Causes of atheism

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In 1932, the brutal atheist dictator and militant atheist Joseph Stalin penned a repressive “Five Year Plan of Atheism”.[1] See also: State atheism and Atheism and mass murder

There are a number of causes of atheism:

1. Mankind's sinful nature: The history of the atheist community and various studies concerning the atheist community point to moral decline being a causal factor for atheism.[2]

See: Moral failures of the atheist population and Atheism and morality

The Christian Post reports about the Christian philosopher James S. Spiegel's book The Making of an Atheist:

Spiegel, who converted to Christianity in 1980, has witnessed the pattern among several of his friends. Their path from Christianity to atheism involved: moral slippage (such as infidelity, resentment or unforgiveness); followed by withdrawal from contact with fellow believers; followed by growing doubts about their faith, accompanied by continued indulgence in the respective sin; and culminating in a conscious rejection of God.[3]
See also: Atheism and unforgiveness

In addition, there is the historical matter of deceit being used in a major way to propagate atheism from the time of Charles Darwin onward (see: Atheism and deception and Atheism and historical revisionism).

The Bible indicates that atheists are morally depraved. The psalmist David declared: "The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good." — Psalms 14:1 (KJV). The prophet Jeremiah wrote: "The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?" - Jeremiah 17:9 (KJV)

Francis Thompson wrote: "Maybe the atheist cannot find God for the same reason a thief cannot find a policeman."

Moral depravity is certainly one of the prime causes of atheism.

See also: Atheism and morality and Atheism and moral intelligence and Atheism and hedonism and Atheist hypocrisy

2. Hatred towards God. Angry and bitter and attacks on Christianity and Christians by atheists are most often due to hatred towards Jesus Christ and the Bible.[4][5] See also: Atheism and hatred of God

3. Atheistic upbringing. However, according to recent research by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, in the United States, a majority of those surveyed who were raised in atheist or agnostic households, or where there was no specific religious attachment, later chose to join a religious faith.[6][7] A notable example, of a person raised in an atheistic household who later became a Christian is William J. Murray. Mr. Murray was raised by Madalyn Murray O'Hair who founded the organization American Atheists.

In addition, Christianity is experiencing rapid growth in atheistic communist China and has experienced rapid growth in former communist countries.[8][9][10]

See also: Atheism has a lower retention rate compared to other worldviews

4. Atheistic society/environment. See also: Atheism and groupthink

5. Poor relationship with father/mother/parents:

The Cambridge Companion to Atheism which was edited by the atheist philosopher Michael Martin declared:

Continuity and discontinuity in any identity may be a function of interpersonal networks, especially involving intimate relations. Apostasy and conversion can both be seen as a rejection of parental identity and parental beliefs. It “might well be symptomatic of familial strain and dissociation... apostasy is to be viewed as a form of rebellion against parents” (Caplovitz and Sherrow, 1977:50).[11]

A troubled/non-existent relationship with a father can influence a person to become an atheist.[12] Dr. Paul Vitz wrote a book entitled Faith of the Fatherless in which he points out that after studying the lives of more than a dozen leading atheists he found that a large majority of them had a father who was present but weak, present but abusive, or absent.[13][14] Dr. Vitz also examined the lives of prominent theists who were contemporaneous to their atheist counterparts and from the same culture and in every instance these prominent theists had a good relationship with his father.[15] Dr. Vitz has also stated other common factors he observed in the leading atheists he profiled: they were all intelligent and arrogant.[16]

The book Atheist Persona: Causes and Consequences by John J. Pasquini, Th.D. indicates that many of the prominent atheists (and prominent practical atheists) who had dysfunctional/absent fathers that he lists in his book also had dysfunctional/absent mothers.[17] See also: Atheism and poor relationships with parents and Irreligion and domestic violence

6. Pride/Rebellion: Atheism stems from a choice to ignore the reality of God's existence.[18]

The atheist Friedrich Nietzsche wrote: "But now God is dead. You superior men, this God was your greatest danger. Only since he is in the grave, have you risen again. Only now comes the great noontide; only now the superior man will be – Lord!".[19]

Atheists have also given themselves pretentious monikers such as freethinker and rationalist (see also: Atheists and pretentious monikers).

