Ernest Hemingway

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Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was a famous American author, born in Oak Park, Illinois. His works include:[1]

  • The Old Man and the Sea
  • A Farewell to Arms
  • In Our Time
  • The Sun Also Rises
  • For Whom the Bell Tolls
  • Hills Like White Elephants
  • A Clean, Well-Lighted Place
  • The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories
  • Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway and A.E. Hotchner
  • A Moveable Feast

He grew up in a Congregationalist home, but became an atheist in his late teenage years. He hid this fact from his parents and later married into the Roman Catholic faith, although his conversion was not sincere. He was also a compulsive liar, and had a soft-spot for Communists, even turning a blind eye to the Spanish Stalinists' massacres in Spain.

He introduced the Pamplona bull run to an international audience[2] and was also a fan of bullfighting.

He won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954.[3] In 1961 he committed suicide, but was allowed a Roman Catholic burial, as it was ruled he was not fully responsible for his actions due to a mental decline in the last months of his life.[4][5]

Hemingway influenced American literature profoundly.[6] He helped popularize a style of writing that featured plain language, short sentences, and clean, sparse prose. His writing frequently focused on American expatriates living in Europe or Africa. Leading characters are often very masculine, somewhat alcoholic, and suffering from mental scars, but always in control of themselves. These characters are believed to be based on Hemingway himself.

In 2011, 50 years after his death, it was revealed that Hemingway had been the subject of an FBI investigation, spurred by J. Edgar Hoover's suspicions about Hemingway's activities in Cuba.[7]

Hemingway's home in Key West, Florida is a major tourist attraction in the city, well known for his litter of polydactyl cats (six-toed cats), some of which are descendants of Hemingway's own cats (the term "Hemingway cat" is commonly used to describe all polydactyl cats due to the author's popularity).

See also


  1. Google Books
  2. Pamplona bull run
  3. [1]
  4. [2]
  5. It should be noted that in 1954, while in Africa, he received head injuries in plane crashes occurring on consecutive days; the second caused him to leak cerebral fluid. After those, Hemingway (who was a borderline functional alcoholic) began to drink more heavily to suppress the severe physical pain from which he suffered. Furthermore, in 1991 it was determined that Hemingway had been diagnosed as early as 1961 with hemochromatosis, which does not allow the proper metabolism of iron, resulting in mental and physical deterioration (it is a genetic disorder: his father, along with a brother and sister, also committed suicide).
  6. [3]
  7. FBI-Ernest Hemingway