Exodus 1-7 (Translated)

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Contents

Chapter 1

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob. These are the names of the sons of Israel who went into Egypt, every man and his household who came with Jacob: "Household" referring to both the family, the servants, the livestock, etc. In this case the word sons in "sons of Israel" is not capitalized, since this is one of the rare instances in which the phrase is used as a reference to the literal sons of Jacob rather than the entire nation of Israel.
2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah,
3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin,
4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.
5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls for Joseph was in Egypt already. In all, this was seventy souls which had descended from Jacob, for Joseph was already in Egypt.
6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. And in time Joseph died along with his brothers and everyone in that generation.
7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them. The Sons of Israel were fertile, and their numbers increased greatly as they multiplied, and they grew mighty, and the land became filled with them. The Hebrew speaks literally of "roaming," probably an idiom for "a very large group."
8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. There arose a new king in Egypt, who did not know about Joseph. Probably Sesostris III
9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we And he was saying to his people, "Behold, the Sons of Israel are great in number, and stronger than we are. Hebrew "staunch from us."
10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land. Pay attention! We must deal wisely against them, or else they will multiply more, and join our enemies in war and fight against us, in order to get themselves out of our land."
11 Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses. Therefore, they set taskmasters over the Israelites to make them do work. And they were made to build for Pharaoh the treasure cities of Pithom and Ramses. Literally, "chiefs of tributes so that to humiliate of him in burdens of them."
12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel. But the more the Egyptians persecuted the Israelites, the more they multiplied, and threatened to breach out. This became a source of constant irritation to the Egyptians on account of the Sons of Israel.
13 And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour The Egyptians forced the Sons of Israel into rigorous service,
14 And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour. and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in the making of clay and bricks, with all kinds of duties in the fields, and in all other kinds of service, they were forced to work.
15 And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah The king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiprah and Puah,
16 And he said, When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then ye shall kill him but if it be a daughter, then she shall live. saying to them, "When you perform your duties as a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them on the bracing-stones: if it is a son, put him to death, but if it is a daughter, let her live." Hebrew women gave birth by bracing themselves on stones. "Stools" is probably an Elizabethan anachronism.
17 But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men children alive. But the midwives feared God, and therefore did not do as the king of Egypt had told them, but saved the boys alive.
18 And the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them, Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men children alive? The king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said to them, "Why have you done this, saving the boys alive?"
19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwives come in unto them. And the midwives said to Pharaoh, "Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are lively, and deliver the infant before the midwives come in to them."
20 Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty. Therefore, God dealt well with the midwives, and the people multiplied, and grew very strong.
21 And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that he made them houses. It came to pass that, because the midwives feared God, He made sure that they had their own households.
22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive. And so Pharaoh instructed all his people, saying, "Every son that is born [to the Hebrews], you shall cast into the river [Nile], and every daughter, you shall keep alive."

