Empress Dowager Cixi (1835 — 1908) was a regent of the Qing dynasty. She was a consort of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor. In 1889, Cixi retired as regent and took up residence at the Summer Palace outside Beijing. China's defeat by Japan in 1895 inspired a reformist movement led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao. During the "Hundred Days of Reform" in 1898, Guangxu issued numerous edicts inspired by reformist officials. Conservatives appealed to Cixi, who staged a coup that restored her authority. After the coup, Cixi kept the emperor confined at the Forbidden City. His life was saved only by the intervention of foreign powers.
After foreign armies occupied China in 1900 to suppress the Boxer Rebellion, Cixi turned to Yuan Shikai
, who implemented sweeping reforms similar to those proposed in 1898. An edict against footbinding was issued in 1902, the Imperial Examinations were abolished in 1905, and a National Assembly, with half the membership elected, met in 1910. Guangxu was poisoned, presumably at Cixi's command, the day before she died in 1908.