Christianity

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Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Gospel

Bible
Old Testament
New Testament
Ten Commandments

Christian Theology
Trinity: Father,
Jesus Christ, Holy Spirit
Nicene Creed
Creation
Defense of Christianity
Salvation

History and Traditions
Roman Catholic Church
Arianism
Orthodox Church
Crusades
Protestant Reformation
Counter Reformation
Protestantism
Missions
Great Awakening
Social Gospel
Mainline
Liberal Christians
Evangelical Christianss
Fundamentalism

Important Figures
Saint Paul
Saint Augustine
Thomas Aquinas
Martin Luther
John Calvin
John Wesley
Pope

Christianity is the world's largest religion, having 2.1 billion followers with a presence on all seven continents.[1] Christianity is the only religion that emphasizes faith rather than a mere belief system, and brings God closest to mankind through Jesus as the Son of God. Literally, Christianity means "of Christ," or "belonging to Christ."[2][3] The Book of Acts (Acts:11:26) records that "the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." The title Christian is also used in Acts 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16.

Contents

Main Christian Divisions

Anglican Christ Church in Western Australia

The three largest self-governing bodies of Christians are:

  • The Roman Catholic Church (approx. 1.1 billion baptized members) traces its roots back to Saint Peter whom Catholics believe established their church and the succession of Popes as the spiritual leaders of Christendom.
  • The Orthodox Churches (approx. 300 million baptized members) trace their roots back to the Apostles, and are organized in Autocephalous national or regional churches in communion with each other. Differing theological perspectives led to the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches in A.D. 1054.
  • Protestantism: the largest Communions are the Anglicans (approx. 115 million baptized members) and the Lutheran World Federation (approx. 68 million baptized members). Protestantism has its origins in the European Reformation. It broke from the Roman Catholic Church under Martin Luther when differences over the nature of faith and works in the role of salvation, as well as other practices of the Catholic Church that Luther saw as unBiblical, were raised.

Christian Beliefs

Christian beliefs are well supported via a large body of compelling evidence. Theologians, over two millennia, have debated a definitive summary of the Christian faith. While its interpretations vary drastically, probably the most commonly accepted statement of the faith is the Nicaea-Constantinopolitan Creed.

Christians and Christian denominations agree on many points of doctrine while disagreeing on some. According to an online Harris poll from 2003, 99% of all American Christians believe in God, 96% in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 93% in Heaven, 93% in the virgin birth, 92% in the survival of the soul after death, 82% in Hell, 50% in ghosts, 27% in astrology and 21% in reincarnation.[4] Note that the latter two beliefs are in opposition to the religious tenants of most Christian denominations.

Nonetheless, the Nicaea-Constantinopolitan Creed offers a general overall picture of what Christian theology looks like, and serves as a useful outline and historic standard. Other creeds may prove helpful in research. See the Apostles' Creed and the Athanasian Creed.

God

For a more detailed treatment, see God.
God is a triune being. Though there is only one Divine nature there are three Divine Personages: The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The three Persons are collectively called the Trinity or the Holy Trinity. While God is tripartite, this does not imply that Christians are polytheists. The doctrine of the Trinity is central to Christian theology, although several denominations that usually are considered Christian are non-Trinitarian. The God of the Christian is the creator of all things, is everywhere present, exists in all times, is transcendent, all-knowing (omniscient), just, and all-powerful (omnipotent).

A major theme of the Bible is love. In the Hebrew Old Testament the idea is expressed in the Hebrew word hessed, which is variously translated as loyal love, tender mercy, steadfast love, mercy, goodness, etc. in the New Testament the same idea is expressed in the Greek word agape, which is variously translated as love, compassion, charity, etc.

Jesus

Jesus' Baptism.jpg

During the reign of Caesar Augustus the Son (i.e. the second Person of the Trinity) took flesh from a virgin woman and was incarnated as a man. He was born in the town of Bethlehem and was given the name Jesus. At approximately the age of thirty he was baptised by his cousin John the Baptist and began to preach in the area of Judea and Galilee. About three years later, his teachings and works of mercy prompted the Jewish authorities to plot Jesus' death. Jesus was crucified. He rose from the dead and was seen by over 500 people. He ascended to Heaven. The four Gospels contain the basic account of what Jesus did and said.