Chapter 2

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi. There was a man of the house of Levi, who married a daughter of Levi. The ancestry of Moses is explained later, but the woman literally was Levi's daughter, born perhaps in the last year of his life.
2 And the woman conceived, and bare a son: and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months. The woman fell pregnant, and gave birth to a son: and when she saw that he was a good child, she secluded him for three months.
3 And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river's brink. When she could not seclude him any longer, she made for him a basket of papyrus to use as a lifeboat, and daubed it with asphalt and pitch, and put the boy into it; and set it in the weeds by the bank of the Nile. The Hebrew uses the word תבה (tevah), the same word used to describe Noah's Ark. As nearly as the roots determine, tevah means "lifeboat." From this name comes the name Teveth for the fourth month of the civil year and the first month of winter in the Biblical and Hillel II calendars.
4 And his sister stood afar off, to wit what would be done to him. The boy's sister stood from far away, so that she would know what would be done to him.
5 And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river; and her maidens walked along by the river's side; and when she saw the ark among the flags, she sent her maid to fetch it. The daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself in the Nile, and her lady's maids walked along by the river's side; and when she saw the basket among the weeds, she sent her maid to fetch it. Probably Sobekneferu
6 And when she had opened it, she saw the child and, behold, the babe wept. And she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children. When she opened it, she saw the boy, and the boy cried out in lamentation. She had compassion for him, saying, "This is one of the Hebrews' boys."
7 Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daughter, Shall I go and call to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee? Then the sister of the boy said to the Pharaoh's daughter, "Shall I go and call to you a nursing woman from among the Hebrews, so that she may nurse the child for you?"
8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the maid went and called the child's mother. Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Go." And the little girl went and called the boy's mother.
9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. And the woman took the child, and nursed it. Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Take this boy away, and nurse him for me, and I'll pay you wages." So the woman took the boy, and nursed him.
10 And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses and she said, Because I drew him out of the water. The boy grew up, and she brought him to the Pharaoh's daughter, and she adopted him as her son. And she named him Moses, because she drew him out of the water. The name Moses means "drawn out" or "removed."
11 And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens and he spied an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew, one of his brethren. It came to pass that when Moses was grown, he went out among his people, and looked on their burdens, and saw an Egyptian hitting a Hebrew, his kinsman. The Hebrew renders this "brothers," but "brothers" in Hebrew can and does often mean "cousins" or other kinfolk.
12 And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand. And he looked this way and that, and seeing there was no witness, he killed the Egyptian, and buried him in the sand. Practically none of the depictions of this event in motion pictures or on television has gotten it right. All have embellished this event with vain speculation.
13 And when he went out the second day, behold, two men of the Hebrews strove together and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow? When he went out the next day, he saw two Hebrew men fighting, and he said to the man at fault, "Why have you struck your fellow Hebrew?"
14 And he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said, Surely this thing is known. And he said, "Who made you a chief and judge over us? Do you intend to kill me, as you killed the Egyptian?" And Moses was afraid, thinking, "This matter is surely known." The word rendered "prince" means simply "chief." Prince comes from the Latin princeps, or literally, "first head."
15 Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian: and he sat down by a well. When the Pharaoh heard about this matter, he sought to have Moses killed. But Moses ran away from Pharaoh, and went to live in the land of Midian, and sat by a well. This event has also been subject to vain interpolation, and sometimes a total rewrite, in dramatic presentations.
16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. The priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came to the well to draw water and fill the watering troughs for their father's sheep. In 3:1, identified as Jethro, or Reuel.
17 And the shepherds came and drove them away but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock. Shepherds came to drive them away, but Moses rose up and saved them, and watered their flock.
18 And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that ye are come so soon to day? When the returned to their father Reuel, he said, "How come you are home so early today?"
19 And they said, An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds, and also drew water enough for us, and watered the flock. And they said, "An Egyptian saved us from the shepherds. He even drew enough water for us, and watered the flock."
20 And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? why is it that ye have left the man? call him, that he may eat bread. He said to his daughters, "Where is he? Why have you left the man? Call him. He will eat bread [at my table]."
21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man: and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter. And Moses was disposed to dwell with the man, and the man gave to Moses his daughter Zipporah as a wife.
22 And she bare him a son, and he called his name Gershom: for he said, I have been a stranger in a strange land. She gave birth to a son for him, and he named him Gershom, for he said, "I've been a stranger in a strange land." The Hebrew root גר (gr-) means "sojourner."
23 And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage. Eventually, after many years, the king of Egypt died. The Sons of Israel were sighing under their forced labor, and they cried out, and their outcry reached God on account of their forced service.
24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. And God heard their moaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.
25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect unto them. And God looked upon the Sons of Israel, and God knew them as His own.