For more information, please see: Atheism and arrogance

7. Narcissism. See: Atheism and narcissism

8. Immaturity.[20][21][22][23] In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household in the United States remain atheists as adults.[24] A 2012 study by the General Social Survey of the social science research organization NORC at the University of Chicago found that belief in God rises with age, even in atheistic nations.[25] See: Atheism has a lower retention rate compared to other worldviews and Atheism and immaturity

In the United States, the ages 14–17 are very influential in terms of an individual adopting atheism.[28] Of those who do embrace unbelief in the United States, many do so in their high school years.[29]

Vox Day writes about immaturity being a causal factor for atheism: "the age at which most people become atheists indicates that it is almost never an intellectual decision, but an emotional one. (This is why most self-identified atheists are angry, bitter, and immature. The anger, bitterness, and immaturity are usually the cause of the atheism, they are not, as many Christians erroneously suppose, the effects).[30]

9. Anger and bitterness.[31] See: Atheism and anger

Various studies found that traumatic events in people's lives has a positive correlation with "emotional atheism".[32] See also: Atheism and the problem of evil and Militant atheism

10. Hedonism.[33] The Apostle Paul wrote that in the end times, men would be lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God (2 Timothy 3:1-4).

The infamous pornographers Hugh Hefner and Larry Flynt are both atheists.[34][35][36]

Engaging in overseas evangelism/outreaches in poor countries often requires significant hardships/persecution and western atheists by in large have been unwilling to endure such hardships in order to spread atheistic ideology - especially when compared to Christianity (see: Western atheists have not done a significant amount of outreach to poor countries).

See also: Atheism and hedonism and Atheism and uncharitableness

11. Naiveté/Gullibility: Many atheists have embraced a number of far fetched, unworkable, and errant notions and ideologies such as communism, abiogenesis, and evolution despite abundant evidence of their falsity. See: Rebuttals to atheist arguments and Causes of evolutionary belief and Atheist cults

12. Irrational thinking: A comprehensive study by Baylor University found that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians.[37] Also, as noted above, a 1980 study published in the magazine Skeptical Inquirer found irreligious college students to be by far the most likely to embrace paranormal beliefs, while born again Christian college students were found to be the least likely.[38] See: Atheism and irrationality and Atheism and logic

13. Superficiality: Noted ex-atheist and psychologist Dr. Paul Vitz has stated that he had superficial reasons for becoming an atheist such as the desire to be accepted by his Stanford University professors who were united in disbelief regarding God.[39]

evolution darwin theory
Late in Charles Darwin's life, Darwin told the Duke of Argyll that he frequently had overwhelming thoughts that the natural world was the result of design.[40] In a letter to Asa Gray, Darwin confided: "...I am quite conscious that my speculations run quite beyond the bounds of true science."[41] See: Irreligion and superstition and Religious views of Charles Darwin

14. Error: Some argue that atheism partly stems from a failure to fairly and judiciously consider the facts [42]

15. State churches: In regards to the causes of atheism, rates of atheism are much higher in countries with a state sanctioned religion (such as many European countries), and lower in states without a sanctioned religion (such as the United States). Some argue this is because state churches become bloated, corrupt, and/or out of touch with the religious intuitions of the population, while churches independent of the state are leaner and more adaptable. It is important to distinguish "state-sanctioned churches," where participation is voluntary, from "state-mandated churches" (such as Saudi Arabia) with much lower atheism rates because publicly admitted atheism is punishable by death.[43]

16. Decline of family in a culture - Mary Eberstadt, a research fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, found the decline of family values leads to a rise in secularization.[44]

