31, 2010
  74. Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful
  75. Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful
  76. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London
  77. Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?
  78. Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series
  79. Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  80. The Rise and Fall of the World's IQ by Thomas Hally
  81. Are we becoming more STUPID? IQ scores are decreasing - and some experts argue it's because humans have reached their intellectual peak, Daily Mail, 2014
  82. The Rise and Fall of the World's IQ by Thomas Hally
  83. What’s the Most Godless Place on Earth? by Hemant Mehta, May 14, 2012
  84. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  85. What’s the Most Godless Place on Earth? by Hemant Mehta, May 14, 2012
  86. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  87. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  88. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  89. HAS GODLESSNESS TRULY ‘DOOMED’ GREAT BRITAIN? by Hallowell”Billy Hallowell
  90. What’s the Most Godless Place on Earth? by Hemant Mehta, May 14, 2012
  91. Buttrose, Larry. Buttrose, Larry. Sport, grog and godliness, The Australian. Retrieved on 11 September 2009
  92. Sweden stands out in domestic violence study Published: 05 Mar 2014 08:3
  93. Studies Link Childhood Abuse to Adult Social Dysfunction : Research: Neglect is tied to lower IQs and misuse of drugs, alcohol. Results also dispel notions related to temperament and prostitution. February 17, 1991|THOMAS H. MAUGH II | TIMES SCIENCE WRITER
  94. Received wisdom: Average IQ is falling in Britain and beyond, explains Philip Hunter by Philip Hunt, March 21, 2012, Published in April 2012 issue of Prospect Magazine
  95. Cognitive impairment in alcoholism by Ilia Theotoka, Annals of General Psychiatry
  96. http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/binge/a/aa000818a.htm
  97. http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20121022/koob.html
  98. Atheist Achilles Heels: Objective Morality and Sacred Life
  99. The “objective morality” gotcha
  100. Multiple Ingelligence
  101. Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education
  102. Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education
  103. Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words can rip my soul
  104. It’s Past Time for Atheism to Grow Up by Neil Carter
  105. An Open Letter from Blair Scott
  106. An Open Letter from Blair Scott
  107. Investigating atheism: Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on July 17, 2014. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
  108. Multiple references:
  109. Rummel, R. J. (November 1993). "How many did communist regimes murder?" University of Hawaii website; Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  110. What atheism and autism may have in common By Razib Khan, September 19, 2011
  111. [Does Autism Lead to Atheism?], Psychology Today, May 30, 2012 by Matthew Hutson]
  112. Likening of autistic kids to atheists causes fury, ISTANBUL - Hürriyet Daily News, April/22/2013
  113. The socially autistic atheist by Vox Day, August 02, 2007
  114. A lesson in atheist social autism by Vox Day, August 13, 2014
  115. Atheists and Daddy issues by Vox Day, August 23, 2012
  116. Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents, Andrea L. Duckworth and Martin Seligman, Positive Psychology Center, University of Pennsylvania
  117. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  118. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  119. Religion Replenishes Self-Control, Psychological Science, June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University
  120. Study finds religion helps us gain self-control
  121. Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C., Health Psychol. 2000 May;19(3):211-22.
  122. The role of spirituality in health care, roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 October; 14(4): 352–357.
  123. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/rejection-of-christianity-and-self.html
  124. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/atheists-and-self-esteem-part-2.html
  125. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21190929
  126. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20602903
  127. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  128. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  129. Link Between Physical Fitness and IQ
  130. Jonathon Sarfati interview
  131. Atheism as nature worship or neo-paganism
  132. http://creation.com/science-fraud-epidemic Scientific fraud epidemic
  133. Bible translations
  134. Darwin in translation
  135. Darwin in translation
  136. Many religions heavily concentrated in one or two countries
  137. Christianity in its global context
  138. Bible translations
  139. Where did my IQ points go?
  140. Irrational Atheists
  141. Forced Secularization in Soviet Russia: Why an Atheistic Monopoly Failed
  142. http://www.alternet.org/media/47052?page=entire
  143. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlnVe934u38&feature=related
  144. William Lane Craig is avoided by Richard Dawkins
  145. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/8511931/Richard-Dawkins-accused-of-cowardice-for-refusing-to-debate-existence-of-God.html
  146. Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God, The Daily Telegraph, May 14, 2011
  147. Richard Dawkins is either a fool or a coward for refusing to debate William Lane Craig - October 21, 2011 - The Daily Telegraph
  148. The myth of atheism and higher education
  149. Fallacy Files: Genetic Fallacy
  150. *Who is smarter? Believers or non-believers?
  151. MailVox: Superior atheist intelligence
  152. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v2/n3/harvard-yale-princeton-oxford-once-christian
  153. http://www.tysknews.com/Depts/Educate/history_part3.htm
  154. Are atheists smarter than believers? Not exactly
  155. Race and testing
  156. The Black-White Test Score Gap
  157. MailVox: Superior atheist intelligence
  158. Do Atheists Really Have Higher IQs than Believers?, Dr. William M. Briggs
  159. The myth of the smarter Atheist by Randy Olson, Posted on August 24, 2014
  160. Poverty Stresses The Brain So Much That It's Like Losing 13 IQ Points, Business Insider, 2013
  161. Does atheism thrive on economic prosperity? Does religion prosper when people are desperate and ignorant?
  162. Lead paint poisoning
  163. Lead poisoning and intellectual development
  164. [Atheists smarter than religious believers - study], RT News, August 14, 2013
  165. Evolutionists, atheists and agnostics: Where is your master plan to reverse your decline?
  166. Early paper - Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London
  167. 4 Things the Atheist Movement Has Done Badly (and How to Do Them Better), Alternet