Exodus 15-20 (Translated)

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Chapter 15

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. Then Moses and the Sons of Israel began to sing this song to the LORD:

I will sing to the LORD,

For He is truly august!

He has thrown the horse and his rider into the sea!

Here, "august" means grand/lordly.
2 The LORD is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; my father's God, and I will exalt him. The LORD is my Strength and my Melody, and He now becomes my Salvation!

He is my God, and I shall adorn Him!

He is my father's God, and I shall exalt Him!

3 The LORD is a man of war: the LORD is his name. The LORD is a man of war!

The LORD is His Name!

4 Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea. The chariots and army of Pharaoh, he threw into the sea!

His best squad leaders have also drowned in the Red Sea!

Literally, "see of weeds." The Hebrew word rendered "captains" or "squad leaders" literally means "third fighters."
5 The depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone. The bottomless pits have covered them!

They sank into the shadowy depths like stone!

6 Thy right hand, O LORD, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O LORD, hath dashed in pieces the enemy. Your right hand, O LORD, has become ennobled in power!

Your right hand, O LORD, is harrying the enemy!

7 And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble. In the vastness of Your pomp You are demolishing them who were rising up against You!

You sent out Your wrath, and it devoured them like straw!

"Wrath" here literally means "heat."
8 And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together, the floods stood upright as an heap, and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea. With the wind of your nostrils, the waters were denuded!

They stood upright like a waterspout, and the deep places were curdled in the heart of the sea!

9 The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them. The enemy said, "I shall pursue, I shall overtake, I shall apprtion the loot! My soul shall be fulfilled on them! I will unsheath my sword, and my hand shall evict them!"
10 Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters. "You made a breeze with Your wind, and the sea covered them!

They submerged like lead in the great waters.

Literally, "noble waters."
11 Who is like unto thee, O LORD, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders? Who is like You, LORD, among gods? Who is like You, ennobled in holiness, fearsome in praises, working marvels?
12 Thou stretchedst out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them. You stretched out Your right hand, and the earth swallowed them!
13 Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation. In your kindness you guided this people which You redeemed!

You are conducting them in Your strength to Your homestead of holiness!

14 The people shall hear, and be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina. Peoples have heard, and they are being disturbed!

Travail will lay hold on them that dwell in Philistia!

"Palestina" is the Latin name for Philistia, the name given the region by Emperor Hadrian of Rome.
15 Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away. Then the sheikhs of Edom will be flustered!

The arbiters of Moab, a quivering will take hold of them!

All the inhabitants of Canaan will be dissolved!

16 Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, O LORD, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased. Shock and awe is falling on them!

By the greatness of Your arm they will stand as still as stone, until Your people pass by, O LORD, until the people pass by which You have acquired!

The literal Hebrew is "dread and awe."
17 Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O LORD, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O LORD, which thy hands have established. You will bring them, and plant them in the mountain of Your allotment, in the site, LORD, that You have contrived to dwell in, the Sanctuary, my Lord, that Your hands have established! This refers to the land allotments, and to the Tabernacle, and later the Temple.
18 The LORD shall reign for ever and ever. The LORD shall reign for ages and for all futurity! The song ends here.
19 For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD brought again the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea. Pharaoh's horses had gone in with his chariots and his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD had returned the waters of the sea over them, but the Sons of Israel had walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea.
20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam the prophetess, sister of Aaron, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women went out after her, playing on tambourines and flutes.
21 And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. Miriam answered them, "Sing to the LORD, for He is truly August! He has thrown the horse and his rider into the sea!"
22 So Moses brought Israel from the Red sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water. Thus Moses caused Israel to journey from the Red Sea. They went out into the wilderness of Shur, and they traveled for three days without finding any water.
23 And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah. They came to Marah, and could not drink any of the waters of Marah, because they were bitter. That is why the place is named Marah. Which in Hebrew means "bitter."
24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink? Now the people began murmuring against Moses, saying, "What are we to drink?" Barely three days from the greatest miracle any of them had ever seen--a lifesaving miracle--and already the complaining begins.
25 And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet: there he made for them a statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them, He cried out to the LORD, and the LORD directed him to a tree. When he threw this tree into the waters, the waters became sweet. Then he made there a statute and a judgment, and there he probed them.
26 And said, If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am the LORD that healeth thee. He said, "If you will diligently listen to the voice of the LORD, and will do what is upright in His eyes, and obey His instructions, and observe all His statutes, I will not put on you any of the illnesses that I brought upon the Egyptians. I, the LORD, am your Healer."
27 And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters. They came to Elim, where they found twelve springs of water, and seventy palm trees. They encamped there next to the waters.