Jesus summarized his moral teachings in two commandments from the Old Testament:

"'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' This is the great and foremost commandment. The second is like it, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets." (Matthew 22:37-39; Deuteronomy 6:5; Leviticus 19:18)

Morality

The fundamental principle in Christian moral teaching is love and forgiveness, as expressed by the life and teachings of Jesus Christ and the New Testament. In the Hebrew Old Testament the idea is expressed in the Hebrew word hessed, which is variously translated as loyal love, tender mercy, steadfast love, mercy, goodness, etc. in the New Testament the same idea is expressed in the Greek word agape, which is variously translated as love, compassion, charity, etc.

There has been endless debate over how a person should express love for God in his or her moral behavior. This moral dialogue found expression in the New Testament, where the Apostle Paul addressed such controversies as circumcision (Romans 2:25-29), eating meat that was sacrificed to pagan deities (1 Corinthians 8), speculating about myths and genealogies (1 Timothy 1:3-5), and observing ceremonial dates and seasons (Galatians 4:9-11).

Regardless of a person's ethical interpretations, adherents commonly point to New Testament passages John 3:16 and 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 as scriptural depictions of love. The former states that
"God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life."
The latter characterizes love, saying
"Love is patient, love is kind and is not jealous; love does not brag and is not arrogant, does not act unbecomingly; it does not seek its own, is not provoked, does not take into account a wrong suffered, does not rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth; bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things."

Jesus Christ affirmed, "By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another." (John 13:35) In trying to understand the reason for the growth of Christianity in a pagan culture, it has been noted that while love of one's neighbor is not an exclusively Christian virtue, it appears that the primitive Christian church practiced it much more effectively than any other group.[5]

In addition to sacrificially showing care for those within the community as well as to those without, (cf. Gal. 6:10) the Christians elevated the sanctity of life, opposing abortion, infanticide, child abandonment, suicide, and gladiatorial contests.[6][7] While the primitive church tolerated the existing and pervasive cultural economic institution of slavery in the Roman Empire, the mandate of equal pay and just treatment (Col. 4:1; Eph. 6:9) greatly ameliorated the treatment of slaves, while advising them to seek freedom if possible, (1Cor. 7:21) and requiring that the escape slave Onesimus be received back not "as a servant, but above a servant, a brother beloved". (Philemon 1:6) The Christian ethos of love also motivated a great expansion in the building of hospitals.[8][9] By A.D. 500, most large towns in in the Roman Empire had erected them.[10]

Atonement

The Christ of St. John of the Cross by Salvador Dalí, 1951.

Christians believe with the New Testament that the death of Jesus, in conjunction with His resurrection, is an indispensable event for the reconciliation of lost sinners with God. There are three elements they see to the understanding of His death on the cross.

- Jesus having the knowledge that His path would lead to his own death, desired and willed that that take place, and persevered in that path though there was opportunity for Him to avoid it. "I have power to take my life and I have power to lay down my life. I lay down my life for the sheep."

- Jesus saw that in His death there would be a way for people to be brought back to the God from whom they were alienated and lost because of their sins. This would involve a substitution of Himself to effect, i.e. atone for, that development. "For the Son of Man came not to be served, but to serve and give His life as a ransom for many." How this would take place was not new to the Jews of His day from their understanding of contemporary everyday practice of substitute payment - as in redemption of the first-born (Pidyon Ha Ben), or in the understanding of what aggadic stories such as the Binding of Isaac implied (see Midrash), but it was not the prevalent view that the Messiah was to be that payment. Though while alive on earth, he had hinted at it in sayings such as "unless a seed falls and dies, it remains alone, but when it dies, it brings forth..", it was only after He had risen from the dead that He explained Scripture (the Old Testament) clearly about the necessity of His death to have taken place. The disciples would henceforth preach, and Peter among them, that the death of Jesus the Messiah and His resurrection was for-planned and for-ordained by God the Father, and foretold in the Scripture (Isaiah 53).

- Christians of all generations have looked to the perfect Atonement, and the hope for reconciliation, accomplished by Jesus on the cross, to provide the means of understanding the solution to the vexing problems of the mind and of life itself.

Salvation

The Bible teaches that "all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23). This is often interpreted to mean that everyone has displeased God and is now separated from him in a kind of alienation and enmity that results from the fundamental conflict between selfish human interests and God's interests (Romans 8:5-8; James 4:4). Jesus offered a solution to this Biblical dilemma in that, by repentance of sins and faith in him (Jesus), their sins would be forgiven. He said that "...the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins." (Mark 2:10) Jesus also said, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." (Mark 2:17).