Chapter 3

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb. Moses lived as the shepherd of the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian. He led the flock to the western side of the desert, coming to Mount Horeb, the mountain of God. The "back side" of any mountain or region is always the western side--the side away from the sunrise.
2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. The Messenger of the LORD appeared to him in a blaze of fire in the middle of a thornbush, and as he looked, the bush was on fire, but was not burning.
3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. Moses said to himself, "I must withdraw and look at this great sight! Why is this bush not burning?"
4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. And when the LORD saw that he was withdrawing to see the bush, God called to him from the middle of the bush, and said, "Moses, Moses." And he said, "Behold me!"
5 And He said, Draw not nigh hither put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. He said, "Do not come any closer. Take off your shoes, for the place you are now standing on is holy ground."
6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God. He said further, "I'm the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.
7 And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows; The LORD said, "I've seen the persecution of my people in Egypt, and have heard their cries under their taskmasters, and know their pains."
8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites. "I've come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians, and to lead them out of that land to a good and wide land, a land gushing with milk and honey, the place of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites.
9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. Look! The cry of the Sons of Israel has come to Me. Furthermore, I've seen the oppression with which the Egyptians treat them. The Hebrew actually repeats "oppression" and "oppress" for emphasis.
10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt. Come now, and I'll send you to Pharaoh, so that you may rescue my people the Sons of Israel out of Egypt." This Pharaoh was probably Neferhotep.
11 And Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt? Moses said to God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh and rescue the Sons of Israel out of Egypt?" Now begins the excuse-making. Moses first pleads his insignificance.
12 And he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a token unto thee, that I have sent thee When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain. And He said, "I'll be with you, and this shall be a sign to you, that when you have rescued the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God upon this mountain." God does not accept that. Whomever God sends, is significant enough for God.
13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? Moses said to God, "Behold, when I get to the Sons of Israel, and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they'll say to me, 'What is his name?' What shall I tell them?" Second excuse: "What is Your Name?"
14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. And God said to Moses, "I AM, THAT'S WHO I AM," and he said, "You shall tell them, "I AM has sent me to you." See Tetragrammaton. In fact, Yahweh translates as "He exists." This form is Eyeh, which translates as "I exist."
15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations. God said further to Moses, "You shall tell the children of Israel, 'The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, has sent me to you' - this is my name forever, and this is my memorial to all generations."
16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt "Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say to them, 'The LORD God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, appeared to me, saying 'I've visited you, and seen what is done to you in Egypt.'"
17 And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, unto a land flowing with milk and honey. "'And I say that I'll bring you out of the persecution of Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, to a land gushing with milk and honey.'
18 And they shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath met with us and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God. They shall listen to your voice, and you will enter, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you will say to him, 'The LORD God of the Hebrews has met with us and we request you let us go three days' journey into the desert to make sacrifice to the LORD our God.'" The "three days" was an offer of compromise that God knew that the Egyptians would reject.
19 And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand. "And I'm sure that the king of Egypt won't let you go, not by a long shot."
20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof and after that he will let you go. "So I'll reach out and strike Egypt with everything marvelous that I can do in his court and in his country. After that he will let you go." Literally, "all My marvels that I shall do within him."
21 And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty: "I'll make the Egyptians want to do favors for my people, so that when you go, you won't go empty-handed:"
22 But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians. "Every woman shall borrow from her neighbor, and of the guests in her house, silver and gold articles, and clothing, and you shall put them on your sons and daughters and so take the spoils of Egypt." The word translated "jewelry" means any sort of personal or household ornament. In this way the Israelites will gain a supply of gold and silver (copper would be more readily available), and finely spun linens that will become the materials for the Tabernacle and its furnishings.

