Demographics of atheism

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Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[1] See: Global atheism

Demography is the study of human populations, and is a major specialty in the disciplines of sociology, economics, history, geography, statistics and epidemiology.

Below are some demographic statistics related to:

See also: Atheism statistics and Atheist population and History of atheism and Atheism and health

Contents

Percentage of the world's population who are atheists - statistics and trends

As a percentage of the world's population, atheism peaked in 1970.[2] Global atheism is expected to decline in the 21st century and beyond in terms of its global market share.[3]

Encyclopedia Britanica statistics on global atheism

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, 2% of the world's population self-identifies as atheist and the average annual global change for atheism from 2000 to 2010 was −0.17%.[4] See also: Desecularization

A survey published in the 2005 Encyclopedia Britannica stated that 2.3% of the world's population consists of individuals who profess "atheism, skepticism, disbelief, or irreligion, including the militantly antireligious."[5] In regards to the 2.3% figure just mentioned, the 2005 survey cited by Encyclopedia Britannica survey did not include Buddhist in regards to the 2.3% figure and Buddhism can be theistic or atheistic.[6][7]

Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary statistics

On July 24, 2013, CNS News reported:

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020, according to a new report by the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (GCTS) in South Hamilton, Mass."[8]

GCTS Tables on the decline/growth of atheism/Christianity/other religions, by year

2100 projection by Dr. Todd M. Johnson

Dr. Todd M. Johnson is associate professor of Global Christianity and director of the Center for the Study of Global Christianity (CSGC) at Gordon-Conwell Seminary, Massachusetts. He is co-author of several important resources in the emerging field of religious demography, including The World’s Religions in Figures (2013) and Atlas of Global Christianity (2009).

If present trends continue, Johnson projects that by 2100 two-thirds of the world’s population would be either Christian or Muslim.[9]

Pew Research on global atheism

"Atheists, agnostics and other people who do not affiliate with any religion – though increasing in countries such as the United States and France – will make up a declining share of the world’s total population." - Pew Research, The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050[10]

Eric Kaufman on global atheism as a percentage of the world's population

Eric Kaufmann, a professor at Birkbeck College, University of London whose work focuses on how demographic changes affects religion/politics, points out that that the atheist population has a sub-replacement fertility rate while religious fundamentalists have high rates of birth (See: Atheism and fertility rates). .[11]

On December 23, 2012, Professor Eric Kaufmann who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London and whose academic research specialty is how demographic changes affect religion/irreligion and politics, wrote:

I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.

On the other hand, the secular West and East Asia has very low fertility and a rapidly aging population... In the coming decades, the developed world's demand for workers to pay its pensions and work in its service sector will soar alongside the booming supply of young people in the third world. Ergo, we can expect significant immigration to the secular West which will import religious revival on the back of ethnic change. In addition, those with religious beliefs tend to have higher birth rates than the secular population, with fundamentalists having far larger families. The epicentre of these trends will be in immigration gateway cities like New York (a third white), Amsterdam (half Dutch), Los Angeles (28% white), and London, 45% white British. [12]

Win-Gallup International statistics on global atheism

See also: WIN/Gallup International studies on global atheism and religion

The Observers reported: "The WIN/Gallup International poll from 2012 found that 13% of the global population was atheist. By 2015, the number of atheists had dropped by two percentage points.[13]

Science 2.0 website statistics on global atheism

The website Science.20 declared on July 14,2015:

Atheism as a belief system has peaked and its share of humanity is shrinking, demographic studies indicate. Win/Gallup’s 2012 global poll on religion and atheism put atheists at 13%, while its 2015 poll saw that category fall to 11%. Other figures suggest the changes have deep, broad roots.

First, a community’s possession of atheistic world-views—for whatever reason—correlates with low or negative birth rates. The most significant examples are East Asian and European countries, which are at “below replacement” rates of birth, shrinking at speed.

Second, “forced” atheism has been disappearing steadily over the past 40 years and we see a corresponding surge of people towards spiritual clusters. In percentage terms, 1970 may be considered the high point for global atheism and agnosticism. As communism weakened, and eventually collapsed in 1989, there was a significant resurgence of religious belief (see chart below). The same thing is now happening in China.

