Bosons are, in technical terms, subatomic particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. Put more simply, bosons are subatomic particles that can occupy the same place at the same time. For the reason, bosons are normally thought of as mediators of fundamental interactions, like the electromagnetic or strong nuclear interactions, or carriers of radiation. Bosons stand in contrast to fermions, which are believed to be the particles that make up ordinary matter.
The Standard Model of particle physics describes four elementary bosons:
- the photon, the mediator of the electromagnetic interaction (abbreviated ɣ),
- the gluon, mediator of the strong nuclear interaction (abbreviated g),
- the [[W± boson]], and
- the [[Z0 boson]], both of which mediate the weak nuclear interaction
The Higgs boson is a particle that is predicted to exist by the Standard Model, and was first observed by teams at CERN in July 2012.