Chapter 4

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Moses answered and said, But, behold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice for they will say, The LORD hath not appeared unto thee. Moses said in answer, "But, Sir! They won't believe me, nor will they even listen to me, for they will say, 'The LORD has not appeared to you.'" Excuses, excuses.
2 And the LORD said unto him, What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod. The LORD said to him, "What is that in your hand?" And he said, "A rod." It was probably Moses' shepherd's crook.
3 And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it. So He said, "Throw that on the ground." So he threw it on the ground, and it turned into a snake, and Moses ran from it.
4 And the LORD said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand, and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it became a rod in his hand But the LORD said to Moses, "Grab it with your hand, by its tail." So he grabbed it with his hand and held onto it, and it became a rod in the palm of his hand.
5 That they may believe that the LORD God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee. "This will make them believe that the LORD God of their ancestors, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, has appeared to you."
6 And the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow. And the LORD said more to him: "Put your hand inside your shirt." And he put his hand inside his shirt, and when he took it out, his hand was affected with leprosy, and white like snow. Leprosy, as used here, could be the name of any of a number of skin diseases, and not necessarily Hansen's Disease, caused by the leper's germ Mycobacterium leprae.
7 And he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh. He said, "Put your hand inside your shirt again." And he put his hand inside his shirt again, and brought it out, and it was restored to health, like the rest of his skin.
8 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. "If they happen not to believe you, and are not convinced by the first sign, they will be convinced by the second."
9 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land: and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land. "And if they don't believe either of these signs, and won't listen to you, then you shall take water from the river Nile, and pour it upon dry land, and the water you take out of the Nile shall become blood on the land." This prefigures the Plague Upon the Nile.
10 And Moses said unto the LORD, O my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. Moses said to the LORD, "My Lord, I'm not eloquent, either before now, or even now that you have spoken to me, and I speak slowly, with a slow tongue." The Hebrew idiomatic phrase is "even from yesterday even from three days." Here Moses makes yet another excuse.
11 And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the LORD? The LORD said to him, "Who made men's mouths? Who makes the dumb, the deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? Was it not I, the LORD? Never plead a lack of qualification from you you'r made, not when you're talking to God--for God ought to know exactly what you're capable of, because He made you.
12 Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say. Now go, and I'll be with you, and guide your mouth, and teach you what you to say."
13 And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send. And he said, "My Lord, please send Your message by someone else." Moses moves from mere excuse-making to an attempt at resignation.
14 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart. And the LORD grew terrifically angry at Moses. He said, "The Levite Aaron is your brother; I know that he can speak well. In fact, he is coming out to meet you, and he will be very glad to see you." One does not resign a Divine commission!
15 And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do. "You will speak to him, and tell him what to say, and I'll be with both of you as you speak, and will teach you what to do."
16 And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people and he shall be, even he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God. "He will be your spokesman to the people, almost as your mouth, and you will stand in relation to him as I stand to you."
17 And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs. "Now take this rod in your hands, with which you shall do miracles."
18 And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace. So Moses returned to his father-in-law Jethro, and said to him, "I ask you, please, to let me leave, and return to my people in Egypt, and see if they are still alive." And Jethro said to Moses, "Go in peace."
19 And the LORD said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt for all the men are dead which sought thy life. The LORD said to Moses in Midian, "Go, return to Egypt, for all the men who wished to kill you have died." Amenemhet III, who had pronounced Moses' death warrant (see Chapter 2), had died.
20 And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt and Moses took the rod of God in his hand. So Moses took his wife and his sons, and rode with them on a donkey to Egypt, with the rod of God in his hand.
21 And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go. The LORD said to Moses, "When you go to return into Egypt, see that you do the miracles before Pharaoh, with the staff I've put in your hand. But I'll harden his heart, and he won't dismiss the people."
22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn "You will say to Pharaoh, 'The LORD says, "Israel is my son, as my firstborn."'"
23 And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn. "'"I say to you: dismiss my son, so that he may serve me: and if your refuse to dismiss him, I'll kill your firstborn son."'" A direct reference to the final Plague Upon the Firstborn.
24 And it came to pass by the way in the inn, that the LORD met him, and sought to kill him. Now it happened by the road to the lodging-house, the LORD encountered him and was seeking to put him to death. Why? Because Moses had not circumcised his son. God required that Moses address that remaining issue.
25 Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband art thou to me. Then Zipporah took a stone knife, and cut off her son's foreskin, and touched it against his feet. She said, "You are a bridegroom of blood to me."
26 So he let him go then she said, A bloody husband thou art, because of the circumcision. And so she slacked off from him, saying, "You are a bridegroom of blood to me," on account of the circumcision. Moses and Zipporah had their first "spat", that would last until the Red Sea crossing.
27 And the LORD said to Aaron, Go into the wilderness to meet Moses. And he went, and met him in the mount of God, and kissed him. The LORD said to Aaron, "Go and meet Moses in the desert." And he went, and met him in the mountain of God, and kissed him.
28 And Moses told Aaron all the words of the LORD who had sent him, and all the signs which he had commanded him. Moses told Aaron all the words of the LORD Who sent him, and all the signs with and in which He had instructed him.
29 And Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel. Moses and Aaron went and gathered all the elders of the Sons of Israel.
30 And Aaron spake all the words which the LORD had spoken unto Moses, and did the signs in the sight of the people. Aaron spoke all the words that the LORD had spoken to Moses, and performed the signs in front of the people.
31 And the people believed and when they heard that the LORD had visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped. The people believed. When they heard that the LORD had noticed the Sons of Israel, and that He saw their persecution, they bowed their heads, and bowed down in worship.

