|Flag||Coat of Arms|
|Government||Parliamentary Democracy/Federal Constitutional monarchy|
|Language||English, French (official)|
|Monarch||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Prime minister||Justin Trudeau|
|GDP 2007||$1.105 trillion|
|GDP per capita||$35,133|
Canada is a Representative Democracy in North America which extends from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Atlantic Ocean in the east and northward to the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the largest country by total area in North America and the second largest in the world behind Russia. It also has the longest coastline of any nation, as well as the longest border with the United States to the south and northwest. Its border with the US is the longest undefended border in the world.
Canada's motto, A Mari usque ad Mare (From sea to sea), is based on biblical scripture: "He shall have dominion from sea to sea and from the river unto the ends of the earth (Psalm 72:8)".
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Anthem
- 3 Geography
- 4 People
- 5 Government
- 6 Defense
- 7 Economy
- 8 History
- 9 See also
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
- 12 References
The name Dominion of Canada was adopted during confederation in 1867. The name continued until the Constitution Act of 1982, when "Canada" became the legal name. Canada Day, on July 1, used to known as be Dominion Day.
The Canadian national anthem, 'O Canada', was written by Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier as a poem, to which music, composed by Calixa Lavallée, was later added, in 1880. The original was composed in French, and was first translated into English by Dr. Thomas Bedford Richardson of Toronto, Ontario, in 1906. However, it was not officially adopted as the national anthem until 1980. It is important to distinguish between 'O Canada', the national anthem, and 'God Save The Queen', which is the Royal anthem, played as a salute to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada. The English lyrics and French lyrics have several notable differences, with the French version being slightly longer.
At the time of Confederation, Canada was comprised of four provinces: Upper Canada (now Ontario), Lower Canada (now Québec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Since that time, six additional provinces have joined Canada or have been created. From west to east, the provinces are British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Newfoundland was the last province to join Canada, in 1949. The provinces all elect a single (unicameral) legislature, headed by Premier, who is selected the same way as the Prime Minister. A Lieutenant-Governor represents the Queen, similar to the Governor General. Canada has three territories: the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut,. Territories have only have those powers delegated to them by the federal government. Nunavut is the newest territory, created as a homeland for the Inuit people in 1999.
- Area: 9.9 million km2. (3.8 million sq. mi.); second-largest country in the world.
- Cities: Capital—Ottawa (pop. 1.1 million). Other major cities—Toronto (5.1 million), Montreal (3.6 million), Vancouver (2.1 million), Calgary (1.1 million), Edmonton (1.0 million), Quebec City (0.7 million), Winnipeg (0.7 million), Hamilton (0.7 million).
- Terrain: Mostly plains with mountains in the west and lowlands in the southeast.
- Climate: Temperate to arctic.
- Population (2008 est.): 33.1 million.
- Ethnic groups: British/Irish 28%, French 23%, other European 15%, Asian/Arab/African 6%, indigenous Amerindian 2%, mixed background 26%.
- Religions: Roman Catholic 43.6%, Protestant 29.2%, other Christian 4.3%, Muslim 2.0%, Jewish 1.1%, Buddhist 1.0%, Hindu 1.0% other 1.3%, none 16.5%.
- Languages: English (official) 57.8%, French (official) 22.1%, other 20.1% (including Chinese and aboriginal languages).
- Education: Literacy—99% of population aged 15 and over has at least a ninth-grade education.
- Health: Infant mortality rate—5.4/1,000. Life expectancy—77.7 yrs. male, 82.5 yrs. female.
- Work force (2008, 18.2 million): Goods-producing sector—25%, of which: manufacturing 15%; construction 6%; agriculture 2%; natural resources 2%; utilities 1%. Service-producing sector—75%, of which: trade 16%; health care and social assistance 11%; educational services 7%, accommodation and food services 7%; professional, scientific, and technical services 7%; finance 6%; public administration 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%; information, culture, and recreation 5%; other services 4%.
