Chongqing (Simplified: 冲清; Traditional: 衝清; Hanyu pinyin: Chōngqīng; Wade-Giles: Chungking) is a major city on the River Yangtse in western China. It was formerly part of the province of Sichuan but in 1997 became the fourth municipality (alongside Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin). The population of the municipal area is 31.4 million and of Chongqing city proper 4.1 million.
Chongqing served as the capital of China between 1938 and 1945, when the major cities of eastern China were under Japanese occupation. During this period it suffered heavy aerial bombardment, but also benefitted from the influx of industrial and academic organisations and institutions, laying the foundations for its postwar growth.