Third, the surge of popularity for a novel type of “evangelical atheism” which began about a decade ago appears to be losing some of its steam. The movement’s celebrity leaders have fallen out of the bestseller lists, and are often now criticized by their former cheerleaders in newspaper columns. After a high-publicity start in 2013, Sunday Assemblies have plummeted out of the limelight and growth has been glacial.

And the near future? The latest global data also shows that young people, classified as those under 34, tend to be measurably more religious (66%) than older ones (60%). “With the trend of an increasingly religious youth globally, we can assume that the number of people who consider themselves religious will only continue to increase,” said Jean-Marc Leger, President of WIN/Gallup International Association.

..the view that atheism will sweep the globe to produce a non-believing utopia is extremely unlikely. The shrinking of the skeptical share of humanity is inevitable, as Welsh geneticist Steve Jones has stated

..the data suggests that the global proportion of atheists will fall, while the number of pro-spiritual, pro-science middle group will grow.[14]

Ipsos statistics on global atheism

Ipsos, a major global market research company, published a report on report on religious belief/skepticism from a worldwide perspective and the report provides various statistics gained from survey results.

W. Edwards Deming Institute and World Future society projection on religion/irreligion

See also: Growth of evangelical Christianity

In 2012, the W. Edwards Deming Institute published a report by the World Future Society which indicated:

In 2100, however, the world will likely be only 9% unaffiliated — more religious than in 2012. The peak of the unaffiliated was in 1970 at around 20%, largely due to the influence of European communism. Since communism’s collapse, religion has been experiencing resurgence that will likely continue beyond 2100. All the world’s religions are poised to have enormous numeric growth (with the exceptions of tribal religions and Chinese folk religion), as well as geographic spread with the continuation of migration trends. Adherents of the world’s religions—perhaps particularly Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists—will continue to settle in the formerly Christian and ever-expanding cities of Europe and North America, causing increases of religious pluralism in these areas. Christians and Muslims together will encompass two-thirds of the global population—more than 7 billion individuals. In 2100, the majority of the world’s 11.6 billion residents will be adherents of religious traditions.[15]

Projected decline of global atheism statistics

Projected decline of atheism in various regions

Geographic distribution of the world's atheists

See also: Atheist population and Asian atheism and Secular Europe

The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia primarily among whites.[16] See: Global atheism and Western atheism and race

Razib Khan points out in Discover Magazine, "most secular nations in the world are those of East Asia, in particular what are often termed “Confucian societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian."[17] See: Asian atheism

Asian atheism

See also: Asian atheism

Chinese atheism and the growth of Christianity in China

See also: Growth of Christianity in China and East Asia and global desecularization

In front of the Great Hall of the People in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

China has the world's largest atheist population.[18][19]

According to Slate, "Protestant Christianity has been the fastest growing religion in China."[20] Evangelical Christianity is especially growing sharply in China.[21]

On November 1, 2014, an article in The Economist entitled Cracks in the atheist edifice declared:

Officials are untroubled by the clash between the city’s famously freewheeling capitalism and the Communist Party’s ideology, yet still see religion and its symbols as affronts to the party’s atheism...

Yang Fenggang of Purdue University, in Indiana, says the Christian church in China has grown by an average of 10% a year since 1980. He reckons that on current trends there will be 250m Christians by around 2030, making China’s Christian population the largest in the world. Mr. Yang says this speed of growth is similar to that seen in fourth-century Rome just before the conversion of Constantine, which paved the way for Christianity to become the religion of his empire.[22]

Ethnic Chinese and the rise of Christianity in Southeast Asia

See: Ethnic Chinese and the rise of Christianity in Southeast Asia

Atheism/agnosticism and Europe

See also: Secular Europe

The website Science 2.0 reported in 2015 about secular Europe:

When we move our strictly-by-the-numbers probe across the rest of Europe, we find it is not the atheistic continent it is painted to be. Surveys across the 27 member countries indicate that 77% of people believe in a God-like higher consciousness. Only 20% of people said they did not believe in God or any type of over-arching spirit. And again we see the definition gap: alongside these figures, we get a separate number which tells us that only 7% of Europeans said they were atheists....

Outside East Asia, the three countries often listed as the least religious in the world, the places where (the media tells us) atheists dominate, are Estonia, Sweden and the Czech Republic.

In support of this assertion, we usually find the Eurobarometer Poll 2010 quoted, which shows that only 18% of people in Sweden and Estonia believe in God, and only 16% of people in the Czech Republic have that particular belief. That seems clear enough. These are atheist countries, right?