In 2005 the city of Vancouver, British Columbia was voted "the world's best place to live" in the world. Calgary has been named on several occasions the world's cleanest city. Canada's population is increasingly urban, with 6 cities recording a population over 1 million (Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa-Gatineau, Calgary, Edmonton); these 6 cities represent over 45% of Canada's population. Canada is becoming an increasingly multicultural country, with most new immigrants settling in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Toronto is the world's most multicultural city, with 43% a member of a visible minority.
Due to its colonial past, Canadian culture has historically been heavily influenced by British culture. Quebec maintains a French culture but has been largely cut off from Parisian trends for 250 years. Since 1800 Canadian culture has been greatly influenced by American culture, due to the proximity and the migration of people, ideas, and capital. Amidst this, Canadian culture has developed some unique characteristics, and many Canadian movies, authors, television shows, and musicians are equally popular in United States. The Canadian television industry has a local content requirement, which requires the use of Canadian actors in Canadian productions. Canadian culture has also been influenced by indigenous cultures, and by immigrant groups from around the world. It has the highest per capita immigration rate of any country in the world, with the percentage growing every day.
Canada has two federal official languages, French and English. The province of Quebec has French as its official language, New Brunswick both French and English, making it the only bilingual province, and all other provinces English (although in some parts of Ontario French has special status). The territory of Nunavut has Inuktitut and Innuinaqtun as official languages in addition to French and English, the North West territories has eleven official languages, and the Yukon recognizes French and English.
Canada tends to reflect significantly more liberal social policies than the neighboring states of the northern U.S. One such example is the legalizing of gay marriage in June, 2005 Another is its single-payer health care system.
In comparing the suicide rates between Canada and its closest neighbour the US, Canada has a slightly higher rate. It has been suggested that this slightly higher rate of suicide is induced by Seasonal Affective Disorder, a mental health disorder prevalent in northern countries due the significantly reduced or non-existent daylight hours during the winter. Severe episodes of Seasonal Affective Disorder can cause suicidal thoughts.
Panorama of Toronto, Ontario.
See Canadian sports
Notable sports which are enjoyed throughout Canada include hockey, curling, lacrosse, and football. Canada collected 18 medals in the Summer Olympics, more per capita than the United States but less than Australia. The country finished third overall in the Torino Winter Olympics, with a total of 24 medals, one less than the United States and 10 more than next-place Sweden. The most recent winter Olympics, was held in 2010 in Vancouver and Whistler. Canada finished third overall in medal count and was first in gold medal count with 14 gold. This was the first instance of Canada winning a gold medal on home ground and a moment of national pride.
Canadian culture puts stress on open-mindedness and tolerance of multiple viewpoints. Canadian opinion shows a strong sense of wanting to be independent of the U.S., although their economy, society, and culture closely resembles the U.S., and most Canadians live a short drive from the border. Canada is usually contrasted as a "cultural mosaic" to the United States' "melting pot". Canadian and U.S. polls habitually confirm citizens of both countries view the relationship with each other in a highly positive light, and consider each other with a special respect afforded to common allies.
Education in Canada is the responsibility of provincial and territorial governments; curriculum and marking schemes are completely removed from the control of the federal government. Each province uses a different method of administering education, with variation in the number of years and the curriculum. Quebec, for example has five years of secondary school finishing at the equivalent of grade 11 followed by two years of CEGEP, while Ontario has two years of kindergarten. Most provinces have kindergarten with school starting at age 5 going to grade 12 (age 17) as part of the public system. Some provinces have standardised provincial exams at the end of secondary school and/or at other designated grades.
Several provinces have two publicly funded school systems: public and private(either corporate or religious). The constitution also guarantees education in one's first official language and, as such, all provinces and territories have both English and French language schooling. Additionally, private schools both religious and secular exist throughout the country. Alberta has an additional category, known as charter schools. Charter schools are schools that have been created in the community to surround a particular theme. They could be artistic, vocational, etc.
A source of comparison is the Human Development Index, a measurement of literacy, education, life expectancy and standard of living. Using this scale, Canada scores +.967 and the U.S. +950.