Jesus Christ taught that "unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God" (John 3:3). Protestant Evangelical Christianity often uses the terms "saved" and "born again" to mean conversion, while other Christians, such as the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, use the phrase born again as a synonym for baptized.

Christians are expected to continue living by Christ's teachings (John 8:31), as is appropriate for "children of Light" (Ephesians 5:8-10). Some believe that this is necessary in order to be saved. Others say that this is a common misconception of the text, that it refers instead to the "fruits" of saving faith. Christians in the Reformed tradition (following the teaching of the 16th century French lawyer and theologian John Calvin) say that salvation cannot be lost. One Bible passage often cited is John 10:28-29 in which Jesus said of his own Apostles that they could not be snatched from his hand.

Resurrection of Jesus Christ

"The Resurrection" by Carl Heinrich Bloch

The resurrection of Jesus Christ is critical to the Christian faith. The Apostle Paul wrote, "if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vain, your faith also is vain" (I Cor:15:14). Traditionally, Christianity has believed in a physical resurrection of Jesus Christ.[11]

In recent history, Gary Habermas is considered a leading Christian apologist for defending the resurrection of Jesus.[12][13][14][15][16] Other notable defenders of the resurrection include: William Lane Craig,[17] Lee Strobel, Josh McDowell,[18] Edwin M. Yamauchi,[19] N.T. Wright[20] and Michael Horner.[21]

The Meaning of the Resurrection for Christians

The fact of the Resurrection of Christ is also believed to produce certain effects on the lives of Christians.

1. It is because Jesus rose from the dead that believers now can resort to a living Savior to help and deliver them from sin and from situations overwhelming for them by their own powers.

2. The New Testament sees in the resurrection of Christ a certain vindication of what apparently to the world and to all beings was a failure and an overcoming of Him by His crucifixion.

3. The coming of Jesus back to life means to the believer that, indeed, his sins are totally forgiven. This is because believers know that His death was as a payment for sins - a "wage of death" for our sins that He received in our stead. If He remained dead, believers would know that the wage had not been fully paid.

4. It is a now-living Savior that Christians know can go before them, can closely lead them through life — as He did when He was on earth. This makes following Him practical and real.

5. The New Testament reveals that it is the Risen Christ who received from the Father the Holy Spirit and He, through Himself, ascended to the Father, has given the Holy Spirit to us. This gives the believer in Christ both the knowledge and the power to live a godly life and live a life that can be an intimately and personally directed one.

6. The resurrected Christ was no mere reassembling of the molecules and particles of the Body that had been crucified. It was, indeed, a physical body, but one that was fully glorified. It was a "spiritual body". Christians know that likewise, they will one day be granted the nature of a spiritual body, and be full of health. They therefore are full of hope and consolation, and consider that, even now in this life, there is an overcoming through Him.

Worship and the Sacraments

Christians normally attend worship services at once a week, typically on Sundays (although some denominiations, like Seventh Day Adventists worship on Saturdays). The Catholic and Eastern Orthodox denominations have seven sacraments: baptism, eucharist, confirmation, confession, anointing of the sick, marriage, and holy orders. Of these, Protestants have preserved only baptism and eucharist, which are the only two sacraments for which they find Scriptural support.

Evangelism

In what is called the Great Commission, Jesus sent his disciples out into the world to preach the Gospel (literally "good news") and make disciples.

Great Commission
But the eleven disciples proceeded to Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had designated. When they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some were doubtful. And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth." Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." --Matthew 28:16-20 NASB
The Departure of the Apostles by Charles Gleyre.


Internet Evangelism

see also: Internet evangelism

Campus Crusade for Christ International (CCCI) is one of the world's largest evangelism organizations within Christendom and has over 25,000 full time missionaries. In 2006, Alan Beeber of CCCI predicted that internet evangelism will result in more conversion that all other forms of evangelism for CCCI combined.[22] At YouTube, Christians and Christian creationists have faced problems with atheist cyberbullies, but they have developed methods to overcome this problem.

Explosive growth of worldwide Christianity

Hong Kong Christians at Gateway Camp. In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western World Christians as there were Western World Christians.[23]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

see also: Global Christianity and Internet evangelism and Evangelical Christians and Resources on becoming a Christian

Christianity has seen tremendous growth over its 2000 year history.[24] Christianity has recently seen explosive growth outside the Western World.[25] In 2000, there were twice as many non-Western Christians as Western Christians.[26] In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western Christians as there were Western World Christians.[27] There are now more non-Western missionaries than Western missionaries.[28]

In 2011, the American Spectator declared concerning research published in the International Bulletin of Missionary Research:

The report estimates about 80,000 new Christians every day, 79,000 new Muslims every day, and 300 fewer atheists every day. These atheists are presumably disproportionately represented in the West, while religion is thriving in the Global South, where charismatic Christianity is exploding."[29]


Early Church Community and Commitment: The Biblical Period

Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane by Heinrich Hofmann.

