Dual federalism believes that the federal and state government should be separate and both should reign supreme in their fields. It was popular from the 19th century until the Great Depression in the 1930s. Those who followed dual federalism tended to ignore the elastic clause and focused on the Tenth Amendment which concentrated on the authority of the states. The federal government’s powers are limited to powers specifically granted to Congress, the president, and the courts in the Constitution. The remaining powers are granted to the states. Dual federalism has been referred to as layer cake federalism.