For the total population, in 2001, 12.9 million (44%) were Roman Catholic, with 8.7 million Protestants (29%). 4.9 million (16% ) report no religious affiliation (including atheists and agnostics). Other religions of significance in Canada include 580,000 Muslims; 330,000 Jews; 300,000 Buddhists; 297,000 Hindus; and 278,000 Sikhs.
Catholicism formerly dominated Quebec until the "Quiet Revolution" of the 1960s, which has greatly reduced the power of the Catholic Church in Quebec, and its participation rates.
The proportion attending religious services on a regular basis has declined over the past 20 years. According to the General Social Survey (GSS), 21% of Canadians aged 15 and over reported they attended a religious service at least once a week in 2005, down from 30% in 1985. Between 1985 and 2004, the share of Canadians aged 15 and older reporting no religious affiliation increased by seven percentage points from 12% to 19%. 37% of Canadians who rarely attend formal services nevertheless regularly engage in personal religious practices. Of of those who had not attended any religious services over the previous year, 27% engaged in weekly religious practices on their own. Overall this group of adults who regularly engage in private religious practices, but infrequently or never attend religious services, represent, 21% of the adult population. This pattern was most prevalent among older Canadians.
Civil liberties organizations, the media, and some members of Parliament occasionally criticized federal and provincial human rights commissions and tribunals for their application of hate speech restrictions included in federal and provincial human rights acts, claiming that the commissions and tribunals at times limited free speech and expression, and religious rights. The commissions are required by law to process all complaints they receive.
A complaint against the editor of Catholic Insight, alleging the magazine promoted hatred against homosexuals, remained before the Canadian Human Rights Commission at the end of 2008. The complainant alleged that he was upholding Catholic teaching on homosexuality in the magazine.
In June 2008 members of the Ontario legislature voted unanimously to maintain the tradition of reading the Lord's Prayer in the provincial legislature and to add a rotation of prayers from other major religious traditions and a moment of silent reflection for atheists. The vote was prompted by a proposal by Ontario's premier in February 2008 to discontinue the religious observance.
The government of Canada is split into two orders, federal and provincial, as outlined by the BNA Act. Each has very specific responsibilities, with some overlap. For instance, universal health care is mandated by the Federal Government, but it is administered by the Provincial Governments. Neither level has supremacy over the other. The Federal Government is run out of Ottawa, Ontario; the provincial governments are run out the ten provincial capitals.
The federal parliament is bicameral, including both a lower house - the Canadian House of Commons - and an upper house - the Canadian Senate. The parliamentary system is based on the British parliament. Members of Parliament represent specific geographical areas, generally chosen to have approximately equal population. A single member is elected from each on a first past the post system. The prime minister is usually the leader of the party with the most seats, though two or more parties may form a coalition to form a government. The governor General (GG) thus appoints the Prime minister.
The Senate is made up of senators appointed for life by the prime minister (acting on behalf of the Governor General).
In almost all cases, Acts of Parliament are created in the House of Commons. After passing three readings in the House of Commons, the bill is passed to the Senate. The job of the Senate is to further debate the proposed legislation, before passing it to the Governor General for Royal Assent. The Governor General is the official representative of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada. The senators and the governor general are appointed positions by the sitting government. Senators are "lifetime" (until 75 years old) appointments and the Governor General will sit for, approximately, five yerars. The Prime Minister of Canada is the head of Government of Canada, acting as the Minister of the Crown, a practise inherited from the British system. The PM's term can last up to five years.
All provincial legislatures are unicameral. The legislative process for provincial legislation is the same as for federal legislation, except that there is no Senate and the legislation is given royal assent by the provincial Lieutenants Governor, who represent the monarch at the provincial level.
From 1841 to 1844, the capital city of what would become Canada was located in Kingston, Ontario. Subsequently, the capital alternated between Toronto and Montreal until 1857, when the capital moved to Ottawa, Ontario.
The 40th Canadian Federal General Election occurred on October 14, 2008. Currently, the Prime Minister is Justin Trudeau, a member of the Liberal Party of Canada, while His Excellency David Lloyd Johnston is the Governor General. At present Canada is governed by a liberal majority government.