Chapter 5

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness. After this, Moses and Aaron entered the court of Pharaoh and said, "The LORD God of Israel has said, 'Dismiss My people, that they may hold a celebration for Me in the wilderness.'" Pharaoh = Neferhotep.
2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go. The Pharaoh said, "Who is the LORD, that I should listen to His voice and dismiss Israel? I don't know the LORD, and furthermore I won't dismiss Israel."
3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto the LORD our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword. And they said, "The God of the Hebrews has met with us: let us go, we beg you, three days' journey into the desert, and make sacrifices to the LORD our God, lest he fall upon us with disease or war."
4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works? get you unto your burdens. But the king of Egypt said, "Moses and Aaron, why have you incited your people to stop working? Get to your work!"
5 And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest from their burdens. The Pharaoh said, "There are many Hebrews, and you are inciting them them to leave their work."
6 And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying, So that same day, the Pharaoh gave this instruction to the taskmasters of the Hebrews, and their superintendents: These superintendents were actually Hebrews, like slave foremen in a later age.
7 Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore let them go and gather straw for themselves. "Don't give them any more [crushed] straw to mold bricks with. Let them go and rake up straw for themselves!"
8 And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God. "But their quota of bricks, that they made before, you will still require. You won't subtract one brick from it. They are slacking, and that's why they beg, 'Let us go and sacrifice to our God.'"
9 Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard vain words. "So make them work harder, and keep them busy, so they won't pay attention to fantasies."
10 And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw. And so the taskmasters went out, with their superintendents, and told the people, "The Pharaoh has told us not to give you any more straw."
11 Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it yet not ought of your work shall be diminished. "So go, get the straw yourself, we don't care from where, but don't make one brick less than you used to."
12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw. So the people went all around Egypt to rake together stubble to use for crushed straw.
13 And the taskmasters hasted them, saying, Fulfill your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw. And their taskmasters rushed them, saying, "Finish your work every day, just as you used to when there was straw."
14 And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick both yesterday and to day, as heretofore? The superintendents of the Sons of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had appointed, were beaten, and asked, "Why haven't you finished your quotas in making bricks today and yesterday, as you did before?" The word translates as "superintendents," not "officers" or even "leaders."
15 Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy servants? Then the superintendents of the Sons of Israel came and cried out to Pharaoh, saying, "Why are you doing this to your servants? Going over someone's head is a risky proposition in any organization--and in the Egyptian slave system, in that particular crisis, that went double.
16 There is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us, Make brick and, behold, thy servants are beaten; but the fault is in thine own people. You give no crushed straw to us, your slaves, and tell us, 'Make bricks,' but then beat us - but the fault lies with your people, not ours!" An even more risky thing to say.
17 But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice to the LORD. But he said, "You are lazy. Lazy! That's why you ask for leave, saying, 'Let us go and do sacrifice to the Lord.'"
18 Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks. "Now get to work - we won't give you any straw, but you shall meet your regular number of bricks."
19 And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case, after it was said, Ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of your daily task. And the superintendents of the Sons of Israel saw that they were in dire straits, once it was said, "You may not make any fewer bricks than you did before."
20 And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came forth from Pharaoh They met with Moses and Aaron as they left Pharaoh, for they were waiting outside.
21 And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us. They said to them, "May the LORD look at you and judge you, because you have made us stink to Pharaoh and his servants, to give them an excuse to kill us." The phrase "give sword in their hand to kill us" is probably idiomatic.
22 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people? why is it that thou hast sent me? So Moses went back to the LORD and said, "My Lord, why have you treated your people so poorly? Why have you sent me?"
23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done evil to this people; neither hast thou delivered thy people at all. "Ever since I've come here to Pharaoh, to speak for you, he has just done cruel things to these people, and you haven't rescued your people at all." Moses should have remembered that God briefed him against this very event. How often we forget our Divine "briefings" even today!

