Causes of desecularization

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Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[1]

Desecularization is the process by which religion reasserts its societal influence though religious values, institutions, sectors of society and symbols in reaction to previous and/or co-occurring secularization processes.[2] Desecularization can also occur through providential acts of God and in reaction to God granting Christian's prayers.[3]

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[4]

On December 23, 2012, Professor Eric Kaufmann who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London wrote:

I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.[5]

Kaufmann told a secular audience in Australia: "The trends that are happening worldwide inevitably in an age of globalization are going to affect us."[6]

There are a number of factors is causing the global resurgence of religion and the resulting global desecularization and some of them are given below.

Contents

Weakening of state atheism

See also: Militant atheism and Communism and religious persecution

Joseph Stalin, the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953, patronised the League of Militant Atheists, whose chief aim, under the leadership of Yemelyan Yaroslavsky, was to propagate militant atheism and eradicate religion.[7][8]

According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[9]

Communist countries practice state atheism (See: Atheism and communism).

The historian Martin Van Crevel points out that sovereign states are losing power/influence due to technology democratizing access to information, welfare states increasingly failing, fourth-generation warfare being waged against countries and sovereign states increasingly losing their ability to maintain internal order.[10][11]

The fall of the former Soviet Union caused a significant drop in the percentage of people in the world who are atheists (see also: Collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union).

In addition, Christianity is growing rapidly in communist China (See: Growth of Christianity in China).

Atheism and its retention rate in individuals

See also: Atheism and its retention rate in individuals

In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that in the United States only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.[12]

As noted above, many individuals are abandoning atheism in communist countries or former communist areas.

Global cultural/ideological convergence and desecularization

See: Global cultural/ideological convergence and desecularization

Fertility rates of religious vs. irreligious

See also: Atheism and fertility rates

The Washington Post wrote about the United States and fertility rates: "At the low end of the baby-making spectrum you've got atheists, with 1.6 kids, and agnostics, who average only 1.3."[13]

The higher rate of fertility rate of religious conservatives and the sub-replacement fertility rate of the irreligious and liberal Christianity is another source of desecularization (see: Atheism and fertility rates).

Michael Blume, a researcher at the University of Jena in Germany, wrote about the sub-replacement level of fertility among atheistic populations: "Most societies or communities that have espoused atheistic beliefs have not survived more than a century."[14] Blume also indicated concerning concerning his research on this matter: "What I found was the complete lack of a single case of a secular population, community or movement that would just manage to retain replacement level."[15] See also: Atheism and sexuality

The Washington Post wrote about the United States and fertility rates for various religious groups:

According to Pew's data, the average Mormon can expect to make 3.4 babies in his or her lifetime. Jews, Catholics, and most flavors of Protestantism have fertility rates ranging from 2 to 2.5. At the low end of the baby-making spectrum you've got atheists, with 1.6 kids, and agnostics, who average only 1.3.[16]

Gender imbalances within atheist populations

See also: Atheism and women

Studies indicate that women in the Western World tend to be more religious than men.[17]

Surveys throughout the world and other data indicate that women are less inclined to be atheists.[18] [19]

In 2016, Atheist Alliance International (AAI) conducted an annually reoccurring atheist census project and found:

At the time of writing, the Atheist Census Project recorded that on average worldwide 73.2% of respondents were male. The result is consistent with other research... As such, the focus of many scholarly papers has been on seeking to explain this persistent observation."[20]

In November 2010, Discover Magazine published survey results published by the World Values Survey which showed significant differences between the percentage of men and women who are atheists for various countries with men outnumbering women in terms of adopting an atheist worldview.[21]

In 2015, BloombergView reported concerning the United States: "According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, ...women are 52 percent of the U.S. population but only 36 percent of atheists and agnostics.[22]

Atheists and lower marriage rates

See: Atheism and marriage

Global atheism, aging populations and falling fertility rates

See also: Global atheism and aging populations

Global atheism is facing significant challenges in terms of aging populations in East Asia and Europe and this will be a significant cause of desecularization in the 21st century (see: Global atheism and aging populations).

As atheist populations rise in age, the fertility rates of atheistic countries could drop further. The Rand Corporation indicates, "Nearly all European nations are experiencing long-term downtrends in fertility, and consequently, ageing of their populations. These demographic trends could have potentially damaging consequences for European economies."[23]

Religious evangelism and atheist apathy

Although atheists employ atheist indoctrination via governmental institutions and other methods, most atheists do not engage in personal evangelism (See: Atheism and apathy and Atheism and inspiration).

