Bilski v. Kappos
Bilski v. Kappos is a case currently (as of 21 January 2010) before the United States Supreme Court focusing on the question of whether non-material things such as software and business methods are patentable. There has been much opposition to software patents, and numerous programmers are hoping for the Supreme Court to use this case to invalidate them.
Bilski filed for a patent on a certain "method practiced by a commodity provider for managing... the consumption risks associated with a comodity sold at a fixed price." The patent office rejected his claim, and he appealed - eventually to the United States Supreme Court.