But no. That same poll also asked respondents whether they believe in some sort of ultimate force or great spirit. “Yes” answers came from 44% in the Czech Republic, 45% in Sweden and 50% in Estonia.

So then we do the math: the number of citizens who believe in the existence of some sort of deity-like presence, called God or The Force or something else, is actually 60% in Estonia, 63% in Sweden, and 68% in Estonia, according to the exact same survey. They are certainly not all churchgoers. But contrary to conventional wisdom, in all three countries, atheists were a minority, and the dominant groups were the middle grounders – people whose beliefs are hard to define except for one thing: they don’t think of themselves as atheists.[23]

European countries with high levels of atheism/agnosticism

See also: Secular Europe

Denmark has the highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[24] In addition, in 2005 Denmark was ranked the third most atheistic country in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 43 - 80% of Danes are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[25]

Finland was ranked the 7th most atheistic country in the world in 2005.[26] Finland has the 17th highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[27]

France was ranked the 8th most atheistic country in the world in 2005.[28] France has the 4th highest rate of belief in evolution in the Western World.[29]

In 2005, the Netherlands was ranked the 13th most atheistic country in the world and the website adherents.com reports that in 2005 39 - 44%% of the Dutch were agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[30] The Netherlands also has the 11th highest rate of belief in evolution as far as Western World nations.[31]

In 2005, it was reported that Germany is one of the most atheistic countries in the world and the website adherents.com reports that 41-49% of Germans are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.[32] In addition, Germany has the highest rates of belief in evolution in the world.[33] In 2005, it was estimated that 70% of Germans believed in evolution.[34]

Estonia is one of the least religious areas in the world. Merely 14% of the population declared religion an important part of their daily lives.[35]

From a historical perspective, the Czechs have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[36] According to the 2011 census, 34.2% of the Czech population declared they had no religion, 10.3% was Roman Catholic and 10.2% followed other forms of religion both denominational and nondenominational. Furthermore, 45.2% of the population did not answer the question about religion.[37] From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Roman Catholicism decreased from 39.0% to 26.8% and then subsequently to 10.3%.[38]

Countries with high levels of atheism and domestic violence

See also: Secular Europe and domestic violence and Sweden and domestic violence

Sweden is one of the most atheistic countries in the world.[39] In Sweden, 81 percent of women said they had been harassed at some point after the age of 15 - compared to the EU average of 55 percent.[40]

In March of 2014, the Swedish news website The Local published an article entitled Sweden stands out in domestic violence study which declared:

A new EU review of violence against women has revealed that one in three European women has been assaulted, and one in twenty has been raped, with the Scandinavian countries at the top of the league tables.

In the Scandinavian countries, in contrast, around half of the women reported physical or sexual violence, which researchers at the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights said could have several explanations...

In Sweden, 81 percent of women said they had been harassed at some point after the age of 15 - compared to the EU average of 55 percent. After Sweden, which had the highest rate, Denmark, France, the Netherland and Finland all saw rates above 70 percent. The EU member state with the lowest rate - 24 percent - was Bulgaria.[41]

2005 European demographic information about European atheism
Financial Times (FT)/Harris Poll among adults in 5 countries in 2006

Australia and atheism/aghnsticism

An Australian National Council on Drugs (ANCD) report indicated that 20% of Australians drink at levels putting them at risk of lifetime harm.[42]

After WWII, Australia has become a very secular country.[43]

According to the Sydney Morning Herald:

Australia is one of the least devout countries in the Western world, although two-thirds of its population identifies itself as Christian, an international survey comparing religious expression in 21 countries has found.

Religion does not play a central part in the lives of many Australians: 48 per cent of Australians surveyed said they did not partake in personal prayer and 52 per cent said they rarely attended a place of worship for religious reasons.[44]

In the 2011 Australian census, 22.3% of Australians (or 4,796,787 people) identified themselves as having "no religion" which was more than 3 percent higher (and 1,090,232 people more) than in the 2006 census and was the second largest category.[45] Another 2.014 million (9.4%) were in the "not-stated or inadequately-defined" category: thus more than 31% of Australians did not state a religious affiliation in the 2011 census.[46]

Western atheism and race

See also: Atheism, race and gender

Western atheism and race

See also: Western atheism and race

The atheist and evolutionist PZ Myers giving a presentation to a group that is likely largely made up of white males.[47][48][49] In June 2010, PZ Myers commented that atheist meetings tend to be significantly more attended by males.[50]

In 2015, BloombergView reported concerning the United States:

According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, only 3 percent of U.S. atheists and agnostics are black, 6 percent are Hispanic, and 4 percent are Asian. Some 82 percent are white. (The relevant figures for the population at large at the time of the survey were 66 percent white, 11 percent black, 15 percent Hispanic, 5 percent Asian.)