Chapter 16

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt. Traveling from Elim, the entire assembly of the Sons of Israel came to the wilderness of Sin, between Elim and Sinai, on the 15th day of the 2nd month after they had gone out of the land of Egypt. That month was named Zif in those days; the name was changed to Iyar after the Exile. So they had been traveling for a month.
2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness: And the whole assembly of the Sons of Israel set up a constant refrain of complaint against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness. The Hebrew says, "and they are murmuring," not once but twice.
3 And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger. The Sons of Israel told them, "We would have been better off dying by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt! At least there we could sit by the flesh pots, and had as much bread as we could eat. Now you've brought us out into this wilderness, to kill the whole assembly of us with famine!"
4 Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no. The LORD then told Moses, "Look: I will cause bread to rain out of the sky for you. The people will go out and pick up a daily ration, so that I will test whether they will walk in My Law or not."
5 And it shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily. "When the sixth day comes about, they will prepare what they bring in, and it will be a double ration of what they pick up every day." So that they could leave off working on the Sabbath.
6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt: So Moses and Aaron told all the Sons of Israel, "At evening, you will know that the LORD brought you out of the land of Egypt."
7 And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us? "In the morning, you will see the glory of the LORD. He has heard your complaining against the LORD; what are we, that you complain constantly against us?"
8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD. Moses said, "In the evening, the LORD will give you flesh to eat, and bread in the morning, as much bread as you can eat. The LORD has heard all the complaints that you are making against Him. We are not the issue: you're not so much complaining against us, as against the LORD."
9 And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings. Moses told Aaron, "Tell the whole assembly of the Sons of Israel, 'Come near to the presence of the LORD. He has heard your complaints.'"
10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud. So it happened that while Aaron was speaking to the whole assembly of the Sons of Israel, they were facing toward the wilderness, and they were in awe as the glory of the LORD appeared to them in a cloud.
11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, The LORD said this to Moses:
12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God. "I have heard the complaints by the Sons of Israel. Tell them this: 'Every evening you will eat flesh, and in the morning you will eat your fill of bread, and you will know that I am the LORD your God.'"
13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host. And so it happened that in the evening, wild quail came up, and covered the camp. In the morning, the dew lay all around the camp.
14 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. When the dew had dried, a wondrous sight greeted them: on the surface of the wilderness lay a thin flake-like substance, as thin as hoar-frost on the ground.
15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat. When the Sons of Israel saw this, they said to one another, "What is this?" Because they did not know what it was. Moses told them, "This is the bread that the LORD is giving you for food." The Hebrew word, rendered as manna, is really the relative pronoun what expressed in the interrogative form. Thus the literal meaning of manna is "what's-its-name."
16 This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents. This is the LORD's instruction to you: Each man is to gather a daily ration of one omer per person. He is to take this ration for all who share his tents."
17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some much, and some little. The Sons of Israel did this, and picked up the flaked substance, some more, and some less.
18 And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating. When they measured it out with an omer, those who had gathered much had no surplus, and those who had gathered little had no shortage. Each man had gathered the ration required to feed him and his dependents.
19 And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning. Moses told him, "No man is allowed to reserve any of it for the next morning."
20 Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them. But they did not listen to Moses, and some of them did reserve some of the flaked substance until the next morning. But it became infested with worms, and stank, and Moses was angry with them.
21 And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted. So they gathered it every morning, each man gathering his ration. When the sun became hot, the stuff melted.
22 And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. And when every sixth day came around, they gathered a double ration of bread, two omers per person. All the tribal princes in the assembly came and told Moses about it.
23 And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning. So he told them, "That's what the LORD said must happen. Tomorrow is the Sabbath rest day, which is holy to the LORD. Bake what you need to bake for today, and cook what you need to cook. Whatever is left over, keep it until the next morning." A special rule for a special time of the week.
24 And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. So they left it until the next morning, as Moses instructed them to do. This time, the bread did not stink, nor were any maggots found in it.
25 And Moses said, Eat that to day; for to day is a sabbath unto the LORD: to day ye shall not find it in the field. Moses told them, "Eat this today. Today is the Sabbath of the LORD. Today you will not find it in the field."
26 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. "You are to pick it up for six days, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there won't be any."
27 And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. Now as it happened, some of the people did go out to gather the flaked substance on the seventh day, and found none.
28 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws? The LORD said to Moses, "How long are you going to refuse to follow My instructions and My laws?"
29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. "Look here: the LORD gave you a Sabbath, and for that reason on the sixth day He gives you a double ration of bread. Every man needs to sit where he is, and not stir from his place on the seventh day."
30 So the people rested on the seventh day. So the people rested from work on the seventh day. Literally, "were ceasing."
31 And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey. The house of Israel gave this substance the name manna. It was like coriander seed, and colored white, and tasted like honey cakes. See above; manna literally means "what is it?"
32 And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. Moses said, "This is the LORD's instruction: Fill an omer of this to keep for the generations to come, so that they will see the bread that I used to feed you in the wilderness, when I brought you out of the land of Egypt."
33 And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the LORD, to be kept for your generations. Moses said to Aaron, "Take an urn, and put in one full omer of manna, and store it in the presence of the LORD, to be kept in charge for generations."
34 As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept. As the LORD had instructed Moses, so Aaron stored this manna (eventually in the Ark of the Covenant, to be preserved. The Ark of the Covenant is also called "the Ark of the Testimony," which is the word used here.
35 And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan. The Sons of Israel ate manna for forty years, until they came to an inhabited land. THey ate the manna until they came to the frontier of the land of Canaan.
36 Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. One omer is one-tenth ephah. The ephah is the ancient Hebrew bushel.

