Book of Tobit

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The Book of Tobit is found in the books of the Septuagint, the Old Testament accepted as inspired and canonical by the Orthodox Church in the Greek Orthodox Bible, and found in the books of the Old Testament of the Vulgate and included in the canon of inspired scripture by the Third Council of Carthage (397). Since the Council of Trent it is dogmatically accepted as inspired and canonical by the Catholic Church in the Catholic Bible—books of the Bible accepted as divinely inspired by the majority of Christian believers in the United States.[1][2]

The Book of Tobit may be reckoned among the most delightful of short stories. Named after its principal character, it has the form of a religious novel characterized as a Hebrew romance and on the surface is a captivating story. The Book itself is one of the most delightful books of Hebrew Scripture. It combines Jewish piety and morality with literary elements resembling folklore in a fascinating story that has enjoyed wide popularity in both Jewish and Christian circles.

The father is called Tobit - Τωβίτ in the Greek Septuagint and his son is named Tobias - Τωβίας, whereas in the Vulgate and Douay-Rheims translation both father and son are known as Tobias. The book begins with Tobit (or Tobias the Father), an Israelite of the Northern Kingdom who was deported to Nineveh, who suffers blindness. Sara in Medes suffers torment. Because of their good life and prayers, God sends the Archangel Raphael to help them. The virtuous young Tobias the Son joins the disguised Raphael on a journey to Medes on his father's behalf, and brings happiness both to his Father and Sara. Prayers, psalms, and words of wisdom, as well as the skillfully constructed story itself, provide valuable insights into the faith and the religious milieu of its unknown author. The book was probably written early in the second century B.C.; it is not known where.

Tobit was first removed from the Old Testament and placed in the Apocrypha by Martin Luther in the 16th century.

See Apocrypha.

Contents

Canonical status

The Book of Tobit takes its name from the central figure, called Τωβείτ (Τωβείτ, Τωβείθ) in Greek, and טוביה Ṭobit in a late Hebrew manuscript. A late Jewish work probably composed sometime within the 5th to 2nd centuries B.C., it was never received into the Jewish canon after the establishment of the Christian church in the first century, and although it was pronounced canonical by the Third Council of Carthage (397) it was included in the Apocrypha by Protestants. It is regarded as a canonical book of the Bible in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and by the Council of Trent (1546). Tobit is part of the Old Testament in the Bible used by the Greek Orthodox Church (Septuagint) and Roman Catholic Church (Vulgate); and is part of the Apocrypha in Bibles used by most Protestant denominations. Jewish religious authorities and Protestant Christian churches do not regard Tobit as canonical. The Book of Tobit is regarded as an apocryphal book of the Old Testament by less than one-third of Christian believers.[2]

Content

Events in Tobit are set in the eighth century B.C., and tell the story of an Israelite named Tobit, his son Tobias, a young woman named Sarah, and the archangel Raphael.

The Book of Tobit teaches respect for the dead; the power of God to act through His angels; and the importance of prayer. A reading from Tobit can be incorporated into wedding ceremonies. The Episcopal Church Book of Common Prayer allows a reading of these verses from Tobit as part of the marriage service:

"Then began Tobias to say, Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers, and blessed is thy holy and glorious name for ever; let the heavens bless thee, and all thy creatures."
"Thou madest Adam, and gavest him Eve his wife for an helper and stay: of them came mankind: thou hast said, It is not good that man should be alone; let us make unto him an aid like unto himself."
"And now, O Lord, I take not this my sister for lust but uprightly: therefore mercifully ordain that we may become aged together."
"And she said with him, Amen."

Table of Contents. Outline of the Story.

The divisions of the Book of Tobit are:
Tobit’s Ordeals (1:3–3:6)
Sarah’s Plight (3:7–17)
Preparation for the Journey (4:1–6:1)
Tobiah’s Journey to Media (6:2–18)
Marriage and Healing of Sarah (7:1–9:6)
Tobiah’s Return Journey to Nineveh and the Healing of Tobit (10:1–11:18)
Raphael Reveals His Identity (12:1–22)
Tobit’s Song of Praise (13:1–18)
Epilogue (14:1–15)

Chapter summaries

Tobit’s Ordeals (1:3–3:6)
Chap. 1
1 Tobit, his lineage, and devotion in his youth, 9 His marriage, 10 And captivity, 13 His favor before Shalmaneser, 16 Alms and charity in burying the dead, 19 For which he is accused and flees, 22 And after returns to Nineveh.

