Atheism and violence

From Conservapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Joseph Stalin's atheistic regime killed tens of millions of people.

Atheists, particularly the secular left, have used violence and oppression to promote atheism.

Atheism was an integral part of communist ideology (see: Atheism and communism). According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[1] Under atheistic communism tens of millions of people were killed and many people were tortured (see: Atheism and mass murder and Atheistic communism and torture).

The irreligious also have higher rates of domestic violence (see: Irreligion and domestic violence).

In addition, there is the issue of excess alcohol usage and violence and irreligious societies have significant problems with alcoholism (see: Atheism and alcoholism).[2]

Furthermore, there the historical incident of the mass rape during the occupation of Germany committed by the Soviet army.

Additionally, there are the issues of atheism and forced labor and atheism and slavery.

Atheistic communism and mass murder/torture

Atheism and mass murder

See also: Atheism and Mass Murder and Atheist atrocities

It is estimated that in the past 100 years, governments under the banner of atheistic communism have caused the death of somewhere between 40,472,000 and 259,432,000 human lives.[3] Dr. R. J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, is the scholar who first coined the term democide (death by government). Dr. R. J. Rummel's mid estimate regarding the loss of life due to communism is that communism caused the death of approximately 110,286,000 people between 1917 and 1987.[4]

Theodore Beale notes concerning atheism and mass murder:

Apparently it was just an amazing coincidence that every Communist of historical note publicly declared his atheism … .there have been twenty-eight countries in world history that can be confirmed to have been ruled by regimes with avowed atheists at the helm … These twenty-eight historical regimes have been ruled by eighty-nine atheists, of whom more than half have engaged in democidal acts of the sort committed by Stalin and Mao …

The total body count for the ninety years between 1917 and 2007 is approximately 148 million dead at the bloody hands of fifty-two atheists, three times more than all the human beings killed by war, civil war, and individual crime in the entire twentieth century combined.

The historical record of collective atheism is thus 182,716 times worse on an annual basis than Christianity’s worst and most infamous misdeed, the Spanish Inquisition. It is not only Stalin and Mao who were so murderously inclined, they were merely the worst of the whole Hell-bound lot. For every Pol Pot whose infamous name is still spoken with horror today, there was a Mengistu, a Bierut, and a Choibalsan, godless men whose names are now forgotten everywhere but in the lands they once ruled with a red hand.

Is a 58 percent chance that an atheist leader will murder a noticeable percentage of the population over which he rules sufficient evidence that atheism does, in fact, provide a systematic influence to do bad things? If that is not deemed to be conclusive, how about the fact that the average atheist crime against humanity is 18.3 million percent worse than the very worst depredation committed by Christians, even though atheists have had less than one-twentieth the number of opportunities with which to commit them. If one considers the statistically significant size of the historical atheist set and contrasts it with the fact that not one in a thousand religious leaders have committed similarly large-scale atrocities, it is impossible to conclude otherwise, even if we do not yet understand exactly why this should be the case. Once might be an accident, even twice could be coincidence, but fifty-two incidents in ninety years reeks of causation![5]

Atheistic communism and torture

See also: Atheistic communism and torture

The website Victimsofcommunism.org declares concerning atheistic communism and the use of torture:

Significantly, communists did not merely try to block or halt religious faith but to reverse it. This was particularly true for Romania, even before the Nicolai Ceausescu era. This meant not just forbidding religious practice and jailing ministers and believers but employing torture to force them to renounce their faith. It was not enough to contain, silence, even punish believers in prison; it was decided they must be tortured in truly unimaginably degrading ways to attempt to undo religious faith.[6]

For more information, please see: Atheistic communism and torture

Rape of Nanking

See also: Nanking massacre

Japan is one of the most atheistic countries in the world,[7]

Japan is one of the most atheistic countries in the world,[7]

In the Nanking massacre (or Rape of Nanking) the Japanese military murdered 100,000 to 300,000 Chinese after conquering the city of Nanjing (then called Nanking in English, just as Beijing was called Peking.)