Principal Government Officials
- Head of State—Queen Elizabeth II
- Governor General—David Lloyd Johnston
- Prime Minister—Justin Trudeau
- Minister of Foreign Affairs—Stéphane Dion
- Ambassador to the United Nations—John McNee
On October 19, 2015, the Conservative party lost the election in favor of Justin Trudeau's Liberal Party.
On February 6, 2006, Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party, became Canada's twenty-second prime minister, succeeding Liberal Paul Martin. A policy wonk from Alberta, Harper rose from the ranks of conservative political party staffers. In Parliament, he became Leader of the Opposition (2002-6). In 2003 he became head of the western-based Canadian Alliance. He was elected the first leader of the Conservative Party of Canada when it was created in 2003 through the merger of Harper's Canadian Alliance and Peter MacKay's Progressive Conservative Party. The January 23, 2006 election victory by the Conservative Party ended twelve years of Liberal Party rule that, in the end, was tainted by accusations of corruption and ethical missteps. In the federal election on October 14, 2008, the Conservatives won 38% of the vote and formed a second minority government with 143 seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals won 26% of the vote and 77 seats in the House of Commons. As the party with the second-largest number of seats, the Liberals form the "official opposition."
The Conservatives made unexpected gains in Quebec by winning ten seats in the January 2006 election, but failed to increase their number of seats in the province in the 2008 election. The separatist Bloc Quebecois (BQ) had a majority (49) of Quebec's 75 seats (the BQ runs candidates only in Quebec). The left-leaning New Democratic Party (NDP) had 37 seats, and two independents also sat in Parliament. Harper beat off a threatening no-confidence vote in late 2008 by warning that a government that included the BQ separatists—who want Quebec to break away from Canada—was hostile to Canada's national unity.
On May 2, 2011 there was another election. The outcome was very dramatic and ground breaking. The Liberals traditionally placing first or second were reduced to just 34 seats becoming the third party of Canada. This happened from vote splitting in Ontario in which the leftists split their votes between the Liberals and the NDP. The Bloc Quebecois were destroyed in Quebec as the so-called "Orange Crush" of the NDP swept that province taking 59 out of 75 seats, leaving the BQ with a mere 4 seats. The NDP had their best results of all time and for the first time in history became the Official Opposition. The Conservatives came out on top though with 166 seats giving them their coveted majority. The Conservative lost the election of 2015 to the Liberal Party by a large margin.
Policy priorities of the Conservatives under Harper have remained fairly consistent since 2006: fighting the Recession of 2008; aiding the ailing Automobile industry; improving accountability and ethics in government; lowering taxes; fighting crime; reinvesting in defense; bolstering Canada's Arctic sovereignty; promoting national unity; and raising the profile of Canada's role abroad, through its combat mission in Afghanistan, contributions to stabilization in Haiti, and renewed partnership with Latin America. Harper has been friendly with the U.S., despite growing Canadian annoyance with restrictions on border crossings. Harper has been a strong supporter of NAFTA, and works to increase Canada's oil exports to the U.S. He remains strong in the polls as Canada has suffered less from the worldwide Recession of 2008 than the EU or the U.S.
Quebec, with 23% of the national population, its distinctive French-language ("francophone") culture, angered the western provinces by wielding undue influence on the Federal Government and its repeated threats to national unity. Until Harper of Alberta became prime minister in 2006, the western provinces had denounced Ottawa's failure to appreciate the oil interests, one of Canada's major industries. Ontario complains that it pays out far more to the Federal Government than it gets back in revenues, while the Atlantic Provinces seek to assert greater control over fishing and mineral rights off their shores. The Federal Government ceded some power in a few areas of provincial jurisdiction, while seeking to strengthen the federal role in many other areas such as inter-provincial trade and the regulation of securities.
Popular support for Quebec sovereignty appears to be on the wane, although Francophone pride in that province's unique cultural and linguistic identity remains very strong. Most Quebec voters seem to appreciate the economic benefits of remaining in the Canadian confederation and aim to advance their separate Francophone identity within the confederation. In a provincial election held on December 8, 2008, provincial Liberal Leader Jean Charest won a majority government. The separatist Parti Quebecois placed second.
