Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom, just war, the arts, industry, justice and skill. She was the favorite child of Zeus, and, according to Greek mythology, sprang out of Zeus's forehead shortly after he ate her mother, Metis.
Athena was the patron goddess of Athens. She claimed the city after gifting it olives and olive oil in a competition with Poseidon for the city. Poseidon offered horses, but he was no match for the gifts of Athena.
She is often confused with Nike, the goddess of victory. Though war and victory are closely related, Athena and Nike are two separate goddesses. Part of the confusion may stem from the pair being the best of friends.
The Romans worshiped Athena under the name Minerva.