It was a war crime committed by the Japanese military during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese army committed atrocities against the capital of Nationalist China, famously murder and rape. The death toll is disputed, but most estimates give a total of 100,000 to 300,000 soldiers and civilians killed.[8][9]

In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city. The six weeks of carnage would become known as the Rape of Nanking and represented the single worst atrocity during the World War II era in either the European or Pacific theaters of war.[10]
In addition, the notorious Comfort Women system was introduced which forced young Chinese women to become slave-prostitutes, existing solely for the sexual pleasure of Japanese soldiers.[10]

French Revolution and violence

The Reign of Terror of the French Revolution established a state which was anti-Roman Catholicism/Christian in nature [11] (anti-clerical deism and anti-religious atheism and played a significant role in the French Revolution[12]), with the official ideology being the Cult of Reason; during this time thousands of believers were suppressed and executed by the guillotine.[13]

Atheism, neoconservatism and aggressive advocacy of violence

The atheist Adam Lee wrote:

...it's an unfortunate quirk of history that some prominent atheists have been aggressive advocates of neoconservative foreign policy, which calls for the subjugation of Muslim countries through bombing and invasion. Although religious terrorism is a real threat, too many atheists can't conceive of any way to respond to it except with more violence.

A case in point is the late Christopher Hitchens, who was a brilliant and fearless writer but will forever be tainted by George W. Bush's invasion of Iraq, which he enthusiastically supported on many occasions. Another example is Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a Somali refugee who deconverted from Islam and rose to become a member of the Dutch parliament. While Hirsi Ali's life story is undeniably inspiring, and she's endured great personal trauma and danger for her apostasy, she's adopted xenophobic ideas about the Western world being at war with Islam. Last but not least, there's Sam Harris, who's made many hair-raising comments about Islam such as a call for airport security screeners to profile anyone who "looks like" they "could conceivably be Muslim."

All these thinkers bought into the destructive fantasy that endless war and brutality, or the all-seeing eye of a surveillance state, are the ways to stop terrorism and other dangerous outgrowths of fundamentalism. There may be cases where military force is the only option, in self-defense or to prevent genocide, but this can only be a last resort.[14]

Christopher Hitchens became an activist against Islam when Ayatullah Kohmeini declared a fatwa against his personal friend Salman Rushdie. The event has led him to become very vocal in his support of the war in Iraq and heavily critical of Muslim society and ethics.

Irreligion and domestic violence

Research suggests that irreligiousity is a causal factor for domestic violence.[15]

See also: Irreligion and domestic violence and Atheism and love and Atheism and loneliness

The abstract for the 2007 article in the journal Violence Against Women entitled Race/Ethnicity, Religious Involvement, and Domestic Violence indicated:

The authors explored the relationship between religious involvement and intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. They found that: (a) religious involvement is correlated with reduced levels of domestic violence; (b) levels of domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; (c) the effects of religious involvement on domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; and (d) religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence.[15]

A higher rate of domestic violence exists among cohabiting couples as compared with married couples[16] Atheists have lower marriage rates than theists (see: Atheism and marriage and Atheist marriages).

A September 9, 2012 article at Atlantic Wire wrote about the noted atheist John Lennon:

But people have mostly forgotten that Lennon was also physically abusive towards women. "I used to be cruel to my woman," he said, citing the lyrics to "Getting Better" in a Playboy interview near the end of his life. "Physically—any woman. I was a hitter. I couldn't express myself and I hit. I fought men and I hit women." In his biography The Lives of John Lennon, Albert Goldman also maintains that Lennon was guilty of spousal abuse.[17]

For more information, please see: Irreligion and domestic violence

Secular Europe and domestic violence

See also: Secular Europe and domestic violence and Atheistic Sweden and rape

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world.[18] In Sweden, 81 percent of women said they had been harassed at some point after the age of 15 - compared to the EU average of 55 percent.[19]

In March 2014, the Swedish news website The Local published an article entitled Sweden stands out in domestic violence study which declared:

A new EU review of violence against women has revealed that one in three European women has been assaulted, and one in twenty has been raped, with the Scandinavian countries at the top of the league tables.

In the Scandinavian countries, in contrast, around half of the women reported physical or sexual violence, which researchers at the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights said could have several explanations...