According Pew Research:

In the 2014 Religious Landscape Study, self-identified atheists were asked how often they share their views on God and religion with religious people. Only about one-in-ten atheists (9%) say they do at least weekly, while roughly two-thirds (65%) say they seldom or never discuss their views on religion with religious people. By comparison, 26% of those who have a religious affiliation share their views at least once a week with those who have other beliefs; 43% say they seldom or never do.[24]

Doing overseas evangelism/outreaches in poor countries often requires significant hardships/persecution and western atheists by in large have been unwilling to endure such hardships in order to spread atheistic ideology - especially when compared to Christianity (see: Western atheists have not done a significant amount of outreach to poor countries).

Evangelical Christians and desecularization

Evangelical Christians are often zealous when it comes to evangelism and evangelical Christianity has seen rapid growth in the world (see: Growth of evangelical Christianity).

Economic duress/instability

The atheist and Harvard University historian Niall Ferguson declared: "Through a mixture of hard work and thrift the Protestant societies of the North and West Atlantic achieved the most rapid economic growth in history."[25]

A Pew Forum study and other studies found an inverse relationship between societal wealth/stability and religiosity (Of course, if a country has a significant amount of religious freedom like the United States, it is certainly possible for a country to have significant societal wealth and religiosity).[26][27]

There is a significant amount of historical data and social science research indicating that conservative Protestantism and its attendant Protestant work ethic is a boon to economic productivity (see: Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism). The atheist and Harvard University historian Niall Ferguson declared: "Through a mixture of hard work and thrift the Protestant societies of the North and West Atlantic achieved the most rapid economic growth in history."[28]

China has seen significant growth of Protestant Christianity and increased economic growth (see: Growth of Christianity in China). Desecularization in China is partly occurring due to its association with better education, individual freedom, equality and democracy (see: Asian atheism).[29]

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation's website RN reports in their article The rise of Christianity in Asia:

Sebastian Kim of York St John University in the UK concurs. Unlike other Asian countries, Koreans, not foreign missionaries, planted the first seeds of Christianity in Korea. Yet, it was western missionaries who brought with them hospitals, schools and other social institutions that helped transform Korea.[30]

Many developed countries in secular Europe have aging populations and increasing sovereign debt which could cause economic problems in the future (see: Eurozone Crisis).

Legal and illegal immigration of religious to secular Europe

See also: European desecularization in the 21st century

Immigration to the European continent has a long history. In the latter part of the 20th century, immigration to Europe increased substantially - especially in Western Europe. At the same time, in 2014, the Pew Research Forum indicated that Europe will go from 11% of the world's population to 7% of the world's population by 2050.[31] See: Growth of global desecularization

Immigration to the European continent has a long history. In the latter part of the 20th century, immigration to Europe increased substantially - especially in Western Europe.

Legal and illegal immigration of religious immigrants to Western World nations is a source of desecularization - particularly Europe (see: Secular Europe). Aging European nations frequently seek workers for their businesses and to help support aging pensioners.

As far as illegal immigration to Europe, The American Interest website declares:

Securing Europe’s vast land and sea borders—a task greater than that faced by the United States along its border with Mexico—is proving exceptionally challenging for the European Union (EU)....

Traffickers use small boats to reduce the chances of being picked up by patrol boats’ radars; migrants are often dropped off on stretches of inaccessible coastline, or left to drift ashore. In the case of illegal land crossings, small trucks are used to penetrate the most porous parts of eastern or southern Europe’s borders. Penalties for this are low or non-existent all around Europe, and traffickers are rarely caught anyway. Smuggling people across Europe has become easier and more profitable than anything other criminal activity, including drugs.[32]

Causes of desecularization in Asia

See also: Asian atheism and Growth of Christianity in China

Rapid pace of desecularization in China

According to Slate, "Protestant Christianity has been the fastest growing religion in China."[33] Evangelical Christianity is especially growing sharply in China.[34]

On November 1, 2014, an article in The Economist entitled Cracks in the atheist edifice declared:

Officials are untroubled by the clash between the city’s famously freewheeling capitalism and the Communist Party’s ideology, yet still see religion and its symbols as affronts to the party’s atheism...

