Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. In modern usage, it refers to an absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state (though the term is normally not applied to an absolute monarch). Like the term tyrant, and to a lesser degree autocrat, it was a respectable title in the ancient world, but has some come to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive, despot who rules with no regard for any existing constitutional democratic structures, organs or other entities. Almost always marked by a resilient resistance to reality and rational thought. This enables the dictator to act in a manner otherwise impossible. As such, grave human rights violations, torture, disappearances, pervasive police state surveillance and the repeal of existing human rights laws and ignoring constitutional protections, become the norm in societies ruled by dictators (even when "democratically" elected by the "majority"). Summary execution by Executive Order is the punishment of choice for a wide variety of offenses, both criminal and political, under the rule of a dictator.
Dictators come to power in a variety of ways. They can be elected fairly and then refuse to give up power; they may seize control of the country in a coup d'état; or they may be placed in power as the puppet of a stronger country that desires influence in the region. Alternatively, some countries such as the former Soviet Union are ruled by a single party which appoints a succession of dictators without regard for its people; this is known as a systemic dictatorship.
Since the nature of dictatorship is fundamentally at odds with the principals of democracy, dictators are usually condemned by the international community. Consequently, many adopt tactics to try and give their regime an air of legitimacy, such as holding sham or coerced elections, or declaring a state of emergency in the country with the implication that democracy will be restored in due course (almost always an empty promise).
Notable dictators in world history have included Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Germany from 1933–45, Josef Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1928–53, Pol Pot, head of the Khmer Rouge and ruler of Cambodia (or Kampuchea) from 1963–98, Mao Tzedong, ruler of China from 1945–76, and Islam Karimov, current ruler of Uzbekistan since 1991, Kim Jong Il of North Korea, and Muamar Ghaddafi, long-time terrorist leader of Libya.
- C.S. Lewis wrote:
- Of all tyrannies, a tyranny sincerely exercised for the good of its victims may be the most oppressive. It would be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies. The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated; but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end for they do so with the approval of their own conscience. 
- "Educate and inform the whole mass of the people... They are the only sure reliance for the preservation of our liberty." -- Thomas Jefferson
- http://www.wnd.com/2013/02/when-a-republican-murders-u-s-citizens by Ted Nugent Accessed March 28, 2014
- "Few things are as dangerous to American liberty as the proposition that the government should be able to kill citizens anywhere in the world on the basis of legal standards and evidence that are never submitted to a court, either before or after the fact. Anyone willing to trust President Obama with the power to secretly declare an American citizen an enemy of the state and order his extrajudicial killing should ask whether they would be willing to trust the next president with that dangerous power." http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/05/us-targeted-killings-eric-holder_n_1320515.html Accessed March 28, 2014