Chinese Communist Party

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Flag of the Communist Party of China

The Chinese Communist Party, founded in 1921, was the Asian branch of the Comintern, controlled by Joseph Stalin from Moscow. Mao Zedong was present at the founding [1] and became the dominant party leader in 1935 during the Long March, whose survivors controlled the party into the 1990s. Mao and his CCP were the bitter enemies of the Kuomintang party (KMT) under Chiang Kai-shek, which ruled China until defeated by the CCP in 1949. Chiang and his army retreated to the nearby island of Taiwan, which still operates a separate regime. American conservatives have always been vehemently hostile toward Mao, and against his CCP until the 1980s, when a modernizing, pro-capitalist faction led by Deng Xiaoping (1904-97) came to power. The currently leader of the party is Xi Jinping.

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Religious intolerance

The Chinese Communist Party persecutes the country’s Christian population, as well as the Falun Gong population, and Tibetan Buddhists. There are several well-documented cases of abuse, torture and false imprisonment.[2]

Comintern affiliate

The All-Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) (later known as the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), was obsessed with ambition for China. In 1920, the Soviet Union established the Far Eastern Bureau, a branch of the Third Communist International, or the Comintern. It was responsible for the establishment of a Communist party in China and other countries. Sumiltsky was the head of the bureau, and Grigori Voitinsky was a deputy manager. They began to prepare for the establishment of the CCP with Chen Duxiao and others. The proposal they submitted to the Far Eastern Bureau in June 1921 to establish a China branch of the Comintern indicated that the CCP was a branch led by the Comintern. On July 23, 1921, under the help of Nikolsky and Maring from the Far East Bureau, the CCP was officially formed.

Marxism with its declaration to “use violent revolution to destroy the old state apparatus and to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat” was a completely foreign concept in China. Mao Zedong said, "The social scum and hoodlums have always been spurned by the society, but they are actually the bravest, the most thorough and firmest in the revolution in the rural areas."[3] The lumpen proletariat enhanced the violent nature of the CCP and established the early political power of the communist party in rural areas. The word “revolution” in Chinese literally means “taking lives.” In a debate over the term “lumpen proletariat” during the Cultural Revolution, the CCP felt that “lumpen” did not sound good, and so the CCP replaced it with “proletariat” simply.

The CCP raised funds by robbing banks and kidnapping. Those kidnapped were kept alive to be ransomed back to their families for continued monetary support for the army. It was not until either the Red Army was satisfied or the kidnapped families were completely drained of resources that the hostages were sent home. Some had been tortured so badly that they died before they could return.

In 1935, Mao and Zhou Enlai were elected to the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow. They remained on this committee until it was publicly disbanded in 1943. A Moscow message to all stations on 12 September 1943, message number 142,[4] relating to this event is one of the most interesting and historically important messages in the enter corpus of VENONA translations. This message clearly discloses the KGB's connection to the COMINTERN and to the national Communist parties.[5]

Edgar Snow introduced Mao and Zhou Enlai to American readers in 1937 in his book, Red Star Over China, shortly after the Chinese Red Army’s route by Chiang Kai-shek in 1934 and their year long retreat to Yan'an known as the Long March. Snow wrote, "the political ideology, tactical line and theoretical leadership of the Chinese Communists have been under the close guidance, if not positive detailed direction, of the Communist International, which during the last decade has become virtually a bureau of the Russian Communist Party." And he further declared that the CCP had to subordinate itself to the "strategic requirements of Soviet Russia, under the leadership of Stalin."[6]

Jiangxi Soviet Republic

Flag of the Peoples Republic of China from 1928 - 7 Nov 1931.
The Soviet Republic of China, referred to as the Jiangxi Soviet Republic, was declared 1 Dec 1931).

In 1931 the Executive Committee of the Comintern in Moscow directed Mao Zedong to organize a Soviet on the Russian model.[7] Mao Zedong and Zhu De, and later Zhou Enlai, set up a Soviet government in two central provinces of China. In 1933, the CCP sent a message to Josef Stalin which read, "Lead us on, O our pilot, from victory to victory!"[8] The 1934 Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic stated that the "Chinese Soviet Government has the ... goal of eventual nationalization of all land." [9]

The CCP promised the intellectuals a “heaven on earth.” Later it labeled them “rightist” and put them into the infamous ninth category of persecuted people, alongside landlords and spies. It deprived landlords and capitalists of their property, exterminated the landlord and rich peasant classes, destroyed rank and order in the countryside, took authority away from local figures, kidnapped and extorted bribes from the richer people, brainwashed war prisoners, “reformed” industrialists and capitalists, infiltrated the KMT and disintegrated it, split from the Communist International and betrayed it, cleaned out all dissidents through successive political movements after it came to power in 1949, and threatened its own members with coercion.

The CCP started to build its theoretical system of genocide at its early stage as a composite of its theories on class, revolution, struggle, violence, dictatorship, movements, and political parties. [10]

Discipline Inspection Commission

Discipline inspection organizations of the Party consist of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grassroots Party commissions for discipline inspection. According to the People's Revolutionary Army (PRA), the Discipline Inspection Commission is tasked with enforcing discipline and handling cases, foster the capability to assist the Party committees to improve the Party's style of work, organize and coordinate the fight against corruption, and do a better job of fighting against corruption and improving the Party's style of work in the army, so as to make new contributions to the army building in an all-round way.

The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection works under the leadership of the Party Central Committee.