Yang Fenggang of Purdue University, in Indiana, says the Christian church in China has grown by an average of 10% a year since 1980. He reckons that on current trends there will be 250m Christians by around 2030, making China’s Christian population the largest in the world. Mr. Yang says this speed of growth is similar to that seen in fourth-century Rome just before the conversion of Constantine, which paved the way for Christianity to become the religion of his empire.[35]

Justin Wood wrote:

Ten thousand Chinese become Christians each day, according to a stunning report by ...veteran correspondent John Allen, and 200 million Chinese may comprise the world's largest concentration of Christians by mid-century, and the largest missionary force in history...

I suspect that even the most enthusiastic accounts err on the downside, and that Christianity will have become a Sino-centric religion two generations from now. China may be for the 21st century what Europe was during the 8th-11th centuries, and America has been during the past 200 years: the natural ground for mass evangelization. If this occurs, the world will change beyond our capacity to recognize it. Islam might defeat the western Europeans, simply by replacing their diminishing numbers with immigrants, but it will crumble beneath the challenge from the East.[36]

Causes of desecularization in Asia

There are a number of causes of desecularization in Asia (see: Factors related to growth of Christianity in Asia).

Negative effects of atheism on individuals and societies

See: Atheism statistics and Atheism and culture

Negative perception of atheists among many religious

See also: History of atheism

Many theists, particularly in religious countries, have a very negative view of atheists and much of it stems from the behavior of atheists (see: Views on atheists and Moral failures of the atheist population).

Growth of Christian/theistic apologetics

The majority of philosophers of religion, or those who have extensively studied the issue of the existence of God, are theists (72 percent).[37]

In 2001, the atheist and philosopher Quentin Smith declared:

Naturalists [atheists] passively watched as realist versions of theism … began to sweep through the philosophical community, until today perhaps one-quarter or one-third of philosophy professors are theists, with most being orthodox Christians…. God is not 'dead' in academia; he returned to life in the 1960's and is now alive and well in his last academic stronghold, philosophy departments."[38]

Christian apologetics is the defense of the Christian faith through logic/evidence based arguments.

There is a proliferation of Christian apologetics and creation apologetics in the world. For example, there is the Trinity Graduate School of Apologetics and Theology initiative which offers quality Christian apologetics for free to third world country students and charges extremely low costs for others. In addition, Ratio Christi is launching Christian apologetics clubs at college/university campuses.

In addition, there has been a growth of creationist apologetics (see: Creation apologetics and evangelicalism).

Stagnation of atheist apologetics

See also: Stagnation of atheist apologetics

In 1990, the atheist philosopher Michael Martin indicated there was a general absence of an atheistic response to contemporary work in the philosophy of religion and in jest he indicated that it was his "cross to bear" to respond to theistic arguments.[39] Yet, in 1994, Michael Martin was criticized for his eleventh hour cancellation of his debate with Greg Bahnsen (see: Greg Bahnsen and debate and Bahnson-Martin debate press release).[40][41]

For more information, please see: Stagnation of atheist apologetics

Poor quality of atheistic arguments

Rebuttals to atheist arguments

See: Rebuttals to atheist arguments and Stagnation of atheist apologetics

Lower degree of confidence among atheist intellectuals

See also: Atheists and the endurance of religion

In 1990, the atheist philosopher Michael Martin indicated there was a general absence of an atheistic response to contemporary work in the philosophy of religion and in jest he indicated that it was his "cross to bear" to respond to theistic arguments.[42] Yet, in 1994, Michael Martin was criticized for his eleventh hour cancellation of his debate with Greg Bahnsen (see: Greg Bahnsen and debate and Bahnson-Martin debate press release).[43][44]

The agnostic and academic Eric Kaufmann wrote in 2010:

Worldwide, the march of religion can probably only be reversed by a renewed, self-aware secularism. Today, it appears exhausted and lacking in confidence... Secularism's greatest triumphs owe less to science than to popular social movements like nationalism, socialism and 1960s anarchist-liberalism. Ironically, secularism's demographic deficit means that it will probably only succeed in the twenty-first century if it can create a secular form of 'religious' enthusiasm." [45]

In recent years, there have been a notable number of cases of prominent atheists dodging debates (See also: Atheism and cowardice and Atheism and debate).

Growth of internet evangelism/creationism

Global Media Outreach is the internet evangelism arm of CRU.

Christians, particularly evangelical Christianity, have invested in websites the purpose of spreading Christianity and creationism (see: Internet evangelism and Internet creationism).