17. Socialism/Communism [45][46] See also: Atheism and politics

According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[47] Vitalij Lazarʹevič Ginzburg, a Soviet physicist, wrote that the "Bolshevik communists were not merely atheists but, according to Lenin's terminology, militant atheists."[48] However, prior to this, the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution established an atheist state, with the official ideology being the Cult of Reason; during this time thousands of believers were suppressed and executed by the guillotine.[49][50][51]

The atheism in communist regimes has been and continues to be militant atheism and various acts of repression including the razing of thousands of religious buildings and the killing, imprisoning, and oppression of religious leaders and believers.[52]

Currently, Communist China, the world's largest country in terms of adherents to atheism, is seeing an explosive growth of Christianity. See: Global Christianity and Global atheism and Atheism has a lower retention rate compared to other worldviews

Eric Kaufmann, an academic who specializes in demography as it relates to religion/politics, wrote:

Worldwide, the march of religion can probably only be reversed by a renewed, self-aware secularism. Today, it appears exhausted and lacking in confidence... Secularism's greatest triumphs owe less to science than to popular social movements like nationalism, socialism and 1960s anarchist-liberalism. Ironically, secularism's demographic deficit means that it will probably only succeed in the twenty-first century if it can create a secular form of 'religious' enthusiasm."[53]

18. Simplistic view of science combined with secular leftist utopianism.[54]

James W. Jones wrote at the Oxford University Press's website:

Many of today’s “New Atheists” reprise a nineteenth century argument about the “warfare of science with theology” (to use the title of one of the most well-known books of this genre by A.D. White published in the 1870s). There is a great deal of evidence that this cliché has little historical validity. For example, R. L. Numbers & K. Kampourakis question the idea that religion has obstructed scientific progress: many of the early pioneers of natural science were deeply religious;...

Stephen LeDrew’s The Evolution of Atheism shows that atheism is not just the denial of belief in God but is itself a system of belief in a “secular ideology” with a particular cultural and political agenda, an agenda powered by a simplistic view of science and a rationalistic utopianism that “exhibits some totalitarian tendencies with respect to the use of power.” If religion no longer binds society together and undergirds morality, state power must take over. [55]

19. Scientism: Science has in many ways become a new god.[56][57][58] Scientism is self-refuting. William Lane Craig wrote: "Scientism tells us that we should not believe any proposition that cannot be scientifically proven. But what about that very proposition itself? It cannot itself be scientifically proven."[59] See also: Atheism, scientism and the limitations of science and Atheism and naturalistic intelligence

20. Self-deception[60]

21. Satanic deception [61] (see also: Atheism and satanic deception )

22. Division in religion: According to Sir Francis Bacon, atheism is caused by "divisions in religion, if they be many; for any one main division addeth zeal to both sides, but many divisions introduce atheism."[62]

C. S. Lewis, photographed in 1947.

23. Ignorance.

The ex-atheist C.S. Lewis wrote: "In reading Chesterton, as in reading MacDonald, I did not know what I was letting myself in for. A young man who wishes to remain a sound Atheist cannot be too careful of his reading. There are traps everywhere--"Bibles laid open, millions of surprises," as Herbert says, "fine nets and stratgems." Sir Francis Bacon wrote: "A little philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion." See also: Christian apologetics

Individuals such as Calvin Smith of Creation Ministries International have reported leaving atheism after finding out the falsehood of evolutionary pseudoscience and the evidence for biblical creation.[63]

The ex-atheist Lee Strobel in his book "The Case for Christ" indicates how he used his journalist skills and legal training to discover the truth of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. See also: Christian legal apologetics

For more information see: Atheism and education

24. Indoctrination and ease of life: Francis Bacon argued that atheism was partly caused by:"Learned times, specially with peace and prosperity; for troubles and adversities do more bow men’s minds to religion."[64] See also: Atheist indoctrination and Atheism and historical revisionism and Atheism/Christianity and economic diversity and Atheism and economics