The local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grassroots Party commissions for discipline inspection work under the dual leadership of the Party committee at the same level and Party commission for discipline inspection at the next higher level.

The term of each Party commission for discipline inspection is the same as that of the Party committee at the same level.

The plenary session of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection elects its standing committee, secretary and deputy secretaries and reports this to the Party Central Committee for approval.

The plenary sessions of local Party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels elect the standing committee and secretary and deputy secretaries, and the results are passed by the Party committee at the same level and reported to the Party committee at the next higher level for approval.

Whether a discipline inspection commission or discipline inspection members for a grassroots Party committee shall be established or put into position is to be decided by a Party organization at the next higher level in light of specific conditions.

A general Party branch committee and a Party branch committee shall include discipline inspection members.

The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection may, if needed, accredit a discipline inspection group or discipline inspectors to central Party and state organs.

Leaders of the discipline inspection group or discipline inspectors may attend, as non-voting members, related conferences organized by Party leaders of the organ concerned.

Their work must be supported by the Party leaders and organizations of the organ concerned.

NORINCO

see NORINCO scandal

Bibliography

  • Barnouin, Barbara, and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life (2005) excerpt and text search
  • Becker, Jasper. Hungry Ghosts: China's Secret Famine (1996), on the "Great Leap Forward" of 1950s
  • Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story, (2005), 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
  • Dietrich, Craig. People's China: A Brief History, 3d ed. (1997), 398pp excerpt and text search
  • Dittmer, Lowell. China's Continuous Revolution: The Post-Liberation Epoch, 1949-1981 (1989) online free
  • Eberharad, Wolfram. A History of China (2005), 380 pages' full text online free
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, and Kwang-ching Liu. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China (1999) 352 pages excerpt and text search
  • Esherick, Joseph W.; Pickowicz, Paul G.; and Walder, Andrew G., eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. (2006). 382 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Fairbank, John King and Goldman, Merle. China: A New History. 2nd ed. Harvard U. Press, (2006). 640 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Hsü, Immanuel Chung-yueh. The Rise of Modern China, 6th ed. (1999), highly detailed coverage of 1644-1999, in 1136pp. excerpt and text search
  • Jian, Guo; Song, Yongyi; and Zhou, Yuan. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. (2006). 433 pp.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Fairbank, John K., eds. The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 15: The People's Republic, Part 2: Revolutions within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982. Cambridge U. Press, 1992. 1108 pp.
  • Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China and After: A History of the People’s Republic, 3rd ed. (Free Press, 1999), dense book with theoretical and political science approach. excerpt and text search
  • Perkins, Dorothy. Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Facts on File, 1999. 662 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Shuyun, Sun. The Long March: The True History of Communist China's Founding Myth (2007)
  • Schoppa, R. Keith. The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History. (2000). 356 pp. online edition from Questia
  • Spence, Jonatham. Mao Zedong (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China (1991), 876pp; well written survey from 1644 to 1980s excerpt and text search; complete edition online at Questia
  • Wang, Ke-wen, ed. Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. (1998). 442 pp.
  • Westad, Odd Arne. Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946-1950. (2003). 413 pp. the standard history


References

  1. Dick Wilson, The People's Emperor Mao: A Biography of Mao Tse-tung, New York 1979, pg. 60.
  2. Christians under Attack in China, By Frederick W. Stakelbeck Jr., FrontPageMagazine.com, January 25, 2007.
  3. From Mao’s “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan” (March 1927).
  4. Venona 142(a) Moscow to Canberra 12 September 1943. Text reads: "change in circumstances - and in particular the dissolution of the Comintern - necessitates a change in the method used by the workers of our residencies to keep in touch with the leaders of the local Communist organizations on intelligence matters.
    2. Our workers, by continuing to meet the leader of the Communists, are exposing themselves to danger and are giving cause [orgs of] local authorities to suspect that the Comintern is still in existence.
    3. We propose:
    a. That personal contact with leaders of the local Communist organizations should cease and that Communist material should not be accepted for forwarding to the Comintern.
    b. That meetings of our workers may take place only with special reliable undercover [ZAKONSPIRIROVANNYJ] contacts of the Communist [D% organizations], who are not suspected by the [orgs of] local authorities, exclusively about specific aspects of our intelligence work (acquiring [1 group unidentified] contacts, leads [NAVODKI], rechecking of those who are being cultivated, etc.). For each meeting it is necessary to obtain our consent.
    Representative of the Soviet Union.
    No. 4084
    Lt. Gen. P.M. Fitin.
    Notes: [a] This message is known to have been sent also to NEW YORK, SAN FRANCISCO, and OTTAWA.
  5. Counterintelligence Reader, Volume 2, Chapter 4. National Counterintelligence Center, United States Government. n.d.
  6. Red Star Over China by Edgar Snow, New York, 1937.
  7. Soviet Russia and the Far East by David J. Dallin (New Haven, 1948); Inside Red China by Nym Wales (New York, 1939); Kiangsi Soviet Republic.
  8. Soviet Russia and the Far East, David J. Dallin, New Haven, 1948; 17th Congress of Communist Party of Soviet Union, Stenog. Report, p. 1323, quoted in While You Slept : Our Tragedy in Asia and Who Made It, John T. Flynn, New York : The Devin - Adair Company, 1951, pg. 21 pdf.
  9. Ilpyong J. Kim, The Politics of Chinese Communism, Berkeley 1973, p. 25.
  10. On the Beginnings of the Chinese Communist Party, Nine Commentaries on the Chinese Communist Party, The Epoch Times, December 13, 2004.


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