The internet evangelism websites launched by Christians in the Western World have often made a strong focus on reaching people in developing countries and have had significant results (see: Internet evangelism).[46] Internet evangelism websites often feature video presentations of the gospel message and target audiences which are receptive to converting to Christianity.

The science journal Science Nordic wrote: "Creationism has particularly been on the rise in step with the internet, which according to Peter Kjærgaard has made it much easier for people to become activists..."[47]

Decline of internet atheism

See: Internet atheism

Post 2008 and the decline of New Atheism, internet atheism saw a significant decline (see: Internet atheism).

In addition, while Christian organizations that focus on internet evangelism often have sophisticated online evangelism efforts which target receptive audiences, generally online atheism caters to audiences in the Western World who are already atheists.

Atheists in Muslim countries and the internet

Atheists in predominately Islamic countries who engage in online advocacy of atheism often face imprisonment/censorship from governments and violence from Islamic zealots (see: Atheism vs. Islam).[48] While martyrdom against Christians has resulted in Christianity growing rapidly in areas of persecution, the martyrdom of atheists in Muslim countries has had little to no effect in spreading atheism in Muslim countries (see also: Ex-Muslim atheists are becoming more outspoken, but Muslim tolerance is still rare).

Private religious schools and homeschooling

See also: Homeschooling

Dennis Prager is a vocal opponent of atheist indoctrination in public schools.[49]

Jewish columnist Dennis Prager has stated that a causal factor of atheism is the "secular indoctrination of a generation."[50] Prager stated that "From elementary school through graduate school, only one way of looking at the world – the secular – is presented. The typical individual in the Western world receives as secular an indoctrination as the typical European received a religious one in the Middle Ages."[51] See also: Atheism and critical thinking

Homeschooling is growing worldwide.[52]

Nearly 7% of American college-educated parents homeschool their children.[53] In the United States, an estimated one to two million students are homeschooled, or nearly one out of every 30 students.[54]

In 2011, it was reported that homeschooling has grown by almost 75% in the last 8 years in the United States.[55] and in a recent survey "the average homeschooled student scored at the 88th percentile" in the core subjects of reading, language and math.[56] The most successful mathematician in contests in history, Reid Barton, was homeschooled.[57]

Aging populations under financial pressure and lower per pupil cost of private schooling

Private schooling per student cost less than public schooling.[58]

According to a news program by John Stossel, Belgium has a school system which funds students to attend primary and secondary schools and they can use those funds to attend any school or their choice whether it be a religious private school, a non-religious private school or a public school.

American government run public schools are increasingly facing budget cuts and there is growing criticism of public schools. Vouchers for private schools (including religious schools) and charter schools are increasingly being discussed and legislators are introducing and passing school choice bills.[59] America also has an aging population and Bill Gates indicates that state budgets are breaking schools in the United States.[60] Of course, constrained public school budgets includes constrained school legal budgets so many schools will be less able to engage in frivolous/unwarranted legal suits constraining religious free speech in their schools.

There appears to be a higher education bubble that will burst.[61] The Wall Street Journal reported in 2013 that the percentage of Americans going to college has been decreasing for 3 years in the USA.[62]

Europe faces an aging population and will also have challenges financing public schools.

Atheism, loneliness and lower social cohesion

Dr. J. Gordon Melton said that atheism is not an ideology which tends to create community, but in the last few years there has been some growth of organized atheism.[63]

Citing the work of the French researcher Gilles Kepel who wrote the book The Revenge of God and the work of Harvard University political scientist Samuel Huntington, who authored the work The Clash of Civilizations, the Christian ministry Tomorrow's World declared:

Growing numbers of people around the globe are becoming disenchanted with the effect of secularism on our modern world—the fragmentation of society, the weakening of social cohesion, the absence of noble ideals worth pursuing, the lack of solid values, the social acceptance of what was formerly considered perversion, the spread of crime and the lack of effective punishment, the emptiness of consumerism and materialism, the breakdown of the "welfare state," the failure of communism, the chaos in schools and the breakdown of families (Kepel, p. 5).

