Washington, D.C.

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District of Columbia
US Capitol.jpg
DC flag.jpg
Country United States
Settled 1791
Population 617,996
Area (sq mi) 68.3 sq mi
Population density (/sq mi) 10,065
Current mayor Vincent C. Gray
Demonym Washingtonian

Washington, D.C., also known as the District of Columbia or simply D.C., has since 1800 been the capital of the United States.[1] Legally the name of the city is "District of Columbia."[2][3]

Its nicknames are "the swamp" and the "deep state," to indicate how there is an entrenched liberal bureaucracy there that serves itself rather than the people of the United States who pay the bills.


Design and History

Pierre L'Enfant, appointed in 1791 by George Washington, designed much of the city, including the city's interesting quadrant formation. The city is divided into four quadrants, which meet at a central point at the United States Capitol. The Northwest quadrant is by far the largest, and locations in this quadrant include the White House, Ford's Theater (where Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865), the National Zoo, and a number of the Smithsonian Museums. L'Enfant was fired over a dispute involving Thomas Jefferson before the city's design was completed.[4] In 1814, the British army attacked the city as a part of the War of 1812 and burned a number of public buildings in the city, including the White House. First Lady Dolly Madison famously saved a portrait of George Washington from the White House before the building was burned.[5] The city is located along the Potomac River. The Anacostia River branches off this, and runs through parts of the Southeast and Northeast Quadrants. This river has had problems with pollution.

The completely appropriate public outcry, primarily among conservatives and other disaffected Americans, during the 2016 presidential election campaign to “drain the swamp” has its roots in Washington DC’s early history. For several years after its founding, the city on the Potomac River was known for its terribly swampy conditions, with unpaved roads simply impassible by wagon or carriage for months out of the year thanks to the pervasive muck and mire.[6] Many politicians during the early republic refused to travel to the capital city, preferring instead to conduct government business via courier or carrier pigeons, which became known informally as “muddy budgies.” President Thomas Jefferson was a great fan of the “avian art,” and his several failed attempts to train muddy budgies himself are a great source of levity in the Jefferson Papers.[7] Over time, residents of the city applied the term “muddy buddies” to the (largely Democratic) politicians who continued to send messages in this secretive and unofficial manner long after improvements had been made to the urban infrastructure, and they used the expression to speak derisively of the corruption that inevitably results from the expansion of the federal government. Though the contemporary use of the term “muddy buddies” refers mainly to a popular snack food, the unhealthy amounts of starch and polysaccharides the product contains are emblematic of the poisoning of the body politic inherent in the original definition of the term.[8]

Washington, D.C. is served by the Metrorail subway system.


Article I of the Constitution specifies that Congress has exclusive legislative jurisdiction over the District of Columbia.[9] In 1973, Congress passed the District of Columbia Self-Government and Governmental Reorganization Act, P.L. 93-198, which proposed a charter that delegated legislative authority to a locally elected mayor and council; the charter was approved by local referendum in 1974.[10][11]

A view of the Washington Monument and United States Capitol In Washington D.C


The voters in Washington are 90% Democratic. It is America's fourth-most liberal city.[12] The current mayor of the District of Columbia is Vincent C. Gray.

Elected officials

  • Vincent C. Gray, Mayor.
  • Phil Mendelson, Council Chair
  • Michael A. Brown, Council Chair Pro Tempore
  • At-Large
    • David Catania
    • Michael A. Brown
    • Vincent Orange
  • Ward Members
    • Kenyan McDuffie
    • Jim Graham
    • Jack Evans
    • Mary M. Cheh
    • Muriel Bowser
    • Tommy Wells
    • Yvette Alexander
    • Marion Barry


Constitutional and legal disputes

On March 9, 2007, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit struck down Washington, D.C.'s ban on private handgun possession, as it pertains to carrying them inside one's own home, on the grounds that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of individual citizens to keep and bear firearms.[15] In a dissent, however, one judge wrote that the District of Columbia is not a state and therefore the Second Amendment does not apply within the District of Columbia. Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban was one of the most restrictive gun control laws in the nation.[16] On June 26, 2008, the Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the Court of Appeals.[17]

The WWII memorial and Washington Monument

License plates in Washington, D.C. read "taxation without representation," referring to the fact that citizens of the District pay federal income taxes but do not have voting representation in either the Senate or House of Representatives.[18] These plates do not appear on the presidential limousines. George Walker Bush had the plates removed from the limousines after his inauguration, reversing William Jefferson Clinton's policy.[19] The capital has an elected House representative, Eleanor Holmes Norton, but she can only vote in committee, not on the floor.[14][20]