...Craig Keener, in his huge review of claims of miracles in a wide variety of cultures, concludes that routine rejection of the possibility of the supernatural represents an impulse that is deeply Eurocentric.[51]

See also: European desecularization in the 21st century

In the United States, blacks have the highest rate of religiosity.[52] Among Hispanics, religion has traditionally played a significant role in daily activity.[53]

At the same time, due to immigration, Europe is expected to become more desecularized in the 21st century (See also: Global atheism and Atheist population).

The atheist Sikivu Hutchinson declared “If mainstream freethought and humanism continue to reflect the narrow cultural interests of white elites who have disposable income to go to conferences then the secular movement is destined to remain marginal and insular.”[54]

The atheist community has not had significant outreach to racial minorities within the Western World whereas Christians have done this (particularly among the poor).[19] See also: Atheism and uncharitableness

Atheist Sikivu Hutchinson says that atheist organizations generally focus on church/state separation and creationism issues and not on the concerns the less affluent African-American population faces.[19] Hutchinson also mentioned that church organizations significantly help poor African-Americans.[19] See also: Atheism and uncharitablenss

In 2010, an atheists' conference was organized in the United States concerning the future direction of the atheist movement and 370 people attended. The conference, sponsored by the Council for Secular Humanism, drew members from all the major atheist organizationsin the United States. The New York Times described the attendees as "The largely white and male crowd — imagine a Star Trek convention, but older..."[55]

Survey data and website tracking data of prominent atheists' websites indicate that in the Western World, atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women.[49][56][57] These findings suggest that the atheist movement in the Western world and the New Atheism movement are significantly more appealing to white males.

In 2011, Beliefnetnews reported concerning the race and gender of American atheists:

From the smallest local meetings to the largest conferences, the vast majority of speakers and attendees are almost always white men. Leading figures of the atheist movement — Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens and Daniel Dennett — are all white men.

But making atheism more diverse is proving to be no easy task.

Surveys suggest most atheists are white men. A recent survey of 4,000 members of the Freedom from Religion Foundation found that 95 percent were white, and men comprised a majority.[58]

Cultural diversity of the atheist population

See also: Western atheism and race and Atheism and diversity and Atheism and culture

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics (see also: Causes of evolutionary belief).[59] Charles Darwin's book The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life has been translated into 35 languages.[60]

In terms of its geographic distribution, Christianity is a much more a global religion than most, if not all, religions (See also: Global Christianity).[61][62] The Bible has been translated into 518 languages and 2,798 languages have at least some portion of the Bible.[63]

Collectively speaking, the Christian community has a much greater degree of linguistic and cultural diversity than the atheist community (see also: Atheist community and verbal–linguistic intelligence).

See also:

Atheism and women

See also: Atheism and women

Studies indicate that women in the Western World tend to be more religious than men.[64]

Surveys throughout the world and other data indicate that women are less inclined to be atheists.[65] [66]

In 2016, Atheist Alliance International (AAI) conducted an annually reoccurring atheist census project and found:

At the time of writing, the Atheist Census Project recorded that on average worldwide 73.2% of respondents were male. The result is consistent with other research... As such, the focus of many scholarly papers has been on seeking to explain this persistent observation."[67]

Recent studies concerning atheism and women

See also: Atheism and diversity

Surveys by country

In November 2010, Discover Magazine published survey results published by the World Values Survey which showed significant differences between the percentage of men and women who are atheists for various countries with men outnumbering women in terms of adopting an atheist worldview.[68]

United States surveys

In 2015, BloombergView reported concerning the United States: "According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, ...women are 52 percent of the U.S. population but only 36 percent of atheists and agnostics.[69]