Once-formidable ideologies have been found unsatisfactory and have even collapsed. Millions are abandoning the depressing philosophical wasteland of theories that consider human beings mere animals with no future beyond death, and no purpose in life other than to survive. In place of communism and consumerism, many are searching for "new sources of identity, new forms of stable community, and new sets of moral precepts to provide them with a sense of meaning and purpose… there is a quest for some higher explanations about man's purpose, about why we are here" (The Clash of Civilizations, p. 97).[64]

Atheism and loneliness

Secular societies commonly have significant levels of loneliness. See: Atheism and loneliness

See also: Atheism and loneliness

Loneliness has been linked to many physical and mental health problems.[65]

Compared to deeply religious cultures where an extended family and a sense of community often exists, secular countries are often lonelier societies. In addition, numerous studies and other data indicate that atheists often have lower emotional intelligence and lower social skills (see: Atheism and emotional intelligence and Atheism and social skills).

For more information, please see:

Infighting among atheists

See also: Atheist factions

Blair Scott about atheist infighting with the atheist movement

David Silverman is the president of the American Atheists organization.

See also: Atheist movement and Atheism and anger and Atheism and bitterness

Blair Scott served on the American Atheists board of directors. Mr. Scott formerly served as a State Director for the American Atheists organization in the state of Alabama. On December 1, 2012 he quit his post as a director of outreach for the American Atheist due to infighting within the American atheist movement.[66]

Mr. Blair wrote:

I have spent the last week mulling over what I want to do at this point in the movement. I’m tired of the in-fighting: at every level. I am especially tired of allowing myself to get sucked into it and engaging in the very behavior that is irritating..me.[67]

Atheist Neil Carter on the biting and critical nature of atheists

The atheist Neil Carter wrote:

Friends of mine have noted lately how biting and critical the atheist community can be, not only toward outsiders, but even toward its own members. Has there ever been a subculture more prone to eating its own than this one? I really don’t know.[68]

Decline of secular leftist politics

See: Atheism and politics and Decline of the secular left and Atheism vs. Christianity, Islam and right-wing ideology and Desecularization and politics

In European politics right-wing parties are ascendant. There is growing satisfaction with moderate politics in America and the right has made some gains - particularly in state/local elections (see: Decline of the secular left).

The Guardian reported in March 2015, "Leftwing leaders in Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela are being knocked by dissent and stagnating economies. Poor governance and opposition from media and financial elites have sapped their popularity."[69] In May 2018, the Washington Post published an article entitled In Brazil’s political crisis, a powerful new force: Evangelical Christians.[70]

Desecularization and social conformity

Lower atheist fundraising and desecularization

See also: Atheist fundraising vs. religious fundraising

The 21st century is expected to be a century of desecularization and religious organizations significantly outperforming atheist organizations in fundraising will contribute to this matter (see: Atheist fundraising vs. religious fundraising).