In addition, Jewish columnist Dennis Prager has stated that a causal factor of atheism is the "secular indoctrination of a generation."[65] Prager stated that "From elementary school through graduate school, only one way of looking at the world – the secular – is presented. The typical individual in the Western world receives as secular an indoctrination as the typical European received a religious one in the Middle Ages." [66] In 2013, an study found that academia was less likely to hire evangelical Christians due to discriminatory attitudes.[67]

Atheists have focused considerable efforts on the public schools in order to indoctrinate young people into atheistic beliefs.[68][69] In addition, in communist countries (such as the former Soviet Union) atheistic indoctrination occurred in the educational system through such venues as schools, atheist museums, and clubs (see also: Militant atheism).[70][71] Atheists and secularists rarely point out that universities such as Harvard, Princeton, Oxford, Cambridge, and many others were founded by Christians.[72][73]

Although the United States with its tradition of religious freedom and a strong work ethic has experienced high levels of prosperity and religiosity, often prosperity is inversely proportional to religious belief due to men's arrogance when they become wealthier.[74][75] Vox Day has pointed out that arrogant and godless nations have often eventually experienced significant hardships.[76] See also: Atheism and lower economic productivity

See also: Does atheism thrive on economic prosperity and religion prosper when people are desperate and ignorant?

25. Apathy. See: Atheism and apathy

26. Negative experiences with theists

27. Materialist pseudoscience. (See: Evolution and Abiogenesis). Countries with higher rates of Darwinism also have higher rates of atheism.[77][78] Biblical creationists, such as advocates of the Question evolution! campaign, assert that evolutionism is an ideological "air supply of atheism" and that reducing Darwinism will reduce the prevalence of atheism.[79] See: Atheism and science

28. Ingratitude towards the Creator. See: Atheism and gratitude

29. Pursuit of prestige within secular circles.[80] See also: Atheists and the National Academy of Sciences

30. Intellectual cowardice. See: Atheism and cowardice

31. In cultures not receptive to atheism, atheists appear to be more likely to be social outcasts (see: Atheism and social outcasts). In short, in certain cases, namely where atheists are already social outcasts, they have less negative social consequences by becoming atheists.

32. Rigid and limited thinking. See: Atheism is an unnecessarily limiting view of the world

33. Denialism (See: Atheists and the fallacy of exclusion and Atheism and historical revisionism).

34. Atheists often have a poor understanding of the various types of evidence to determine the validity of various matters and how to weigh evidence (see: Atheism and evidence).

Urbanization and separation from nature as a causal factor for atheism

See also: Atheism and wonder

Plutarch's bust at Chaeronea (his home town).

An Eastern Orthodox website indicates:

As a mass phenomenon, atheism has come to existence over the last two hundred years. It is the result of separation of humans from direct contact with nature, which occurred when significant amounts of population started to move from countryside to towns...In the past people used to be closer to nature, and an atheist was a rare bird. It is a common knowledge that since pre-historic times the idea of a supreme being has been widely spread among people at all stages of development. "Look at the face of the earth," wrote Plutarch (1st century AD), — and you will see townships without fortification, sciences or hierarchy, you will see people without permanent dwelling, not knowing money, having no idea of the fine arts, but you will not find any one human community without a belief in a Divinity."[81]

Professor Rabbi Justin Jaron Lewis at the University of Manitoba states:

Light pollution is the cause of the increase in atheism.

This is my conclusion after spending some time this summer at cottages and cabins far from city lights. The sight of the Milky Way and all the stars around, filling the sky with daubs of light, filled my heart with wonder – as they would anyone. That kind of wonder has often been expressed in religious feelings and prayers. The Bible tells us that in ancient times the stars themselves were worshipped. In Judaism, the common term for idolaters is ovdei kokhavim, “worshippers of the stars.” Even in Jewish tradition, the stars are seen as alive – as the bodies of angels.