Chap. 2
1 Tobit leaves his meal to bury the dead, 10 and becomes blind. 11 His wife takes in work to get her living. 14 Her husband and she fall out about a goat-kid she received.

Sarah’s Plight (3:7–17)
Chap. 3
1 Tobit, grieved with his wife's taunts, prays for death. 11 Sara, reproached by her father's maids, also prays. 17 An Angel is sent to help them both.

Preparation for the Journey (4:1–6:1)
Chap. 4
3 Tobit gives instructions to his son Tobias, 20 and tells him of money left with Gabael in Media.

Chap. 5
4 Young Tobias seeks a guide into Media. 6 The Angel will go with him, 12 and says he is his kinsman. 16 Tobias and the Angel depart together. 17 But his mother is grieved for her son's departing.

Tobiah’s Journey to Media (6:2–18)
Chap. 6
4 The Angel bids Tobias to take the liver, heart and gall out of a fish, 10 And to marry Sara the daughter of Raguel; 16 And teaches how to drive the wicked spirit away.

Marriage and Healing of Sarah (7:1–9:6)
Chap. 7
11 Raguel tells Tobias what had happened to his daughter: 12 and gives her in marriage to him. 17 She is conveyed to her chamber, and weeps. 18 Her mother comforts her.

Chap. 8
3 Tobias driveth the wicked spirit away, as he was taught. 4 He and his wife rise up to pray. 10 Raguel thought he was dead: 15 But finding him alive, praises God, 12 and makes a wedding feast.

Chap. 9
1 Tobias sends the Angel to Gabael for the money. 6 The Angel brings it, and Gabael, to the wedding.

Tobiah’s Return Journey to Nineveh and the Healing of Tobit (10:1–11:18)
Chap. 10
1 Tobit and his wife long for their son. 7 She will not be comforted by her husband. 10 Raguel sends Tobias and his wife away, with half their goods, 12 and blesses them.

Chap. 11
6 Tobit's mother spies her son coming. 10 His father meets him at the door, and recovers his sight. 14 He praises God, 17 And welcomes his daughter-in-law.

Raphael Reveals His Identity (12:1–22)
Chap. 12
5 Tobit offers half to the Angel for his effort; 6 But he calls them both aside, and exhorts them, 15 and tells them that he was an Angel, 21 and was seen no more.

Tobit’s Song of Praise (13:1–18)
Chap. 13
The thanksgiving to God, which Tobit wrote.

Epilogue (14:1–15)
Chap. 14
3 Tobit gives instructions to his son, 8 Especially to leave Nineveh. 11 He and his wife die, and are buried. 12 Tobias removes to Ecbatana, 14 and there died, after he had heard of the destruction of Nineveh.

The story of the book is as follows:

