Civil Rights Act
There have been many Civil Rights Acts in the United States:
- The Civil Rights Act of 1866 protected freed blacks after the Civil War and granted full citizenship to those born on U.S. soil, except for Indians. Congress passed this law over the veto of President Andrew Johnson.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1871 was known as the "Ku Klux Klan Act" because it protected southern blacks from the KKK.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1875 granted blacks the same treatment as whites in places of public accommodation (e.g., hotels and restaurants). The Supreme Court invalidated this, and it took over 80 years for Congress to find a different basis for this type of law, the Interstate Commerce Clause.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1957 established a Civil Rights Commission (CRC) to grant equal protection to all persons and empower courts to enjoin violations.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1960 authorized federal inspection of local voter registration lists.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the most significant Civil Rights law, prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.
- The Civil Rights Act of 1991 granted a right to trial by jury on discrimination claims and allowed emotional distress damages while limiting how much a jury could award.