They are the “hosts of heaven” – hosts meaning “armies” or “multitudes” – who praise the Creator and do God’s will. The Christian author C.S. Lewis embraced this vision as well. In one of his stories about the magical world Narnia, the children meet a majestic old man who is introduced to them as a star from the sky. A skeptical child says, “A star is a huge ball of flaming gas!” and the old man replies, “Even in your world, that is not what a star is but only what it is made of.”

Of course, it is possible to think of the stars strictly in accordance with modern science, and still be overwhelmed with awe and delight on seeing them. [82]

Rural Americans tend to be more religious. Annie Laurie Gaylor, co-president of the Freedom From Religion Foundation indicates: "It’s still lonely being an atheist in rural America."[83] See also: Atheism and loneliness

Errant notion that atheism is the result of higher intelligence

See also: Atheism and intelligence and Atheism and education and Rebuttals to atheist arguments

A common errant notions among atheists is the mistaken belief that atheism is the result of higher intelligence. This belief often the result of excessive pride, the foolish nature of atheists and self-deception. For more information, please see: Atheism and intelligence.

Also, due the lack of evidence for atheism and the great amount of evidence for Christianity, atheism is not a respectable intellectual position. For example, God's creation plainly points to the existence of God [84] (see also: Atheism has a lower retention rate compared to other worldviews).

Brain researchers and social scientists have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheist/theists within Western World countries (See: Atheism and the brain). Nevertheless, the decision to follow God is ultimately a moral/spiritual concern.

Sigmund Freud's view of religion

See also: Sigmund Freud's view of religion and Atheism and health

Sigmund Freud in his laboratory

Psychologist Sigmund Freud was a proponent of atheism who argued that theism was detrimental to mental health.[85] Oxford Professor Alister McGrath, author of the book The Twilight of Atheism, stated the following regarding Freud:

One of the most important criticisms that Sigmund Freud directed against religion was that it encourages unhealthy and dysfunctional outlooks on life. Having dismissed religion as an illusion, Freud went on to argue that it is a negative factor in personal development. At times, Freud's influence has been such that the elimination of a person's religious beliefs has been seen as a precondition for mental health.

Freud is now a fallen idol, the fall having been all the heavier for its postponement. There is now growing awareness of the importance of spirituality in health care, both as a positive factor in relation to well-being and as an issue to which patients have a right. The "Spirituality and Healing in Medicine" conference sponsored by Harvard Medical School in 1998 brought reports that 86 percent of Americans as a whole, 99 percent of family physicians, and 94 percent of HMO professionals believe that prayer, meditation, and other spiritual and religious practices exercise a major positive role within the healing process.[85]

Freud remains popular among postmodern literary academics, who use his anti-Christian pseudoscience as a basis for their own anti-Christianity and moral relativism, even though his theories were disproved decades ago.

Factors which impede the spread of atheism

See also: Causes of desecularization

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[86]

On December 23, 2012, Professor Eric Kaufmann who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London wrote: "I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious".[87]

There are a number of factors which impede the spread of atheism and are causing a global resurgence of religion (see: Causes of desecularization).

See also

Other articles relating to atheism:

Books on the causes of atheism

See also: Books on the causes of atheism

  • Immorality and pride, the great causes of atheism a sermon preach'd at the cathedral-church of St. Paul, January the 8th 1697/8 : the first of the lecture for that year, founded by the Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq. / by John Harris, Publisher: BiblioBazaar, 2011 ISBN 1240832273, 9781240832279 [2]

