Canaan was a historical region encompassing modern-day Israel, Jordan, and Southern Syria and Lebanon.
After being invaded my the Israelites in the 3rd millennium BC, Canaan was unified under one government, and one faith.  Canaan was the birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Canaan remained in Israelite control until waves invading troops from the East and North pushed them out.
Canaan is named after Canaan, the fourth son of Ham and Grandson of Noah.
Before the Israelite invasion, Canaanites worshipped Ba'al and Ashteroth, god and goddess of fertility. The Israelites tried to exterminate Canaanites who didn't convert, but a few survived and became the Philistines. After the birth of Jesus, Christianity began to phase out Judaism. Eventually, the Muslims would invade, and fighting between the montheistic religions over Canaan continues to this day.