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He was born in Upper Marlboro, Prince Georges county, on July 22, 1730.
Carroll was a delegate in the Continental Congress from 1780-1784, and was also a delegate in the Constitutional Convention that framed the Federal Constitution. Other members of the Maryland delegation to the Convention were Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, James McHenry, John Francis Mercer and Luther Martin.
He was elected as a Federalist to the First Congress (March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1791) and took an active part in fixing seat of government. As a congressman he voted for locating the Nation's Capital on the Potomac, and his family donated most of the land. He also voted for Hamilton's program for the federal government to assume the state obligations arising from the American Revolution. In 1791, President Washington appointed him as one of the commissioners to locate the District of Columbia and the Federal city.
He died in Washington, D. C, in 1796.