Chapter 6

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. The LORD replied to Moses, "Now you will see what I'll do to Pharaoh. Before I'm through, he'll not only let you out; he'll order you out and even drive you out of his land."
2 And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD And God said to Moses, "I'm the LORD,
3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them. I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. They knew me as the All-Sufficient God, but they did not know me by My name of Yahweh." "Jehovah" is an almost clumsy attempt at transliterating the Tetragrammaton from Hebrew script into Roman script, in a gross misapplication of the rules of alternation of consonants and vowels. In the original manuscript, only the form יהוה (YHWH) appears. The usual rendition in English is "LORD", to indicate the special reverence in which the Hebrew scribes held this Name.
4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers. "However, I made a solemn promise to them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their nomadic travels, in which they were nomads."
5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant. "More to the point, I've heard the moaning of the Sons of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep as slaves, and I've remembered My promise."
6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments "So you tell the Sons of Israel, 'I'm the LORD, and I'll bring you out from under the burdens laid on you by the Egyptians, and I'll free you from slavery, and I'll buy your freedom with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments."
7 And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. "I'll accept you as my people, and I'll become your God--your Strong One--and you will know that I'm the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the burdens laid on you by the Egyptians."
8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage I am the LORD. "And I'll bring you to the land I swore to give to your ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I'll give it to you to hold, for I'm the LORD.'"
9 And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. So Moses told these things to the Sons of Israel, but because they were weary from work and of poor spirits, they didn't listen.
10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, The LORD spoke to Moses and said,
11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land. "Enter the court, speak to Pharaoh, and tell him to dismiss the Sons of Israel from his land." That is, Neferhotep.
12 And Moses spake before the LORD, saying, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; how then shall Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips? Moses replied to the LORD, "The Sons of Israel haven't listened to me. What makes You think Pharaoh will, since I have uncircumcised lips?" Moses is raising his lack of eloquence again. However, Divine Patience can be infinite, when required.
13 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. The LORD gave instructions to Moses and Aaron, and also gave instruction to the Sons of Israel, and instructed Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to bring the Sons of Israel out of the land. The above is a summary of what will unfold in the chapters to follow.
14 These be the heads of their fathers' houses The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi: these be the families of Reuben. There were the heads of their fathers' houses. Reuben, the firstborn son of Jacob, had Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
15 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman these are the families of Simeon. The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul (who was given birth by a Canaanite woman). These are the families of Simeon.
16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and seven years. These are the names of the sons of Levi, according to their genealogical annals: The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari, and Levi lived 137 years.
17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their families. Gershon's descendants were Libni and Shimi and their families.
18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel and the years of the life of Kohath were an hundred thirty and three years. And the sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, and Kohath lived 133 years.
19 And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Mushi these are the families of Levi according to their generations. Merari's sons were Mahali and Mushi. These were the families of the Levites according to their genealogical annals.
20 And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses and the years of the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven years. Amram married his aunt (father's side) Jochebed, and she gave birth to Aaron and Moses, and Amram lived 137 years. And Miriam, their older sister.
21 And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri. Izhar's sons were Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri. This same Korah would make a disastrous mutiny against Moses.
22 And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Zithri. Uzziel's sons were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Zithri.
23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. Aaron married Elisheba, who was the daughter of Amminadab and sister of Naashon, and their children were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. Nadab and Abihu would get themselves killed by offering "strange fire" in the Holy of Holies. Eleazar would succeed Aaron as High Priest of Israel, but several High Priests would come from Ithamar's line, beginning with Eli and ending with Abiathar, whose term of service would end badly on the occasion of the accession of King Solomon.
24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph these are the families of the Korhites. Korah's sons were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These are the families of the Korhites. From which came Judge Samuel.
25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she bare him Phinehas these are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families. Eleazar, the son of Aaron, married a daughter of Putiel, and she gave birth to Phinehas for him. These are the heads of the fathers of the Levites, and of their families. Phinehas succeeded Eleazar as High Priest, after first distinguishing himself in zeal.
26 These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD said, Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies. These are the same Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD gave instruction to rescue the Sons of Israel from Egypt.
27 These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt these are that Moses and Aaron. These are the men who spoke to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to bring out the Sons of Israel from Egypt: Moses and Aaron. Repetition for emphasis. The scribe carefully identifies Moses and Aaron in the Annals of the Levites.
28 And it came to pass on the day when the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of Egypt, It happened on the day when the LORD spoke to Moses in Egypt,
29 That the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, I am the LORD speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto thee. that the LORD said to Moses, "I'm the LORD; you must repeat to Pharaoh all that I tell you."
30 And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me? And Moses said before the LORD, "I have uncircumcised lips. Why would Pharaoh listen to me?" See Exodus 6:12. This repetition signals the end of the digression into the Annals of the Levites.

