Behavioral therapy, or "behavior modification therapy," is a non-medication approach to replacing undesired conduct with more desirable activities. This psychotherapy is contrasted with "cognitive therapy," which addresses the emotions and thoughts underlying the misbehavior. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy" combines both approaches.
Behavioral therapy is used for treating autism, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), depression, addictions, obesity, chronic fatigue, anxiety and insomnia. Treatments include environment modification, positive reinforcement, assertiveness or relaxation training, social skills training and desensitization.
Some are critical of behavioral treatment to the extent it treats symptoms without addressing the underlying causes
Two controversial types of behavioral therapy are "paradoxical intention techniques," which allows or encourages the patient to continue the bad behavior for monitoring purposes, and "aversive therapy," which uses undersired feedback such as electric shocks so that the patient is deterred from repeating the harmful conduct.