A 2009 article in LiveScience.com entitled Women More Religious Than Men reported: "A new analysis of survey data finds women pray more often then men, are more likely to believe in God, and are more religious than men in a variety of other ways...The latest findings, released Friday, are no surprise, only confirming what other studies have found for decades.[70] In 2007, the Pew Research Center found that American women were more religious than American men.[70]

Other Atheist Alliance International analysis

Oxford University Press reports about a previous study done by AAI:

...atheism remains a male-dominated affair. Data collected by the Atheist Alliance International (2011) show that in Britain, women account for 21.6% of atheists (as opposed to 77.9% men). In the United States men make up 70% of Americans who identify as atheist. In Poland, 32% of atheists are female, and similarly in Australia it is 31.5%[71]

Atheistic China and gender imbalance

See also: Asian atheism

China has the largest atheist population in the world.[18] The current atheist population mostly resides in East Asia (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia primarily among whites.[72] See: Western atheism and race

Due to sex-selection abortion and female infantcide, there is a gender imbalance within the Chinese population.

According to 2012 figures from the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, China’s sex ratio at birth (the number of boys born for every 100 girls) was as high as 118, while the sex ratio amongst the total population was about 105.[73] The statistical data from China indicates that the gap between male and female at birth is far larger than the biologically benchmark ratio (a sex ratio at birth of around 105 males per 100 females).[74]

Reason Rally 2016 and a lack of gender diversity among attendants

The YouTube atheist Thunderf00t estimates that there was a 2 to 1 ration as far as men to women attending Reason Rally 2016.[75]

Atheist meetings and women according to prominent atheists

In June 2010, the atheist PZ Myers commented that atheist meetings tend to be significantly more attended by males.[66] In October 2012, the atheist Susan Jacoby wrote in The Humanist concerning atheist meetings: "When I speak before non-college audiences — that is, audiences in which no one is required to be there to get credit for a college course — 75 percent of the people in the seats are men."[76]

For more information, please see:

New York Times: Atheist meeting attendees

See also: Western atheism and race

In October 2010, an atheists' meeting was organized in the United States concerning the future direction of the atheist movement and 370 people attended. The New York Times described the attendees as "The largely white and male crowd — imagine a Star Trek convention, but older...".[77]

Atheists' group membership and demographic makeup of meetings

In 2011, Beliefnetnews reported concerning the race and gender of American atheist:

From the smallest local meetings to the largest conferences, the vast majority of speakers and attendees are almost always white men. Leading figures of the atheist movement - Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens and Daniel Dennett -- are all white men.

But making atheism more diverse is proving to be no easy task.

Surveys suggest most atheists are white men. A recent survey of 4,000 members of the Freedom from Religion Foundation found that 95 percent were white, and men comprised a majority.[78]

Women and Freethought Blogs.com web traffic

The website Freethought Blogs has significantly less women visiting their website than men according to the web traffic tracking company Quantcast.[79]

Summary

The above data suggest that atheism in general and the New Atheism movement is significantly less appealing to women in the Western World.

American atheism and education/income

See also: Atheist indoctrination and Religion and education and American atheism

The Pew Research Forum reported in 2013 concerning American atheists: "About four-in-ten atheists (43%) have a college degree, compared with 29% of the general public."[80]

In 2012, the Pew Research Forum reported regarding American atheists: "And about 38% of atheists and agnostics have an annual family income of at least $75,000, compared with 29% of the general public."[81] See also: Atheism/Christianity and socioeconomic status diversity

Atheism and diversity

See also: Atheism and diversity

Most atheists fall on the left side of the political spectrum (see: Atheism and politics and Secular left).

The secular left in the Western World often publicly stresses the importance of diversity.

Yet, as far as the issue of diversity within the atheist population, compared to Christianity, atheism has a significantly less degree of geographic/cultural, racial, gender and socioeconomic status diversity (seee: Atheism and diversity).

