A bivouac or military camp is a place for the lodging of an army, either temporary or semi-permanent. In the Roman era the military camp served an entire legion. The fortress of Antonia in first century Jerusalem provided areas for camps of Roman troops.
Generally, camps and bivouacs are erected when a military force travels away from a major installation or fort during training or operations, and often have the form of large campsites.
- Josephus, Wars 5.5.8 [241, 244] —"for there always lay in this tower a Roman legion".