Cosmic rays are particles that bombard the Earth from outer space. Those associated with solar flares and other energetic solar events are called Solar Energetic Particles. Galactic Cosmic Rays come from outside the solar system. Anomalous Cosmic Rays come from the interstellar space at the edge of the heliopause.
Cosmic rays and the Earth
- "Cosmic rays are deflected away from Earth by our planet's magnetic field, and by the solar wind - streams of electrically charged particles coming from the Sun." BBC NEWS | Science & Environment - 3 April 2008
- "... during the 20th century, the influx of cosmic rays was reduced by a doubling of the sun’s magnetic field which shields the Earth from cosmic rays." 
Effects on the earth's weather
- Cosmic rays vary the earth’s temperatures by creating more or fewer of the low, wet clouds that cool the earth.
- Cosmic rays amplify small changes in the sun’s irradiance fourfold, creating 1-2 degree C cycles in earth’s temperatures. 
- Fred Singer said: "The number of the Sun's cosmic rays hitting the Earth affect the number of low, cooling clouds that reflect solar heat back into space, amplifying small variations in the intensity of the Sun."
- Cosmicopia at NASA/GSFC -- Cosmic Rays by Beth Jacob