Quebec Secession Movement and the October Crisis
There are trivial separatist movements lobbying for independence from Canada in British Columbia, Alberta, and Quebec. The only movement of real significance is in Quebec, where the province has twice voted on whether or not to separate from Canada, once in 1980 and again in 1995; the vote in 1995 failed by just 1 percent. On November 27, 2006, the Federal Government passed a motion declaring Québec a nation "within a united Canada".
This movement did reach a violent level however when the FLQ (Front de liberation du Quebec) undertook a series of letterbombings from 1963-1970  The terror campaign reached a fever pitch when Pierre Laporte and James Cross were kidnapped in their own homes by gun wielding FLQ members.  The government initiated a crackdown in which the War Measures Act was put in place. This allowed the government to detain suspected terrorists without trial, and is the only time where the measure has been enacted in peace time. . The measure was widely supported by Canadians at the time. The action was short-lived however as the members of the FLQ were tracked down and arrested. The body of Pierre Laporte was discovered in the trunk of a car outside a Canadian military base. James Cross was released after intense negotiations with the government. The remaining members of the FLQ were either jailed or as a result of negotiations deported to Cuba.
The average tax rate in Canada is higher than in the United States. In 2003, Canada's tax burden equals about 33.8% of GDP placing it in the middle of the G7 countries, with Japan lowest at 25.3% and France highest at 43.4%. The US rate is roughly 25.6%; this discrepancy is consistent with the differing levels of social services which the governments funds. Canada also had managed to run without a budget deficit for a number of years under the last Liberal government.
Equalization payments, worth 11.7 billion Canadian dollars are made by the federal government to the provinces from richer provinces (currently Alberta, Newfoundland, and British Columbia) and the poorer provinces (Ontario, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan). This is to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. These payments have not been without controversy as provinces begin to make more revenues from natural resources they do not want to give up the Equalization payments.
Canada also has a national sales tax, the Goods and Services Tax (GST) of 5% on all purchases. Some provinces add an additional percentage in the form of a Provincial Sales Tax (PST), or a combined Harmonized Sales Tax (HST) combining GST and the Provincial Sales Tax. Based on actual income, and a number of other factors, the government will refund GST/HST to eligible tax payers in quarterly installments on the fifth of the month in July, October, January, and April.
Public Health Care
In 1984, the Federal Government, under the leadership of the Liberals and The Right Honourable Pierre Elliot Trudeau, enacted the Canada Health Act. This act was based on the five principles of "universality, accessibility, portability, comprehensiveness, and public administration". This public health care system is run in partnership by Health Canada and provincial Ministries of Health, who both contribute tax revenues. The federal government sets policy, while the provinces are responsible for actual administration. In 1995, the Canada Health and Social Transfer was created to replace existing systems for the transferral of tax funding to the provinces to administer social programs. The rationale behind the system is to allow all Canadians equal access to equal treatment, regardless of socio-economic status.
In Canada health care is frequently listed as top issue in election campaigns and is both a topic of frequent debate and a point of pride for many Canadians, Tommy Douglas the founder of medicare was, for example, voted the "Greatest Canadian" on a CBC television programme in 2004.
The current state of Canada's public health care system is gathering increasing media attention due to rising wait times. David Gratzer wrote:
... government researchers have provided the best data on the doctor shortage, noting, for example, that more than 1.5 million Ontarians (or 12 percent of that province’s population) can’t find family physicians.
Most of the blame for the current state of affairs has been placed on successive government mismanagement. This represents a failure of the federal government to properly regulate the level of service being offered in the provinces. People regularly have to wait between four and eight months for non-emergency surgeries. The median wait time for an MRI across Canada is 10.3 weeks in 2006. In fact, former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien campaigned on a promise to shut down private MRI clinics because it creates a two tier system, regardless of the demand for more facilities.
In recent years, there has been suggestion from some lobby groups that Canada should adopt a two-tier health care system, while others have expressed strong opposition to this idea, including the federal government under the Liberal Party. Some argue that Canada already does have a two-tier health care system as the very wealthy can go to the United States for treatment. The argument for allowing private health care is twofold. The first reason is that competition may improve the quality of products and services, while the increase in options will allow those with the means to access private health care and may relieve some of the burden off the public system. Critics argue that health is a right, and that everyone should have access to the same standard of care.