Tobit, a devout and wealthy Israelite living among the captives deported to Nineveh from the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722/721 B.C., suffers severe reverses and is finally blinded. Tobit, a pious man of the tribe of Naphtali, who remained faithful to Jerusalem when his tribe fell away to Jeroboam's cult of the bull, was carried captive to Nineveh in the time of Enemessar (Shalmaneser), King of Assyria. There, together with his wife, Anna, and his son Tobias, he gave alms to the needy, and buried the outcast bodies of the slain, keeping himself pure, moreover, from the food of the Gentiles. He was in favor with the king, however, and so prosperous that he was able to deposit ten talents of silver in trust with a friend in Media. With the accession of Sennacherib (the successor of Enemessar) the situation changed. Accused of burying the dead slain by the king, he had to flee, and his property was confiscated; but when Sarchedonus (Esarhaddon) came to the throne Tobit was allowed to return to Nineveh at the intercession of his nephew Achiacharus (Aḥiḳar), the king's chancellor. Here he continued his works of mercy; but, accidentally losing his eyesight, he fell into great poverty, so that in his dire distress he prayed that he might die. Because of his misfortunes he begs the Lord to let him die. On that same day a similar prayer was offered by Sarah, the daughter of Raguel of Ecbatana (in Media), in despair because she had been married to seven husbands who had each been slain by a demon on the wedding night. In Media, at this same time, a young woman, Sarah, also prays for death, because she has lost seven husbands, each killed in turn on his wedding night by the demon Asmodeus. God hears the prayers of Tobit and Sarah and sends the angel Raphael in human form to aid them both. The same day Tobit, remembering his deposit of money in Media, determined to send his son for it. But recalling the large sum he had formerly deposited in far-off Media, he sends his son Tobiah there to bring back the money. A companion and guide (who turns out to be the angel Raphael) being found for him, the two proceeded on their journey. Raphael makes the trip to Media with Tobiah. When Tobiah is attacked by a large fish as he bathes in the Tigris River, Raphael orders him to seize it and to remove its gall, heart, and liver because they are useful for medicine. At the river Tigris, Tobit caught a fish and was instructed by his companion to preserve its heart, liver, and gall. Conducted to Raguel's house, he asked Sarah's hand in marriage, Later, at Raphael’s urging, Tobiah marries Sarah, and uses the fish’s heart and liver to drive Asmodeus from the bridal chamber. drove away the demon by burning the heart and liver of the fish in the bridal chamber, sent Raphael (whose assumed name was Azarias) for the money, and returned, with him and Sarah, to Nineveh, Returning to Nineveh with his wife and his father’s money, Tobiah rubs the fish’s gall into his father’s eyes and cures him. where Tobit's eyesight was restored by smearing his eyes with the fish's gall. Finally, Raphael reveals his true identity and returns to heaven. Tobit then utters his beautiful hymn of praise. Before dying, Tobit tells his son to leave Nineveh because God will destroy that wicked city. After Tobiah buries his father and mother, he and his family depart for Media, where he later learns that the destruction of Nineveh has taken place. Father, mother, and son reached a good old age (Tobias living to rejoice over the destruction of Nineveh), and died in peace.

This brief outline does not do justice to the artistic construction of the story, or to the fine touches in its descriptions of family life, social customs, and individual experiences.

The charge of "magic"