Atheism and prisons

See also

Notes

  1. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  2. Atheism Peaks, While Spiritual Groups Move Toward Convergence by Nury Vittachi, July 14, 2015, website Sciene 2.0
  3. Religion: Year in Review 2010: Worldwide Adherents of All Religions. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.. Retrieved on 2013-11-21.
  4. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9432620
  5. http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/beliefs/atheism.htm
  6. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9432620
  7. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  8. Global data upend usual picture of Christianity trends, World Council of Churches
  9. The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050, Pew research
  10. 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious, Tuesday, April 30, 2013
  11. What it's like to be an atheist in the world today (Part One), The Observers
  12. Atheism Peaks, While Spiritual Groups Move Toward Convergence by Nury Vittachi, July 14, 2015, website Sciene 2.0
  13. The 22nd Century at First Light: Envisioning Life in the Year 2100: A special report by members and friends of the World Future Society, Religious Belief in 2100 by Gina A. Bellofatto
  14. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, Washington Post, May 23, 2013
  15. Most atheists are not white & other non-fairy tales, Discover magazine
  16. 18.0 18.1 Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  17. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  18. When Will China Become the World’s Largest Christian Country?, Slate
  19. In China, a church-state showdown of biblical proportions
  20. Cracks in the atheist edifice, The Economist, November 1, 2014
  21. Atheism Peaks, While Spiritual Groups Move Toward Convergence, Science 2.0 website
  22. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  23. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  24. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  25. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  26. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  27. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  28. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  29. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  30. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  31. Photo: Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds
  32. Evolutionary belief statistics
  33. Estonians least religious in the world. EU Observer (11 February 2009). Retrieved on 9 January 2014.
  34. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  35. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  36. Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses (Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 2010-03-09.
  37. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)
  38. Sweden stands out in domestic violence study Published: 05 Mar 2014 08:3
  39. Sweden stands out in domestic violence study Published: 05 Mar 2014 08:3
  40. One in eight deaths of young Australians attributable to alcohol: National Council on Drugs report By Jane Mower, Updated 19 Nov 2013, 7:28pm
  41. Stephanie Painter, Vivienne Ryan and Bethany Hiatt, (15 June 2010). "Australians losing the faith". Newspaper. West Australian Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 15 June 2010
  42. God's OK, it's just the religion bit we don't like
  43. 2011 Census QuickStats. Australian Bureau of Statistics (30 October 2012). Retrieved on 2013-02-25.
  44. Irreligion in Ausralia
  45. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/16/us/16beliefs.html?_r=1
  46. http://www.conservapedia.com/Racial_demographics_of_the_Richard_Dawkins%27_audience
  47. 49.0 49.1 http://www.conservapedia.com/Atheism_appears_to_be_significantly_less_appealing_to_women
  48. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2010/06/the_woman_problem.php
  49. The Atheism Gap By Stephen L. Carter, BloombergView, Mar 27, 2015 4:26 PM EDT
  50. Gallup: Blacks Most Religious Group in U.S.
  51. Understanding Hispanic culture
  52. Atheism’s white male problem: A movement needs a moral cause beyond glamorizing disbelief by CJ Werleman, Salon, October 4, 2014
  53. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/16/us/16beliefs.html
  54. http://www.americanreligionsurvey-aris.org/reports/NONES_08.pdf
  55. http://www.livescience.com/culture/090227-religion-men-women.html
  56. http://blog.beliefnet.com/news/2011/01/atheists-diversity-woes-have-n.php
  57. * Dr. Don Batten, A Who’s Who of evolutionists Creation 20(1):32, December 1997.
  58. Darwin in translation
  59. Many religions heavily concentrated in one or two countries
  60. Christianity in its global context
  61. Bible translations
  62. Multiple references:
  63. Khan, Razib (November 18, 2010). "Gene expression; Sex differences in global atheism, part N". Discover magazine website.
  64. 66.0 66.1 Myers, P.Z. (June 29, 2010). "The woman problem". Pharyngula [blog].
  65. AAI Position Statement - Gender Balance
  66. Khan, Razib (November 18, 2010). "Gene expression; Sex differences in global atheism, part N". Discover magazine website.
  67. Carter, Stephen L. (March 27, 2015). "The atheism gap". BloombergView.
  68. 70.0 70.1 Britt, Robert Roy (February 28, 2009). "Women more religious than men". Live Science website.
  69. Atheism and Feminism, Oxford University Press blog
  70. Fisher, Max and Dewey, Caitlin (May 23, 2013). "A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live". The Washington Post website.
  71. National Bureau of Statistics of China, Beijing, China
  72. Poston, L. D., & Glover, S. K., Too many males: marriage market implications of gender imbalances in China, 2005
  73. Even atheists bash 'Reason Rally', See the video on the web page
  74. Jacoby, Susan (August 16, 2012). "A woman’s place? The dearth of women in the secular movement". The Humanist website.
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