Recently, in Québec, a provincial judge has ruled that private health care providers must be allowed to compete with the government-run health care system.
As of the most recent cabinet shuffle, Conservative MP Peter MacKay has assumed the role of Minister of National Defense.
The Canadian Forces is comprised of the Regular Force and the Reserve Force. The Regular and Reserve Forces employ over 62,000 and 25,000 members respectively. While the various branches wear distinctive elemental uniforms (DEU), the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force were amalgamated in 1968 into one common command structure. The Canadian Forces are  equipped with modern vehicles such as the Canadian-built LAV III, the German-built Leopard CII tanks and both the American-built CF-18 Hornet and CC-177 Globemaster III. The Canadian government spends about 17 billion Canadian dollars annually on defence.
The Conservative government has continued the trend of increased defense spending initiated by the Liberals, and have also taken steps to decrease red-tape preventing the troops from having the necessary equipment to keep them safe and effective. They have also taken steps to establish Canada's sovereignty over its arctic regions.
Over 3000 Canadian troops are currently deployed around the world, including a few fighter planes used in operations in the middle East. Another 500 are deployed to the Middle East where they are attached to a US-led coalition fleet and the Standing NATO Maritime Group 1 (SNMG1). These are prime examples of Canada's capability for interoperability with foreign military forces.
- GDP (2007): $1.266 trillion.
- Real GDP growth rate (2007): 2.7%.
- Per capita GDP (2007): $38,435.
- Natural resources: Petroleum and natural gas, hydroelectric power, metals and minerals, fish, forests, wildlife, abundant fresh water.
- Agriculture: Products—wheat, livestock and meat, feed grains, oil seeds, dairy products, tobacco, fruits, vegetables.
- Industry: Types—motor vehicles and parts, machinery and equipment, aircraft and components, other diversified manufacturing, fish and forest products, processed and unprocessed minerals.
- Trade: U.S. merchandise exports to Canada (2007)--$248.9 billion: motor vehicles and spare parts, industrial and electrical machinery, plastics, computers, chemicals, petroleum products and natural gas, and agricultural products. In 2007, 65% of Canada's imports came from the United States. U.S. merchandise imports from Canada (2007)--$313.1 billion: motor vehicles and spare parts, crude petroleum and natural gas, forest products, agricultural products, metals, industrial machinery, and aircraft. In 2007, 76% of Canada's exports went to the U.S.
Canada has invested heavily in high-tech, export-oriented businesses, achieving major success in:
- Aerospace: Canada’s global share of aerospace activity has tripled in the last 20 years, making Canada the world’s 5th largest aerospace producer.
- Ag-biotech: Canadian firms’ revenues exceed those of US agro-based companies and are more than double those of Japan and the UK.
- Agri-food: Canada is the world’s fourth-largest exporter of agricultural products.
- Automotive: Canada is among the Top 10 automotive countries and the 3rd largest exporter of automotive products after Japan and the U.S. Most of the output goes to the U.S. market.
- Biotechnology: Canada is a leader in biotechnology—one of the top five countries in the world.
- Plastics: Canada is the world’s fourth largest exporter of moulds and eighth largest exporter of plastics processing machinery.
- see also Canadian railways
Canadians worry that Obama's economic policies will damage Canada's economy, especially cap and trade, the Buy America rule in the 2009 stimulus, and environmental hostility to Canadian oil produced from oil sands.
Canada has vast natural resources and is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of energy. In 2005, Canada produced 19.1 quadrillion British Thermal Units (Btu) of total energy, the fifth-largest amount in the world. Since 1980, Canada’s total energy production has increased by 86%, while its total energy consumption has increased by only 48% during that period. Almost all of Canada’s energy exports go to the United States, making it the largest foreign source of U.S. energy imports: Canada is consistently among the top sources for U.S. oil imports, and it is the largest source of U.S. natural gas and electricity imports.