External links


  1. Was Stalin an atheist? Is atheism or communism responsible for mass murders?
  2. Christian Philosopher Explores Causes of Atheism
  3. Christopher Hitchens: Staring Death in the Face And the difference that Biblical Creation makes!
  4. The Argument for Atheism from Immaturity
  10. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, edited by Michael Martin, page 302, published in 2006
  12. Vitz, Paul, The Psychology of Atheism, September 24, 1997 (lecture notes taken by an audience member).
  13. Anders, Kerby, Atheists and Their Fathers (Probe Ministries)
  16. Atheist Persona: Causes and Consequences by John J. Pasquini, 2014, University Press of America, page 3
    • "For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse, For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, [even] his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse..." —Romans 1:19-20 (NKJV)
    • Atheist talking points
  17. Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, In Michael Curtis (Ed.) The Great Political Theories, Vol. 2 (New York: Avon Books, 1962, PP. 261-262). Cited in, Christopher, J.R., G.G, Wittet, Modern Western Civilization. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1991, Pages 232, 233
  18. Answering an atheist's question
  19. The Argument for Atheism from Immaturity
  20. Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  21. Belief in God rises with age, even in atheist nations
  22. Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  23. Belief in God rises with age, even in atheist nations
  24. Flynt writes, "I have left my religious conversion behind and settled into a comfortable state of atheism": see the epilogue of Flynt and Ross
  25. "I am not saying he don't believe in God. I am just saying I don't believe in God. That puts me at odds with him." Larry King Live, January 10, 1996
  26. Answering an atheist's question
  27. Answering an atheist's question
  28. When atheists are angry at God by Joe Carter at website
  29. Why do atheists hate God?
  30. 10 celebs you didn't know were atheists, Salon 2-23-2010
  31. Flynt writes, "I have left my religious conversion behind and settled into a comfortable state of atheism": see the epilogue of Flynt and Ross
  32. "I am not saying he don't believe in God. I am just saying I don't believe in God. That puts me at odds with him." Larry King Live, January 10, 1996
  38. "A young man who wishes to remain a sound Atheist cannot be too careful of his reading. There are traps everywhere--'Bibles laid open, millions of surprises,' as Herbert says, 'fine nets and stratagems.' God is, if I may say it, very unscrupulous." -- C.S. Lewis, Surprised by Joy.
  40. An Interview With Mary Eberstadt On Her New Book “How the West Really Lost God: A New Theory of Secularization
  41. Shall the religious inherit the earth? - Eric Kaufmann
  42. Does atheism thrive on economic prosperity? Does religion prosper when people are desperate and ignorant?
  43. Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
  44. Vitalij Lazarʹevič Ginzburg (2009). On Superconductivity and Superfluidity: A Scientific Autobiography. Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “The Bolshevik communists were not merely atheists but, according to Lenin's terminology, militant atheists.” 
  45. James Adair (2007). Christianity. JBE Online Books. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “Although the Civil Constitution called for religious liberty, which was extended to Jews as well as Christians, many revolutionaries pushed for the establishment of a new state religion, either the Cult of Reason (atheists) or the Cult of the Supreme Being (Deists). Changes toAlthough the Civil Constitution called for religious liberty, which was extended to Jews as well as Christians, many revolutionaries pushed for the establishment of a new state religion, either the Cult of Reason (atheists) or the Cult of the Supreme Being (Deists). Changes to the calendar eliminated references to Christian holidays, and even the ancient seven-day week, and a ist of officially recognized saints included such famous thinkers such as Socrates, Jesus, Marcus Aurelius, and Jean-Jacques Rosseau. A period of political persecution, often with religious overtones, broke out, known as the Reign of Teror. Thousands of people were executed by the guillotine, including many of the original leaders of the French Revolution.” 
  46. William Belsham (1801). Memoirs of the reign of George III. to the session of parliament ending A.D. 1793, Volume 5. G.G. & J. Robinson. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “Reign of this portentous period, it has been eloquently tenor, and energetically observed, " that the reign of atheism in France was avowed the reign of terror. In the full madness of their career, in the highest climax of their horrors, they shut up the temples of God, abolished His worship, and proclaimed death to be an eternal sleep:-in the very centre of Christendom, Revelation underwent a total eclipse, while atheism, performing on a darkened theatre its strange and fearful tragedy, confounded the first elements of society, blended every age, rank, and sex ,indiscriminate proscription and massacre, and convulsed all Europe to its centre, that the imperishable memorial of these events might teach the last generations of mankind to consider religion as the pillar of society, the parent of social order, and the safe-guard of nations." It is wonderful that, amid the horrors of this dismal period, while "the death dance of democratic revolution" was still in rapid movement, among the tears of affliction, and the cries of despair, "the masque, the song, the theatric scene, the buffoon laughter, went on as regularly as in the gay hour of festive peace."” 