The Bible records that that, at least initially, the church saw itself as united. In the community:

"...they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. {43} And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles. {44} And all that believed were together, and had all things common; {45} And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need. {46} And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart, Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved." "And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul: neither said any of them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common."(Acts 2:42-47; 4:32)

This community was soon "scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea and Samaria, except the apostles," due to determined persecution which resulted in the dispersed disciples going "every where preaching the word." (Acts 8:1,4) Christian communities were primarily to be found in two separate cultural and liguistic entities--the Greek and Latin-speaking empires of Europe and the mid-east, and the Aramaic speaking sphere of the Parthian empire of the mid-east and far-east. This latter sphere encompassed not only the eastern portions of Syria, the Arabian peninsula, and Persia, but also extended to portions of southern India and even China. To this day there are many Aramaic Church members in the Kerala province of south India.

Early Church Community and Commitment: the Post-Biblical Period

Orthodox Church's icon artwork.

Justin martyr 100 A.D. - 165 A.D. From the "First Apology" (Defense)

But we, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching, bring him to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized [illuminated] person, and for all others in every place, that we may be counted worthy, now that we have learned the truth, by our works also to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments, so that we may be saved with an everlasting salvation. Having ended the prayers, we salute one another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands. And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. This word Amen answers in the Hebrew language to genoito [so be it]. And when the president has given thanks, and all the people have expressed their assent, those who are called by us deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to those who are absent they carry away a portion. (Chapt. LXV - administration of the sacraments)
And this food is called among us Eukaristia [the Eucharist = the Thanksgiving], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, "This do ye in remembrance of Me, this is My body;" and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, "This is My blood;" and gave it to them alone... (Chapt. LXVl - of the Eucharist)
And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead...(Chapt.LXVll - weekly worship of the Christians)

Tertullian (A.D. 160 -220), an Early ecclesiastical leader and writer, in his Apology (response to pagan charges) in describing the early church community wrote, ca. AD 197:

We are a body knit together by one faith, one discipline and one hope. We meet together as a congregation, uniting together to offer prayer to God. We pray for the emperors and all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for peace and for the delay of the final end. We read our holy scriptures to nourish our faith, hope, steadfastness and good habits. We hear exhortations and rebukes. We take such judging very seriously – as befits those who believe they are in the sight of God – especially seriously when anyone sins so grievously we have to cut them off from our prayer, our congregation and all sacred things. Our elders preside over us, obtaining that honor not by money, but by their established character. There is no buying and selling in the things of God. Though we have a fund, but not because people can buy religion. Once a month, anyone who wants to makes a small donation – but only he who is able and willing; there is no compulsion. It is not spent on feasts, but to support and bury poor people, to provide for orphans, the elderly old persons, victims of shipwreck and those in prison for their faith.[30]

Pliny the Younger, the Roman governor of Pontus & Bithynia (northern Turkey) from A.D. 111-113, reporting to emperor Trajan of Christians, whom such pagan rulers found intolerable:

... Those who denied that they were or had been Christians, when they invoked the gods in words dictated by me, offered prayer with incense and wine to your image, which I had ordered to be brought for this purpose together with statues of the gods, and moreover cursed Christ--none of which those who are really Christians, it is said, can be forced to do--these I thought should be discharged. Others named by the informer declared that they were Christians, but then denied it, asserting that they had been but had ceased to be, some three years before, others many years, some as much as twenty-five years. They all worshipped your image and the statues of the gods, and cursed Christ.
They asserted, however, that the sum and substance of their fault or error had been that they were accustomed to meet on a fixed day before dawn and sing responsively a hymn to Christ as to a god, and to bind themselves by oath, not to some crime, but not to commit fraud, theft, or adultery, not falsify their trust, nor to refuse to return a trust when called upon to do so. When this was over, it was their custom to depart and to assemble again to partake of food — but ordinary and innocent food.[31]