A claim that the Book of Tobit supports the use of magic is based on chapter 6:6-7 (RSVCE):
"Then the young man said to the angel, 'Brother Azarias, of what use is the liver and heart and gall of the fish?' He replied, 'As for the heart and the liver, if a demon or evil spirit gives trouble to any one, you make a smoke from these before the man or woman and that person will never be troubled again.'"
However, if this is a magical practice, then the canonical books of the Old Testament accepted by Protestant Christianity present several examples of magical practice recommended by angels and prophets of God.
"You shall take in your hand this rod, with which you shall do the signs." Exodus 4:17
"The LORD said to Moses, 'Why do you cry out to me? Tell the people of Israel to go forward. Lift up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it, that the people of Israel may go on dry ground through the sea.'" Exodus 14:15-16.
"and if the spirit of jealousy comes upon him, and he is jealous of his wife who has defiled herself; or if the spirit of jealousy comes upon him, and he is jealous of his wife, though she has not defiled herself; then the man shall bring his wife to the priest, and bring the offering required of her, a tenth of an ephah of barley meal; he shall bour no oil upon it and put no frankincense on it, for it is a ceral offering of jealousy, a cereal offering of remembrance, bringing iniquity to remembrance. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD; and the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel, and take some of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle and put it into the water. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and unbind the hair of the woman's head, and place in her hands the cereal offering of jealousy. And in his hand the priest shall have the water of bitterness that brings the curse. Then the priest shall make her take an oath, saying, 'If no man has lain with you, and if you have not turned aside to uncleanness, while you were under your husband's authority, be free from this water of bitterness that brings the curse. But if you have gone astray, though you are under your husband's authority, and if you have defiled yourself, and some man other than your husband has lain with you, then' (let the priest make the woman take the oath of the curse, and say to the woman) 'the LORD make you an execration and an oath among your people, when the LORD makes your thigh fall away and your body swell; may this water that brings the curse pass into your bowels and make your body swell and your thigh fall away.' And the woman shall say, 'Amen, Amen.' Then the priest shall write these curses in a book, and wash them off into the water of bitterness; and he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that brings the curse, and the water that brings the curse shall enter into her and cause bitter pain. And the priest shall take the cereal offering of jealousy out of the woman's hand, and shall wave the cereal offering before the LORD and bring it to the altar; and the priest shall take a handful of the cereal offering, as its memorial portion, and burn it upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water. And when he has made her drink the water, then, if she has defiled herself and has acted unfaithfully against her husband, the water that brings the curse shall enter into her and cause bitter pain, and her body shall swell, and her thigh shall ball away, and the woman shall become an excration among her people. But if the woman has not defiled herself and is clean, then she shall be free and shall conceive children." Numbers 5:14-28.
"And the LORD said to Moses, 'Make a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and every one who is bitten, when he sees it, shall live.' So Moses made a bronze serpent, and set it on a pole; and if a serpent bit any man, he would look at the bronze serpent and live." Numbers 21:8-9.
"You shall march around the city, all of the men of war going around the city once. Thus shall you do for six days. And seven priests shall bear seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark; and on the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, the priests blowing the trumpets. And when they make a long blast with the ram's horn, as soon as you hear the sound of the trumpet, then all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and the people shall go up every man straight before him." Joshua 6:3-5
"And Elijah sent a messenger to him, saying, 'Go and wash in the Jordan seven times, and your flesh shall be restored, and you shall be clean'...So he went down and dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of the man of God; and his flesh was restored like the flesh of a little child, and he was clean." 2 Kings 5:10, 14.
"Again, I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Matthew 18:19-20.
"And God did extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul, so that handkerchiefs or aprons were carried away from his body to the sick, and diseases left them and the evil spirits came out of them." Acts 19:11-12.
The counsel given to Tobias (Tobit 6:6-7) by Raphael, a messenger of God and a prophet (Tobit 12:6-20), has been taken out of context by critics of the Book of Tobit and represented as a practice of magic. Outside of this text there seems to be no evidence in antiquity that the burning of fish heart and liver to make a smoke before a spirit-possessed individual has been performed as a ritual of magical exorcism by either Jews or Gentiles. In the Catholic Douay-Rheims Bible (1899) a footnote on Tobit CHAP. 6. VER. 8. Its heart, etc. The liver (ver. 19). says,
"God was pleased to give to these things a virtue against those proud spirits, to make them, who affected to be like the Most High, subject to such mean corporeal creatures as instruments of his power."
Because the acronym for Jesus Christ, is І Χ Θ Υ Σ ("I.C.TH.U.S."), "icthus", Greek for "fish", "Iesus Christos Theos Uios Soter" (Іησους Χριστος Θεος Υίος Σωτηρ "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior") this passage in the Book of Tobit is seen in ancient Christian commentaries on scripture as a veiled prophesy of the salvation of humanity from the oppression of the Devil effected by the sacrificial crucifixion of Christ.
"We have an altar from which those who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat. For the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest as a sacrifece for sin are burned outside the camp. So Jesus also suffered outside the gate in order to sanctify the people through his own blood." Hebrews 13:10-12.