See also

Notes

  1. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  2. Religion and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival and Revival by Christopher Marsh, 2011, page 11 (Christopher Marsh cites the definitions of desecularization given by Peter L. Berger and Vyacheslav Karpov)
  3. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  4. 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious, Tuesday, April 30, 2013
  5. Shall the religious inherit the earth
  6. Michael Hesemann, Whitley Strieber (2000). The Fatima Secret. Random House Digital, Inc.. Retrieved on 9 October 2011. “Lenin's death in 1924 was followed by the rise of Joseph Stalin, "the man of steel," who founded the "Union of Militant Atheists," whose chief aim was to spread atheism and eradicate religion. In the following years it devastated hundreds of churches, destroyed old icons and relics, and persecuted the clergy with unimaginable brutality.” 
  7. Paul D. Steeves (1989). Keeping the faiths: religion and ideology in the Soviet Union. Holmes & Meier. Retrieved on 4 July 2013. “The League of Militant Atheists was formed in 1926 and by 1930 had recruited three million members. Five years later there were 50,000 local groups affiliated to the League and the nominal membership had risen to five million. Children from 8-14 years of age were enrolled in Groups of Godless Youth, and the League of Communist Youth (Komsomol) took a vigorous anti- religious line. Several antireligious museums were opened in former churches and a number of Chairs of Atheism were established in Soviet universities. Prizes were offered for the best 'Godless hymns' and for alternative versions of the Bible from which ... the leader of the League of Militant Atheists, Yemelian Yaroslavsky, said: "When a priest is deprived of his congregation, that does not mean that he stops being a priest. He changes into an itinerant priest. He travels around with his primitive tools in the villages, performs religious rites, reads prayers, baptizes children. Such wandering priests are at times more dangerous than those who carry on their work at a designated place of residence." The intensified persecution, which was a part of the general terror inflicted upon Soviet society by Stalin's policy, ...” 
  8. Investigating atheism: Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on July 17, 2014. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”
  9. The Fate of the State by MARTIN VAN CREVELD
  10. Martin van Creveld interview
  11. Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  12. Charted: The religions that make the most babies, Washington Post
  13. Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful
  14. Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful
  15. Charted: The religions that make the most babies, Washington Post
  16. Multiple references:
  17. Khan, Razib (November 18, 2010). "Gene expression; Sex differences in global atheism, part N". Discover magazine website.
  18. Myers, P.Z. (June 29, 2010). "The woman problem". Pharyngula [blog].
  19. AAI Position Statement - Gender Balance
  20. Khan, Razib (November 18, 2010). "Gene expression; Sex differences in global atheism, part N". Discover magazine website.
  21. Carter, Stephen L. (March 27, 2015). "The atheism gap". BloombergView.
  22. Low Fertility and Population Ageing, Rand Corporation
  23. 7 facts about atheists, Pew Forum
  24. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China By Hugh Whelchel on September 24, 2012
  25. Pew Forum - wealth and religiosity
  26. Economics and atheism/Darwinism
  27. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China By Hugh Whelchel on September 24, 2012
  28. The rise of Christianity in Asia by Masako Fukui, Australian Broadcasting Corporation's website RN
  29. The rise of Christianity in Asia by Masako Fukui, Australian Broadcasting Corporation's website RN
  30. Kochhar, Rakesh (February 3, 2014). "10 projections for the global population in 2050". FactTank/Pew Research Center website.
  31. Europe’s Immigration Crisis
  32. When Will China Become the World’s Largest Christian Country?, Slate
  33. In China, a church-state showdown of biblical proportions
  34. Cracks in the atheist edifice, The Economist, November 1, 2014
  35. Christianity Finds a Fulcrum in Asia by Justin Wood
  36. Does it matter that many scientists are atheists?
  37. Craig, William Lane (2012)."Theistic critiques of atheism". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved on July 26, 2014. Unabridged version of article published 2007. See William Lane Craig.
  38. Open Questions: Diverse Thinkers Discuss God, Religion, and Faith by Luís F. Rodrigues, page 201
  39. The Great Debate: Greg Bahnsen vs Gordon Stein
  40. Bahsen at the Stein debate by John Frame
  41. Open Questions: Diverse Thinkers Discuss God, Religion, and Faith by Luís F. Rodrigues, page 201
  42. The Great Debate: Greg Bahnsen vs Gordon Stein
  43. Bahsen at the Stein debate by John Frame
  44. Shall the religious inherit the earth? - Eric Kaufmann
  45. Internet evangelism is powerful especially when combined with creation evangelism
  46. Scientists warn: creationism is on the rise in Europe, Science Nordic
  47. Bangladesh struck by wave of atheist blogger murders, France 24 News, 1/04/2015 / BANGLADESH
  48. How atheism is being sold in America
  49. How atheism is being sold in America
  50. How atheism is being sold in America
  51. Homeschooling is growing worldwide
  52. http://www.sagus.us/blog/blog_details.asp?ID=18&p=7&s=7&s2=7
  53. http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-01-04-homeschooling_N.htm
  54. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/02/09/educating-children-evolution-home-schooling
  55. http://www.hslda.org/docs/news/washingtontimes/200908100.asp
  56. http://www.amstat.org/PUBLICATIONS/amsn/index.cfm?fuseaction=highlights0812001
  57. Anti-evolution religious private schooling and homeschooling will see big growth worldwide
  58. Bill Gates: How state budgets are breaking US schools
  59. College enrollment shows signs of slowing which means less post high school evolutionary indoctrination. Also, the ever shrinking role of tenured evolutionist professors and evolutionary biologists
  60. Baylor ISR- J. Gordon Melton - End of Religion? (May 5, 2015)
  61. The Return of Religion - Tomorrow's World
  62. Multiple references:
    • Gammon, Katherine (March 2, 2012). "Why loneliness can be deadly". Live Science website.
    • Booth, Robert (October 12, 2014). "Number of severely lonely men over 50 set to rise to 1m in 15 years", The Guardian.
  63. An Open Letter from Blair Scott
  64. An Open Letter from Blair Scott
  65. It’s Past Time for Atheism to Grow Up by Neil Carter
  66. Scandals, protests, weak growth: is Latin America’s left in retreat?
  67. In Brazil’s political crisis, a powerful new force: Evangelical Christians, Washington Post