- j is a specific species (chemical) in the system
- Fj0 is the molar flow rate into the system of species j
- Fj is the molar flow rate out of the system of species j
- rj is the rate of appearance of species j
- V is volume in which the reactor takes place
- Nj is the number of moles of species j
The design equation is typically performed on the limiting reactant of a reaction.
A batch reactor is the simplest form of a chemical reactor. A batch reactor is simply a vessel of fixed or variable volume which has no material flows into or out of the system. A batch reactor could be as small as a beaker in a chemistry lab, or as large as a 1,000 gallon fermenter in a large scale brewery.
Since batch reactors have no in or out flows, Fj0 and Fj are both equal to 0. If the reactor is assumed to be perfectly mixed, then there are no spacial variations of rj (in other words, rj is a constant and can be taken outside of the integral. Thus, the design equation for a batch reactor is
Batch reactors are useful for
- small-scale operations
- testing new processes
- manufacturing expensive products
- very slow processes (such as biological reactions)
Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor
A continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) is a well mixed tank with a flow of material flowing both into and out of it.
Like a batch reactor, CSTRs can be assumed to be well mixed. Additionally, CSTRs are almost always run at steady state, thus the differential term of the design equation is 0. The design equation for a CSTR is
- Fj0 - Fj + rjV = 0
Since the well mixed assumption means that conditions anywhere in the tank are equal to conditions at the exit, rj is evaluated at the conditions of the exit stream.