Implications of the growth of worldwide Christianity

see also: Global Christianity and Internet evangelism

Given the increase in the public's access to global communications, it is thought that the more theologically conservative non-Western Christian churches could influence Western Christianity to move in a more theologically conservative direction.[32] For example, non-Western Anglicans are exerting influence within the worldwide Anglican Communion against the stance of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Anglican Communion's North American provinces with regard to homosexual practices.[33][34]


Resources related to becoming a Christian

see also: Resources on becoming a Christian

Below are some resources on becoming a Christian:


Tips on choosing a Christian church:


Spiritual growth as a Christian:

See also

Denominations or branches of Christianity

Disputed

Christianity in the World

Other articles

Internet evangelism:

Further reading

Encyclopedias

Histories

United States

  • Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A religious history of the American people‎ (1979) 1192 pages; classic history from broad perspective excerpt and text search
  • Balmer, Randall. Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism (2nd ed. 2004), 655pp Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism online edition
  • Lippy, Charles H. and Peter W. Williams, eds. Encyclopedia of the American religious experience: studies of traditions and movements (3 vol 1988) 1872 pages; standard reference work; long essays by scholars
  • Noll, Mark A. A history of Christianity in the United States and Canada‎ (1992), by leading Evangelical historian excerpt and text search
  • Queen, Edward L. et al, eds. Encyclopedia of American Religious History (3rd ed. 2 vol. 2009) 1200pp
  • Reid, Daniel G. et al. eds., Dictionary of Christianity in America (199)
  • Wooley, Davis C. ed. Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists‎ (5 vol 1958-19820; 2565 pages

References

  1. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html
  2. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary
  3. The early Christian faith was sometimes called That Way, (Acts 19:1,9,23; 24:22), and its adherents were also called Nazarenes (Acts 24:5), evidently after the city of Nazareth where Jesus lived.
  4. http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=359
  5. E.R. Dodds, 1970:136-137
  6. Kenneth Scott Latourette, A history of Christianity p. 244
  7. Ted Cabal, Chad Owen Brand, Paul Copan, The Apologetics Study Bible, 274
  8. Albert John Ochsner, Meyer Joseph Sturm, The organization, construction and management of hospitals, p. 17
  9. Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopaedia of Medical Care, p. 135
  10. George D. Pozgar, Legal aspects of health care administration', p. 2
  11. http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/crj0056a.txt
  12. Habermas, Gary, Experiences of the Risen Jesus: The Foundational Historical Issue in the Early Proclamation of the Resurrection, Dialog: A Journal of Theology, Vol. 45; No. 3 (Fall, 2006), pp. 288-297.
  13. "Wildcat" and Holding, J.P., Book review of "The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus", 22nd June, 2004 (Tektonics)
  14. Habermas, Gary, Jesus' Resurrection and Contemporary Criticism: An Apologetic Criswell Theological Review 4.1 (1989) 159-74.
  15. Habermas, Gary, [http://www.garyhabermas.com/articles/crj_explainingaway/crj_explainingaway.htm Explaining Away Jesus' Resurrection: The Recent Revival of Hallucination Theories], Christian Research Journal / vol. 23, no. 4, 2001.
  16. Habermas, Gary, Why I Believe The New Testament Is Historically Reliable (Apologetics.com)
  17. Craig, William Lane, Articles: Historical Jesus
  18. McDowell, Josh, Evidence for the Resurrection, 1992.
  19. Jamauchi, Edwin M., Easter: Myth, Hallucination, or History?
  20. Wright, N.T., Early Traditions and the Origins of Christianity, Sewanee Theological Review 41.2, 1998.
  21. Horner, Michael, Did Jesus Really Rise from the Dead?
  22. http://www.lausanneworldpulse.com/pdf/issues/LWP0206.pdf
  23. http://www.wnd.com/?pageId=30077
  24. http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BChristianIncrease12.htm
  25. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  26. http://www.wnd.com/?pageId=30077
  27. http://www.wnd.com/?pageId=30077
  28. http://spectator.org/archives/2011/02/28/thriving-christianity
  29. Defense by Tertullian (39), Trans. Rev. S. Thelwall. Modernized, abridged and introduced by Stephen Tomkins. Edited and prepared for the web by Dan Graves.
  30. Pliny the Younger Letters, 10.96
  31. http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=18774
  32. http://www.maravipost.com/malawi-politics/district/5751-bishop-mw-anglicans-totally-against-homosexuality.html
  33. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/2156406/Anglican-church-schism-declared-over-homosexuality.html

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