  47. William Kilpatrick (2012). Christianity, Islam, and Atheism: The Struggle for the Soul of the West. Ignatius Press. Retrieved on 2011–03–15. “Actually, it's helpful to think in terms of two Enlightenments: the Enlightenment that cut itself off from God. The former led to the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, the abolition of slavery, and the civil rights movement. The latter led to the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror, the suppression of church by state, and the godless philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche and their offspring-National Socialism and communism. More recently the abandonment of God has led to the regime of cultural relativism that regards rights as arbitrary constructions. It's this second Enlightenment tradition that Cardinal Ratzinger referred to when he wrote, "The radical detachment of the Enlightenment philosophy from its roots ultimately leads it to dispense with man." Actually this transition happened no "ultimately" but almost immediately. The first instance occurred when Enlightenment worship of abstract "reason" and "liberty" degenearated quickly into the mass murders committed during the antireligious Reign of Terror in France. "Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name", said Madam Rolande as she faced the statue of Liberty in the Place de la Revolution movements before her death at the guillotine. She was one of the early victims of a succession of secular systems based on rootless notions of "liberty", "equality", and "reason". As many historians have pointed out, the atheist regimes of modern times are guilty of far more crimes than any committed in the name of religion. Communist governments alone were guilty of more than one hundred million murders, most of them committed against their own people.” 
  48. Shall the religious inherit the earth? - Eric Kaufmann
  49. Growing criticism by atheists of the New Atheism movement by James W. Jones, Oxford University Press's website
  50. Growing criticism by atheists of the New Atheism movement by James W. Jones, Oxford University Press's website
  51. The religion of scientism
  52. Dawkins, Dilbert and the Illogical Scientists
  53. Exposing the religion of scientism
  54. Is scientism self-refuting?
  55. Atheism - Satanic deception and self-deception
  56. Atheism - Satanic deception and self-deception
  57. Francis Bacon, Of atheism - essay
  58. Calvin Smith - short bio
  59. Francis Bacon, Of atheism - essay
  62. Suspicions Confirmed: Academia Shutting Out Conservative Professors
  63. The atheist indoctrination project
  64. [Atheists to do religious education in schools] by Dr. Don Batten
  65. Marxist-Leninist 'Scientific Atheism' and the Study of Religion and Atheism By James Thrower, page 325
  66. Communism's Struggle with Religion in Lithuania
  69. The inevitable decline of atheism by Vox Day
  70. Does atheism thrive on economic prosperity? Does religion prosper when people are desperate and ignorant?
  71. The inevitable decline of atheism by Vox Day
  72. Atheist populations in various countries
  73. Belief in evolution in various countries
  74. Cutting off the air supply of atheism
  75. Biet-Hallahmi, author of Atheism, A Psychological Profile, in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, wrote, “…what these individuals [the most elite] had, in addition to their creativity and high intelligence, was a strong wish to create distance between themselves and their parents.” Dr. Paul Vitz, author of Faith of Fatherless, indicated that one of the common factors he observed in the leading atheists he profiled: they were all intelligent and arrogant. Part of this is due to discrimination against creation scientists. See: Suppression of alternatives to evolution. In addition, there is discrimination against religious conservatives in academia (see: Atheist indoctrination). See also: Atheism and arrogance and Atheism and intelligence
  76. The cause and consequences of the atheism
  77. Light pollution cause of increased atheism by Professor Rabbi Justin Jaron Lewis
  78. Atheists in the Bible Belt: A survival guide, CNN
  79. Creation vs. evolution
  80. 85.0 85.1 McGrath, Alister (February 28, 2005). "The twilight of atheism". Christianity Today website. Retrieved on May 23, 2015.
  81. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  82. 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious, Tuesday, April 30, 2013