Carlisle is a city in Cumbria in north-west England, located close to the border with Scotland. It lies on the River Eden a little way upstream of where it flows into the Solway Firth. It is a major railway junction and the home of varied industries.
Carlisle was founded as a military post by the Romans in the late first century AD and named Luguvallium; a civilian settlement grew up around the fort and later became a tribal capital. Following the departure of the Romans it continued in existence as a city for a while as capital of an independent British kingdom.
In 1092 Carlisle Castle was established by William II to tighten his hold on Cumbria, which had only recently been acquired by the English Crown from the Scots. From then on until the Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1603, Carlisle was vital to English defence of the western borders.
At the outbreak of the First World War major armament factories were set up in the Carlisle-Gretna area (this was considered safe fron German naval bombardment or raiding). Worried about the safety implications of drunken munitions workers, the Government in 1916 nationalised all the pubs and breweries in the area; known as the State Management Scheme, this was only ended in 1971.
The population of Carlisle at the census of 2001 was 100,739.