In Sweden, 81 percent of women said they had been harassed at some point after the age of 15 - compared to the EU average of 55 percent. After Sweden, which had the highest rate, Denmark, France, the Netherland and Finland all saw rates above 70 percent. The EU member state with the lowest rate - 24 percent - was Bulgaria.[19]

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 46 - 85% of Swedes were agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[18] Sweden also has the 3rd highest rate of belief in evolution as far as Western World nations.[20]

See also: Atheistic Sweden and rape and Sexual immorality and Sweden

For more information, please see: Irreligion and domestic violence

Irreligion, alcoholism and domestic abuse

See also: Atheist Americans, gender and alcoholism

According to the World Health Organization, "Evidence suggests that alcohol use increases the occurrence and severity of domestic violence".[21]

A 2010 Scientific American column article indicates concerning domestic violence that "Women suffer close to two thirds of the injuries... In addition, women and men differ in the severity of their actions; women are more likely to scratch or slap their partners, men more commonly punch or choke their partners."[22] [[File:Vodka.jpg|thumbnail|200px|right|Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[23] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[24]] Atheists and atheistic societies often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC):

Men are more likely than women to drink excessively. Excessive drinking is associated with significant increases in short-term risks to health and safety, and the risk increases as the amount of drinking increases. Men are also more likely than women to take other risks (e.g., drive fast or without a safety belt), when combined with excessive drinking, further increasing their risk of injury or death.

Approximately 63% of adult men reported drinking alcohol in the last 30 days. Men (24%) were two times more likely to binge drink than women during the same time period.

Men average about 12.5 binge drinking episodes per person per year, while women average about 2.7 binge drinking episodes per year.

Most people who binge drink are not alcoholics or alcohol dependent.

It is estimated that about 17% of men and about 8% of women will meet criteria for alcohol dependence at some point in their lives.[25]

Atheism, alcoholism and violence

See also: Atheism and alcoholism

According to the National Institute of Health, "Scientists and nonscientists alike have long recognized a two-way association between alcohol consumption and violent or aggressive behavior."[2]

[[File:04656 market in Sanok.JPG|thumbnail|200px|left|Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[26] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[27]]] At least 100 studies suggests religion has a positive effect on preventing alcohol-related problems, researchers Christopher Ellison, Jennifer Barrett and Benjamin Moulton noted in an article in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion on “Gender, Marital Status, and Alcohol Behavior: The Neglected Role of Religion.”[28]

The Barna Group found that atheists and agnostics in America were more likely, than theists in America, to look upon the following behaviors as morally acceptable: excessive drinking; illegal drug use; sexual relationships outside of marriage; abortion; cohabitating with someone of opposite sex outside of marriage; obscene language; gambling; pornography and obscene sexual behavior; and engaging in homosexuality/bisexuality.[29]

Atheism and alcoholism

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[30]

See also: Atheism and alcoholism

At least 100 studies suggests religion has a positive effect on preventing alcohol-related problems, researchers Christopher Ellison, Jennifer Barrett and Benjamin Moulton noted in an article in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion on “Gender, Marital Status, and Alcohol Behavior: The Neglected Role of Religion.”[28]

Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).

Secular countries/regions and alcoholism

Secular Europe:

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[30]


Australia:

An Australian National Council on Drugs (ANCD) report indicated that 20% of Australians drink at levels putting them at risk of lifetime harm.[31]

For more information, please see: Godless Australia and alcoholism


[[File:Vodka bottle.jpg|thumbnail|200px|right|Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[32] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[33]]

Asian countries:


History of communism:

Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[32] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[33]

Atheism, alcoholism and anger

Atheism, alcoholism and anger

Irreligion, alcoholism and various generations in the United States


Recent generations in the United States:

American Atheism, gender, race and alcoholism

Atheism and self-violence: Atheism and suicide

See also: Atheism and suicide

[[Image:Desperation_man.jpg‎ |thumb|200px|right|Atheists have a higher suicide rate than theists.[34] ]] Suicide is a form of self-violence.

Concerning atheism and suicide, although there are recent studies relating to atheism being a causal factor for suicide in some individuals, an early proponent of atheism being a causal factor for suicide in some individuals was the Reverend Dr. Robert Stuart MacArthur.[35][36][37]

In 1894, the NY Times declared regarding atheism and suicide:

Dr. Martin urged that a great cause of suicide was atheism. It was, he said, a remarkable fact that where atheism prevailed most, there suicides were most numerous. In Paris, a recent census showed one suicide to every 2,700 of the population.[38]

The same NY Times article quotes the Reverend Dr. MacArthur describing suicide in the following manner:

It is mean and not manly; it is dastardly and not daring. A man who involves his innocent wife and children in financial disaster and disgrace and takes his life and leaves them to bear the burden he was unwilling to bear, is a coward.[37]
The Rev. Dr. Robert Stuart MacArthur was an early proponent of atheism being a causal factor for suicide.[35][37][39]

The website Adherents.com reported the following in respect to atheism and suicide:

Pitzer College sociologist Phil Zuckerman compiled country-by-country survey, polling and census numbers relating to atheism, agnosticism, disbelief in God and people who state they are non-religious or have no religious preference. These data were published in the chapter titled "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns" in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005). In examining various indicators of societal health, Zuckerman concludes about suicide:

"Concerning suicide rates, this is the one indicator of societal health in which religious nations fare much better than secular nations. According to the 2003 World Health Organization's report on international male suicides rates (which compared 100 countries), of the top ten nations with the highest male suicide rates, all but one (Sri Lanka) are strongly irreligious nations with high levels of atheism. It is interesting to note, however, that of the top remaining nine nations leading the world in male suicide rates, all are former Soviet/Communist nations, such as Belarus, Ukraine, and Latvia. Of the bottom ten nations with the lowest male suicide rates, all are highly religious nations with statistically insignificant levels of organic atheism."[35]

Mass rape during the occupation of Germany by the Soviet army

When told that Red Army soldiers sexually assaulted German refugees, the atheist Joseph Stalin declared: "We lecture our soldiers too much; let them have their initiative."[40]

See also: Mass rape of German women by the Soviet army and Atheism and communism and Soviet atheism

The Soviet Union practiced state atheism and militant atheism. According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[1]

The journalist Peter Hitchens is the ex-atheist brother of atheist Christopher Hitchens and he covered the Soviet Union during its latter years before it collapsed. According to Peter Hitchens, an atheistic society degraded the morals of the Russian people during the Soviet period (see: Soviet Union and morality).[41]

Mass rape and the Soviet Union's army in Germany

As Allied troops entered and occupied Germany during the latter part of World War II, mass rapes occurred in connection with combat operations and during the occupation which followed. Historians in the Western World generally conclude that the majority of the rapes were committed by Soviet servicemen.

The majority of the rapes happened in the Soviet occupation zone. Estimates of the number of German women sexually assaulted by Soviet soldiers have ranged up to 2 million.[42][43][44][45][46] The historian William Hitchcock declared that in many cases women were the victims of repeated rapes, some women experienced as many as 60 to 70 rapes.[47]

After the atheist leader of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin received a complaint from Yugoslav politician Milovan Djilas about rapes in Yugoslavia, Stalin reportedly said that he should "understand it if a soldier who has crossed thousands of kilometres through blood and fire and death has fun with a woman or takes some trifle."[48] Also, when told that Red Army soldiers sexually assaulted German refugees, Stalin reportedly declared: "We lecture our soldiers too much; let them have their initiative."[40]

Only a handful of Soviet soldiers were ever court martialed for raping German women during the war.[49]

Atheism and forced labor/slavery

Atheism and sadism

See also: Atheism and sadism

The perverse and cruel atheist Marquis de Sade in prison, 18th century line engraving.

The atheist Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) was an infamous French aristocrat and author of heavily philosophical pornography, as well as more traditional essays on philosophy.[50] Sadism, a paraphilia in which pleasure is derived from inflicting pain or seeing pain being inflicted on others, is named after him. The debauched lifestyle of the Marquis de Sade caused him to have periods of imprisonment.[51]

His books featured murder, torture, blasphemy and grotesque, violent, and ritualistic sex. His more major works remain banned in many countries to the present day, even though some of them have been highly influential; Juliet, a book released early in his career, has been imitated right up until the present, most recently by radical feminist Andrea Dworkin.