Chapter 7

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. The LORD said to Moses, "Look: I've made you a 'god' in Pharaoh's mind, and your brother Aaron shall be your 'prophet.'" Pharaoh Neferhotep
2 Thou shalt speak all that I command thee and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of his land. "You shall speak everything that I instruct you to speak, and Aaron, your brother, will speak to Pharaoh, that he should free the Sons of Israel."
3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. "I'll make Pharaoh obstinate, and I'll make many signs and miracles in the land of Egypt."
4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments. "But Pharaoh won't listen to you, and so I'll lay my hand on Egypt and bring forth My armies, and lead my people, the Sons of Israel, out of Egypt by means of great and terrible judgments." "Armies" is literally in view here. God has armies that none can count—armies of angels.
5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them. "The Egyptians will know that I'm the LORD, when I use my powers against Egypt and bring the Sons of Israel out from among them."
6 And Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded them, so did they. Moses and Aaron followed the LORD's instructions exactly.
7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh. Moses was 80 years old, and Aaron 83, when they spoke to Pharaoh. An important chronological note.
8 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,
9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent. "Pharaoh will ask you to show him a miracle; then you will say to Aaron, 'Take your rod, and drop it before Pharaoh,' and it shall become a snake."
10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent. Moses and Aaron went in to see Pharaoh, and did as the LORD had told them to, and Aaron dropped his rod on the floor, and it became a snake.
11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments. But Pharaoh called the wizards and sorcerers and magicians of Egypt, and they performed the same feat with their occult practices: "Magicians" = "makers of enchantments."
12 For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. every man dropped his rod to the floor, and all became snakes - but Aaron's rod swallowed theirs. That won't be the last miracle attributed to the rod carried by Aaron.
13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said. The LORD caused Pharaoh to remain obstinate, and so he did not listen to them, as the LORD had said.
14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go. The LORD said to Moses, "Pharaoh is being obstinate, and refuses to dismiss the people."
15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand. "Go to Pharaoh in the morning, when he goes to draw water. Stand next to the bank of the Nile and wait for him. Bring your rod (the one that turned into a snake) with you."
16 And thou shalt say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou wouldest not hear. "Tell him, 'The LORD God of the Hebrews has sent me to you, saying, "Dismiss my people, so they can worship me in the wilderness," and you still haven't listened.'"
17 Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I am the LORD behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood. "'So the LORD says: "By this sign you shall now know that I'm the LORD." Watch as I strike the Nile with my rod and it turns into blood.'"
18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall lothe to drink of the water of the river. "All the fish in the Nile will die, and the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians won't be able to drink the river water."
19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Say this to Aaron: 'Take your rod, and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their streams, their waterways, their ponds, and their every confluence of water. They will turn into blood, and there will be blood in all the land of Egypt, and in every kind of vessel, whether of wood or of earth. Literally, "vessels of stone," that were probably earthenware pots.
20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. Moses and Aaron did as the LORD has told them, striking the water with the rod as Pharaoh and his staff looked on, and all the water in the river turned into blood,
21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt. and all the fish in the river died, and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink the water, and there was blood all throughout Egypt.
22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said. But since the magicians of Egypt could do the same thing with their occult arts, Pharaoh was not impressed, and did not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said.
23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also. Pharaoh turned and went into his house, still obstinate even in the face of this demonstration.
24 And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river. All the Egyptians had to dig wells for water to drink, since they couldn't drink the river water.
25 And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river. Seven days passed after the LORD struck the river.

Exodus 8-14 (Translated)

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