Historical-critical textual analysis

Text and Original Language

The text exists in Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Judæo-Aramaic, besides two late Hebrew translations. Of the Greek there are three versions: one given in the Vatican and Alexandrian manuscripts of the Septuagint; one in the Sinaitic; and one in Codices 44, 106, 107 of Holmes and Parsons. Of the Latin there are two recensions: the Old Latin, which agrees substantially with the Sinaitic Septuagint; and the Vulgate, made by Jerome from an Aramaic text, which often agrees with it, although it presents many divergencies. The Syriac follows the Vatican in general, although it is by no means lit-eral, while Codices 44, 106, 107 agree sometimes with this text, sometimes with that of the Sinaitic. The Aramaic text (published by Neubauer) also represents the Sinaitic recension in a general way, but is late, and can scarcely be considered the descendant of Jerome's original. The Hebrew copies are late and of no authority. The two chief Greek recensions are the earliest sources for the text of Tobit, though suggestions may be gained from the Latin and the Syriac. Of the Greek forms the Vatican is the shortest (except in ch. iv.); its style is rough and often incorrect, and it has many errors, frequently clerical in nature. The Sinaitic text is diffuse, but frequently gives the better readings. Both of them may depend on an earlier form which has been corrupted in the Vatican and expanded in the Sinaitic, although the question is a difficult one. Equally problematical is the determination of the original language of the book. The forms of the proper names, and such an expression as χάριν καὶ μορφήν (i. 13), which suggests (Esth. ii. 17), may be held to point to Hebrew, as may also the type of piety portrayed, although it must be noted that there is no mention in early times of a Hebrew text, which Jerome would doubtless have used had he known of its existence. The Sinaitic forms "Ather" for "Asur" (xiv. 4) and "Athoureias" for "Asureias" (xiv. 15), on the other hand, are Aramaic. The excellent Greek style of the Sinaitic may suggest a Greek original. In view of the conflicting character of the data, it is best to reserve opinion as to the original language; the text appears to have suffered a number of revisions and misreadings.

The reference in xiv. 10 to Achiacharus introduces new perplexities into the question of the origin of the book (see Aḥiḳar). Here it need only be remarked that the reference is merely an illustration, showing acquaintance with an Aḥiḳar story; the allusion is scarcely organically connected with the story of Tobit.


The original form of the book may have told simply how a pious man, doing his duty, came safe out of trouble. The episode of Sarah and Asmodeus appears to be a separate story, here skilfully combined with the other. The advisory discourses in iv. (much shortened in the Sinaitic text) and xii. look like the insertions of an editor. For the ethical tone see especially iv. 15, 16, and for the religious ideas, xii. 8. The book is to be compared with Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), Daniel, and Ecclesiastes.

Written most likely in Aramaic, the original of the book was lost for centuries. Fragments of four Aramaic texts and of one Hebrew text were discovered in Qumran Cave 4 in 1952 and have only recently been published. As with all ancient texts discovered in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Hebrew was in consonantal form only. These Semitic forms of the book are in substantial agreement with the long Greek recension of Tobit found in Codex Sinaiticus, which had been recovered from St. Catherine’s Monastery (Mount Sinai) only in 1844, and in mss. 319 and 910. Two other Greek forms of Tobit have long been known: the short recension, found mainly in the mss. Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Venetus, and numerous cursive mss.; and an intermediate Greek recension, found in mss. 44, 106, 107. The Book of Tobit has also been known from two Latin versions: the long recension in the Vetus Latina, which is closely related to the long Greek recension and sometimes is even closer to the Aramaic and Hebrew texts than the Greek is; and the short recension in the Vulgate, related to the short Greek recension. The present English translation has been based mainly on Sinaiticus, which is the most complete form of the long Greek recension, despite two lacunae (4:7–19b and 13:6i–10b) and some missing phrases, which make succeeding verses difficult to understand and make it necessary to supplement Sinaiticus from the Vetus Latina or from the short Greek recension. Occasionally, phrases or words have been introduced from the Aramaic or Hebrew texts, when they are significantly different. Forms of the Book of Tobit are also extant in ancient Arabic, Armenian, Coptic (Sahidic), Ethiopic, and Syriac, but these are almost all secondarily derived from the short Greek recension. The recent discovery of five scrolls of Tobit - 4QTob - in both Hebrew and Aramaic among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Cave IV of Qumran has given the book renewed attention.

Time and Place

Even though the setting takes place in the eighth century B.C., it is thought the book was written after the time of Ezra, and thus it was not included in the shorter Hebrew Canon. However, the book followed Ezra and Nehemiah in the Greek Septuagint Old Testament and has always been considered inspired by both Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. It is part of the Apocrypha in the King James Bible.