See also

External links

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Investigating atheism: Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on July 17, 2014. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
  2. 2.0 2.1 Alcohol Alert, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No. 38 October 1997, National Institute of Health website
  3. Multiple references:
  4. Rummel, R. J. (November 1993). "How many did communist regimes murder?" University of Hawaii website; Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
  5. Ammi, Ken (June 11, 2009). "Atheism [quoting Vox Day]". Creation Ministries International. Retrieved on July 19, 2014.
  6. The War on religion
  7. 7.0 7.1 *Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  8. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nanking Massacre
  9. Basic Facts on the Nanjing Massacre and the Tokyo War Crimes Trial
  10. 10.0 10.1 The History Place - Genocide in the 20th Century
  11. Multiple references:
  12. Multiple references:
    • Hunt, Lynn and Censer, Jack (2001). "War, Terror and Resistence", ch. 7, p. 3. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution website. George Mason University website/Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media website.
    • O'Leary, Margaret R. (June 1, 2012). Forging Freedom: The Life of Cerf Berr of M Delsheim (iUniverse), pp. 1-2.
  13. Multiple references:
    James Adair (2007). Christianity: The eBook. JBE Online Books, 461. Retrieved on July 18, 2014. “Although the Civil Constitution called for religious liberty, which was extended to Jews as well as Christians, many revolutionaries pushed for the establishment of a new state religion, either the Cult of Reason (atheists) or the Cult of the Supreme Being (Deists). Changes to the calendar eliminated references to Christian holidays, and even the ancient seven-day week, and a list of officially recognized saints included such famous thinkers such as Socrates, Jesus, Marcus Aurelius, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A period of political persecution, often with religious overtones, broke out, known as the Reign of Terror. Thousands of people were executed by the guillotine, including many of the original leaders of the French Revolution.” 
    William Belsham (1801). Memoirs of the Reign of George III. to the Session of Parliament ending A.D. 1793, Volume 5. G.G. & J. Robinson, 105–6. Retrieved on July 18, 2014. “In allusion to the monstrous transactions of this portentous period, it has been eloquently and energetically observed, 'that the reign of atheism in France was avowed the reign of terror. In the full madness of their career, in the highest climax of their horrors, they shut up the temples of God, abolished His worship, and proclaimed death to be an eternal sleep:—in the very centre of Christendom, Revelation underwent a total eclipse, while atheism, performing on a darkened theatre its strange and fearful tragedy, confounded the first elements of society, blended every age, rank, and sex, indiscriminate proscription and massacre, and convulsed all Europe to its centre, that the imperishable memorial of these events might teach the last generations of mankind to consider religion as the pillar of society, the parent of social order, and the safe-guard of nations.'
    "It is wonderful that, amid the horrors of this dismal period, while 'the death dance of democratic revolution' was still in rapid movement, among the tears of affliction, and the cries of despair, 'the masque, the song, the theatric scene, the buffoon laughter, went on as regularly as in the gay hour of festive peace.'”
     
    William Kilpatrick (2012). Christianity, Islam, and Atheism: The Struggle for the Soul of the West. Ignatius Press, 57. Retrieved on July 18, 2014. “Actually, it's helpful to think in terms of two Enlightenments: the Enlightenment that cut itself off from God. The former led to the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, the abolition of slavery, and the civil rights movement. The latter led to the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror, the suppression of church by state, and the godless philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche and their offspring—National Socialism and communism. More recently the abandonment of God has led to the regime of cultural relativism that regards rights as arbitrary constructions.
    "It's this second Enlightenment tradition that Cardinal Ratzinger referred to when he wrote, 'The radical detachment of the Enlightenment philosophy from its roots ultimately leads it to dispense with man.' Actually this transition happened not 'ultimately' but almost immediately. The first instance occurred when Enlightenment worship of abstract 'reason' and 'liberty' degenerated quickly into the mass murders committed during the antireligious Reign of Terror in France. 'Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name', said Madam Rolande as she faced the statue of Liberty in the Place de la Revolution movements before her death at the guillotine. She was one of the early victims of a succession of secular systems based on rootless notions of 'liberty', 'equality', and 'reason'.
    "As many historians have pointed out, the atheist regimes of modern times are guilty of far more crimes than any committed in the name of religion. Communist governments alone were guilty of more than one hundred million murders, most of them committed against their own people.”
     