Since 1992, Washington, D.C. has offered domestic partnerships.[21] In 2009, the D.C. Council enacted a law, effective March 3, 2010, that "expanded the definition of marriage in the District to include same-sex couples."[22]


The 2010 election was hotly contested and resulted in a number of convictions. Incumbent mayor Adrian Fenty lost the Democratic primary to Vincent C. Gray. However, his primary effort was assisted by a minor candidate Sulaimon Brown, who Gray paid to stay in the primary race and appointed to a position in his administration. When this became public, Gray fired Brown and the resulting investigation led to campaign staff being convicted. On Tuesday, July 10, 2010, Jeanne Clarke Harris, plead guilty to laundering campaign contributions from city contractor Jeffery E. Thompson through friends into the Gray campaign. The effort involved $653,000 in improperly reported donations. U.S. Attorney Ronald C. Machen Jr said that the 2010 mayor's race was "compromised by backroom deals, secret payments and a flood of unreported cash."[23] Harris said that Thompson sought to hide his campaign contributions to Gray to avoid angering the Fenty administration that had awarded large contract to Thompson's firms.[23] Howard Brooks and Thomas W. Gore have previously plead guilty to charges surrounding the forwarding of Gray campaign cash to Brown.[23]

Kwame R. Brown was the Chairman of the District of Columbia Council until he resigned to plead guilty to bank fraud and campaign finance charges in 2012.

A probe of DC government employees disclosed that 318 of them had collected $1.9 million of unemployment benefits while on the DC payroll. The DC government is seeking return of the funds and has dismissed or prosecuted the employees.[24]

Current city councilman Marion Barry has previously served as Mayor from 1979 to 1991, and from 1995 to 1999. While Mayor, he was arrested for crack cocaine possession.[25] After serving his sentence, he successfully ran for city councilman in 2004. In November 2012, Barry organized the distribution of free Thanksgiving turkeys in his Ward that was funded by a $30,000 donation. DC law does not require disclosure of the donors, so Barry declined to name the funders, saying it's only "liberal white folks" who are interested in disclosure rules for turkey giveaways.[26]


DC flag.

Some official symbols are:

  • Motto: "Justia Omnibus" - Justice for All
  • Song: The Star-Spangled Banner
  • Bird: Wood thrush
  • Flower: American beauty rose
  • Tree: Scarlet Oak

See also

Tulips White House.jpg
US Capitol.

External links


  1. http://www.senate.gov/reference/reference_item/Nine_Capitals_of_the_United_States.htm
  2. District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871. Library of Congress
  3. District of Columbia Information.
  4. http://www.exploredc.org/index.php?id=3
  5. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/washingtonsack.htm
  6. Joanne B. Freeman, Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2001).
  7. Thomas Jefferson,.Catalogue, [1823]. Manuscript. Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress. http://lccn.loc.gov/87204942
  8. http://www.chexmixsnackon.com/products/muddy-buddies-peanut-butter-chocolate
  9. http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articlei.html#section8
  10. http://government.westlaw.com/linkedslice/default.asp?rs=gvt1.0&vr=2.0&sp=dcc-1000
  11. http://www.narpac.org/ITXICE.HTM
  12. http://www.govpro.com/News/Article/31439/
  13. Washington Post U.S. Congress Votes Database
  14. 14.0 14.1 Alas, D.C. is not a state The capital has an elected House representative, Eleanor Norton, but she can only vote in committee, not on the floor.
  15. See Parker v. District of Columbia, 478 F. 3d 370 (2007) [quoted in District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. ____ (2008).]
  16. http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=topNews&storyid=2007-03-09T223851Z_01_N09246717_RTRUKOC_0_US-USA-GUNS-RULING.xml&src=rss
  17. District of Columbia v. Heller
  18. http://dmv.dc.gov/serv/plates/tax.shtm
  19. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C06E0DB173CF93AA25752C0A9679C8B63
  20. Boehner elected House speaker as 112th Congress convenes
  21. Answers.com
  22. Jackson v. District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics, citing D.C. Code § 46-401 (a) (Supp. 2010); 57 D.C. Reg. 27 (Jan. 1, 2010).
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Mike DeBonis and Nikita Stewart. "Gray's victory called tainted", July 11, 2012, p. A1. 
  24. Blinder, Alan. "D.C. says more than 300 city workers involved in unemployment scandal", Washington Examiner, November 19, 2012. Retrieved on November 21, 2012. 
  25. LaFraniere, Sharon. "Barry Arrested on Cocaine Charges in Undercover FBI, Police Operation", The Washington Post, January 19, 1990, p. A1. 
  26. Suderman, Alan. "Barry: Only "Liberal White Folks" Care Who Pays for My Turkey Giveaway", Washington City Paper, Nov. 19, 2012. Retrieved on November 21, 2012.