In 2005, the largest source of energy consumption in Canada was oil (31%), followed by hydroelectricity (25%) and natural gas (24%). Both coal (12%) and nuclear (7%) constitute a smaller share of the country’s overall energy mix. From 1985-2005, Canada’s overall energy mix has remained relatively stable, though hydroelectricity has decreased from 31%to 25%, as oil drilling is more popular than dam building. As of 2011, the trend has reversed, and Hydroelectricity is making 32% of the country's electricity. The remainder is produced by oil, and renewables.
- See History of Canada for a more detailed bibliography.
- Canadian Encyclopedia (2008) reliable detailed encyclopedia, on-line free
- Artibise, Alan F. J., ed. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Canadian Society: A Guide to the Literature. McGill-Queen's U. Press, 1990. 156 pp.
- Bickerton, James, and Alain Gagnon. Canadian Politics (2004) 584 pages, textbook
- Blore, Shawn. Frommer's Canada (2004) 828 pages travel guide
- Campbell, Robert Malcolm et al. The Real Worlds of Canadian Politics: Cases in Process and Policy, (2004) 342 pages
- Conrad, Margaret, and Alvin Finkel. Canada: A National History. (2003), college textbook.
- DK Publishing. Canada (Eyewitness Travel Guides) by Hugh Thompson (2002) excerpt and text search
- Hallowell, Gerald, ed. The Oxford Companion to Canadian History (2004) 1650 very good entries
- Johnson, William. Stephen Harper and the Future of Canada (2006) excerpt and text search
- Morton, Desmond. A Short History of Canada 5th ed (2001)
- National Atlas of Canada (1st ed. 1906; 2nd ed. 1915; 3rd ed. 1957; 4th ed. 1974; 6th ed. 1999 is electronic)
- Pammett, Jon H., and Christopher Dornan. The Canadian Federal Election of 2006 (2006)
- Pryke, Kenneth G. and Walter C. Soderlund, eds. Profiles of Canada. (2003). 3rd edition of textbook
- Toye, William, ed. The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. (1983). 843 pp.
- Wells, Paul. Right Side Up: the Fall of Paul Martin and the Rise of Stephen Harper's New Conservatism (2006)
- Westhues, Anne. Canadian Social Policy: Issues and Perspectives, 2003
- Government of Canada
- Parliament of Canada
- Department of Canadian Heritage
- Statistics Canada current data
- CIA World Factbook:Canada
- The Canadian Forces, military
- Historical Statistics of Canada (1983) The major historical data source.
- Canadian National Anthem
- Canadian National Anthem (French)
- Battle of Hong Kong - Canadian Heroes in China: John Robert Osborn, VC.
Political Party Websites (Major)
- Conservative Party of Canada
- Liberal Party of Canada
- New Democratic Party of Canada
- Bloc Québécois
- Green Party of Canada
Political Party Websites (Minor)
- First Peoples National Party of Canada
- Party of Alberta
- Progressive Canadian Party
- Marxist-Leninist Party
- Canadian Action Party
- People's Political Power Party
- Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party
- Western Bloc Party
- Christian Heritage Party of Canada
- The Arms of Canada- Description
- The Canadian Encyclopedia
- National Anthem: O Canada
- Vancouver is "best place to live" ("Canadian cities scored well, as did Austria's Vienna and Switzerland's Geneva, because they are not seen as targets for terror attacks.")
- CBC news article on passing of gay marriage law
- WHO: Suicide rates
- See National Cultural Profiles, a guide from the London Telegraph to the thinking patterns of all the world's major cultures
- See "Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)"
- Colin Lindsay, "Canadians attend weekly religious services less than 20 years ago," Statistics Canada (2008)
- Warren Clark and Grant Schellenberg, "Who's religious?" '"Statistics Canada (2008)
- "Vote set for Oct. 14"
- Department of Finance Canada: FAQs
- Budget 2007
- Competitive Tax Climate. British Columbia. Retrieved on Aug 12, 2012.
- History of Canada Health and Social Transfer
- The Ugly Truth about Canadian Healthcare
- See Energy Information Administration, "Canada" (2009 report)