Coffee

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Roasted coffee beans

Domesticated in Ethiopia in ancient times, coffee is a plant, the roasting and grinding beans of which may be used to make a stimulating, caffeine-containing, beverage. The beans can also be chewed and sometimes can be found sold with a chocolate coating.

Coffee reached Europe in the 17th century AD, when traders from the East brought it to Venice. Soon afterwards, coffeehouses began to spring up across Europe. Coffee was most widely embraced in England over the next two centuries. [1] Today, Brazil exports more coffee than any other nation. [2]

Coffee grows best in areas with moderate amounts of both rain and sunshine, and with temperatures that do not deviate far from 70ยบ F. [3]

Forms of Coffee

  • Espresso is a concentrated coffee made by passing water through ground coffee beans at high pressure. Sometimes referred to as a "short black".
  • Americano is espresso diluted with hot water. The drink was so-named by Italian coffeehouse owners during World War II to acknowledge the fact that American soldiers were not used to strong coffee like espresso and often asked for it to be watered down a bit. Also known as a "long black".
  • Ristretto is a variant on the espresso, which uses less water and is stronger and sweeter.
  • Latte, short for caffe latte, derived from the Italian phrase for "coffee and milk", refers to a coffee with warm milk.
  • Cappuccino is similar to a latte, but stronger and with frothy steamed milk on top, often served with a dusting of chocolate. The name derives from the supposed likeness to the habit of a Capucin monk.
  • Double double is a cup of coffee containing two cream and two sugar; regular means one of each, and black indicates that the coffee is without either.
  • Macchiato is shot of espresso, with some milk foam.
  • Iced coffee is coffee with ice, which is different from a Frappachino, which is like a coffee smoothee.

The world's most expensive coffee is civet coffee (Kopi Luwak). It is unusual in that the coffee bean has to pass through the digestive system of civet (an Asian cat), which mellows the bean.

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