  14. 4 Things the Atheist Movement Has Done Badly (and How to Do Them Better) by Adam Lee, Alternet
  15. 15.0 15.1 Ellison, Christopher L. et al. (November 2007). "Race/Ethnicity, Religious Involvement, and Domestic Violence". Violence Against Women, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1094-1112, doi:10.1177/1077801207308259. Retrieved from Sage Journals archive.
  16. Kenney, C. T. and McLanahan, S. S. (February 2006). [abstract of] "Why are cohabiting relationships more violent than marriages?" Demography, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 127-40. Abstract retrieved from U. S. National Institute of Health/National Library of Medicine/National Center for Biotechnology Information/PubMed.
  17. Wagner, David (September 19, 2012). "John Lennon and Chris Brown have something in common". The Wire website.
  18. 18.0 18.1 "The largest atheist/agnostic populations: Top 50 countries with highest proportion of atheists / agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)" (2005). Adherents.com/Largest religious communities.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Törnkvist, Ann (March 5, 2014, 8:34). "Sweden stands out in domestic violence study". The Local.
  20. Owen, James (August 10, 2006). "Evolution less accepted in U.S. than other Western countries, study finds [photo and caption]". National Geographic News.
  21. "World Health Organization Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Fact Sheet" (2005 or 2006). www.Who.int/Violence and Injury Prevention/Violence/Fact Sheets.
  22. Arkowitz, Hal and Lilienfeld, Scott O. (May–June 2010). "Are men the more belligerent sex? Men are more dangerous, but women can be just as aggressive". Mind. Retrieved from Scientific American website.
  23. Pomerlau, Joceline, et. al. (May–June 2008). "Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: A cross-sectional study of eight countries". Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 351-9. Retrieved from PubMed.gov
  24. Anderson, Sandra C. and Hibbs, Valerie K. (October 1992). "Alcoholism in the Soviet Union" [first page]. International Social Work, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 441-53 [fee or registration required for full article]. First page retrieved from Sage journals/International Social Work.
  25. "Excessive alcohol use and risks to men's health" (November 19, 2014). U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website/Alcohol and Public Health/Fact Sheets
  26. Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: a cross-sectional study of eight countries
  27. Alcoholism in the Soviet Union
  28. 28.0 28.1 The Doubled-Edged Sword of Religion and Alcoholism
  29. Practical Outcomes Replace Biblical Principles As the Moral Standard
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Data and statistics" (September 2014 or bef.). Health topics/Disease prevention/Alcohol use. Retrieved from World Health Organization (WHO)/Regional office for Europe on May 23, 2015.
  31. Mower, Jane (November 19, 2013). "One in eight deaths of young Australians attributable to alcohol: National Council on Drugs report". Australian Broadcasting Corporation website/News. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Pomerlau, Joceline, et. al. (May–June 2008). "Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: A cross-sectional study of eight countries". Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 351-9. Retrieved from PubMed.gov on May 23, 2015.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Anderson, Sandra C. and Hibbs, Valerie K. (October 1992). "Alcoholism in the Soviet Union" [first page]. International Social Work, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 441-53 [fee or registration required for full article]. First page retrieved from Sage journals/International Social Work on May 23, 2015.
  34. Adherents.com - suicide rates
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 http://www.adherents.com/misc/religion_suicide.html
  36. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/161/12/2303
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 NY Times, September 17, 1894, ATHEISM A CAUSE OF SUICIDE.; Dr. MacArthur Preaches on the Sin and Cowardice of Self-Destruction
  38. NY Times, September 17, 1894, Atheism a Cause of Suicide.; Dr. MacArthur Preaches on the Sin and Cowardice of Self-Destruction
  39. Religious Affiliation and Suicide Attempt, American Journal of Psychiatry
  40. 40.0 40.1 Roberts, Andrew. "Stalin's army of rapists: The brutal war crime that Russia and Germany tried to ignore", Daily Mail, 24 October 2008. 
  41. Britain needs God
  42. Heineman, Elizabeth (1996). "The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany's "Crisis Years" and West German National Identity". American Historical Review 101 (2): 354–395. 
  43. Kuwert, P.; Freyberger, H. (2007). "The unspoken secret: Sexual violence in World War II". International Psychogeriatrics 19 (4): 782–784. doi:10.1017/S1041610207005376. 
  44. BBC - History - World Wars: The Battle for Berlin in World War Two. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 10 December 2014.
  45. Hanna Schissler The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany, 1949–1968 [1]
  46. Silence Broken On Red Army Rapes In Germany. NPR.org (17 July 2009). Retrieved on 10 December 2014.
  47. Hitchcock, William I. (2004). The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945 to the Present. Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-385-49799-2. 
  48. Anne Applebaum, Iron Curtain, The Crushing of Eastern Europe, p.32
  49. German women raped during WWII by the Soviets - Video
  50. http://www.trivia-library.com/a/biography-of-famous-atheist-marquis-de-sade.htm
  51. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A676190