The Book of Tobit is generally believed to have been written during the second century B.C.. The inspired author of the book used the literary form of religious novel (as in Esther and Judith) for the purpose of instruction and edification. The seemingly historical data, names of kings, cities, etc., are used as vivid details not only to create interest and charm, but also to illustrate the negative side of the theory of retribution: the wicked are indeed punished. Although the Book of Tobit is usually listed with the historical books, it more correctly stands midway between them and the wisdom literature. It contains numerous maxims like those found in the wisdom books (cf. 4:3–19, 21; 12:6–10; 14:7, 9) as well as standard wisdom themes: fidelity to the law, intercessory function of angels, piety toward parents, purity of marriage, reverence for the dead, and the value of almsgiving, prayer, and fasting. The book makes Tobit a relative of Ahiqar, a noted hero of ancient Near Eastern wisdom literature and folklore. The picture of religious life given in Tobit (especially the devotion to ritual details) indicates a post-Ezran date for the book. The special significance attached to almsgiving (iv. 10; xii. 8, 9) is identical with the idea in Ecclus. (Sirach) iii. 30 (comp. also Prov. x. 2), and the injunction in iv. 17, "Pour out thy bread on the burial of the just, but give nothing to the wicked," is repeated in import in Ecclus. (Sirach) xii. 4-5. The prediction in xiv. 5 implies a period after the building of the Second Temple, and, apparently, before the commencement of Herod's Temple. The prominence given to the duty of burying the outcast slain (the survival of a very ancient conception) seems to point to a time when the Jews were slaughtered by foreign enemies, as, for example, by Antiochus or by Hadrian. The necessity of marrying within the kin was recognized during a long period and does not define the date precisely. Polycarp's saying ("Ad Phil." x.), "Almsgiving delivers from death," does not prove that he was acquainted with Tobit, since Prov. x. 2 may have been so understood by him. There is no Messianic hope expressed in the book. The more probable view is that it was composed between 200 and 50 B.C. If the original language was Hebrew, the place was Palestine; if Greek, it was Egypt; but this point, too, must be left undecided.

The Book of Tobias, as it is called in the Latin Vulgate Bible, is also known in the Greek Septuagint as the Book of Tobit, and serves as part of the Historical Books in the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate Bible. Both the Semitic origin of the book and the name Tobiah - טוֹבִיָּה, which means "Yahweh is my good," have been appreciated since antiquity. The name itself is noted, for example, in 2 Chronicles 17:8, Ezra 2:60, and Zechariah 6:10.

The message

The message of the book is that God is both just and free. Suffering is not a punishment but a test. God in the long run does reward the just and punish the wicked. The believer is called upon to trust God and live his way. The book is rich in principle, and presents the sanctity of Marriage, intercession through Angels, reward of good works, and parental respect, as well as the importance of prayer in our daily lives, fasting, and especially almsgiving in expiation of sin (12:9). This last point is taken up by Jesus in Matthew 25:31-46, by Paul in Romans 2:6-11, by James (in his Letter to the twelve tribes in the dispersion) 2:14-26, and by John (in his First Letter) 3:17-18 and 4:19-21. Raphael reveals himself in a fascinating statement in Chapter 12, as "the angel Raphael, one of the seven who stand before the Lord" (12:15).

References

  1. The Catholic Church is the world's largest Christian body comprised of several distinct "Rites". The Catholic Church (Latin Rite) is the largest religious body in the United States, with over 60 million adherents (4 times as large as the second largest church, the Orthodox).
    “The Global Catholic Population,” © 2011, Pew Research Center.
    The Largest Catholic Communities
    The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church, and also referred to as the Orthodox Church and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, most of whom live in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Russia.
    The Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Church. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese Of America (1983). Retrieved on 7 May 2014.
    Christianity:Basics:Eastern Orthodox Church Denomination. about.com. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
    Christianity. Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents. adherents.com. Retrieved on 22 May 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 See Percentage of Christians in Protestant Denominations (29.5%).

External links

The Old Testament Text. (wmcarey.edu/browning/Classes)

Tobit — introduction (usccb.org)

Jewish Encyclopedia: Tobit, book of (jewishencyclopedia.com)

The Book of Tobit or Tobias (biblescripture.net) —includes text of Tobit from the Douay-Rheims Bible.

Tobit. List of summaries of chapters by number.

The 1979 U. S. Book of Common Prayer: Formatted

Greek and English Septuagint
Latin and English Vulgate
Kings James Apocrypha Online

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