Chapter 17

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of the LORD, and pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people to drink. The entire assembly of the Sons of Israel traveled from the wilderness of Sin, traveling as they were bidden by the LORD. They encamped in Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink.
2 Wherefore the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why chide ye with me? wherefore do ye tempt the LORD? So the people raised a contention with Moses, and said, "Give us water to drink!" Moses said to them, "Why are you contending with me? Are you testing the LORD?" Which, of course, was exactly what they were doing.
3 And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst? The people were thirsty for water, and complained to Moses, and said, "Why did you bring us out of Egypt? Did you intend to kill us and our sons and cattle with thirst?"
4 And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying, What shall I do unto this people? they be almost ready to stone me. Moses cried out to the LORD, saying, "What can I do for these people? If this goes on much longer, they'll stone me!"
5 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. The LORD told Moses, "Pass in front of the people, and take with you some of the old men of Israel. And take your rod, the one you struck the Nile with, in your hand, and go."
6 Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel. "And listen carefully: I will stand in front of you on the rock in Horeb. You are to strike the rock, and water will come out of it, so that the people will have something to drink." Moses did this in front of the old men of Israel.
7 And he called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the LORD, saying, Is the LORD among us, or not? He gave that place the names of Massah and Meribah, on account of the contention that the Sons of Israel made, and because they were testing the LORD, as if to say, "Is the LORD among us, or not?" The root of מסה or massah is the Hebrew nasthim, meaning "probing," closely akin to the Greek μνασθαι or mnasthai, to remember, whence amnesty. The root of מריבה or meribah is the Hebrew ריב (rib), meaning "to contend."
8 Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. Then the Amalekites came and fought against Israel in Rephidim.
9 And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek: to morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in mine hand. Moses told Joshua, "Choose some men and go out and fight against Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand."
10 So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. Joshua did as Moses had told him, and fought against Amalek. Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.
11 And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. When Moses happened to hold up his hand, Israel had the mastery. But when he let down his hand, Amalek had the mastery.
12 But Moses' hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun. Moses' hands were heavy. So they took a stone and placed it under him to sit on. Aaron and Hur then held up his hand, one on each side, so that his hands were constantly high until the setting of the sun.
13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. So Joshua destroyed Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword. "destroyed" is more accurate and descriptive than simply "defeated"
14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. The LORD told Moses, "Write this down in a scroll to commit it to memory, and make sure Joshua understands it, too: I am going to wipe out any remembrance of Amalek from under the sky." The Hebrew repeats the "wipe out" concept for emphasis.
15 And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah-nissi: Moses built an altar, and named it "The LORD is my Banner," Literally, "YHWH-nissi" or "Jehovah-nissi"
16 For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation. And he said, "The LORD has said, with His hand on His throne, that the LORD declares war against Amalek from generation to generation."

Chapter 18

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 When Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father in law, heard of all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel his people, and that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt; Jethro, the priest of Midian and father-in-law of Moses, heard all about what God had done for Moses, and for Israel, his people, and that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.
2 Then Jethro, Moses' father in law, took Zipporah, Moses' wife, after he had sent her back, Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, had taken back Zipporah, Moses' wife, after Moses had sent her back,
3 And her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been an alien in a strange land: along with her two sons. One of these was named Gershon, because Moses had said, "I have been a sojourner in a foreign land." From the Hebrew גר (ger) sojourner and שם (shem) a name.
4 And the name of the other was Eliezer; for the God of my father, said he, was mine help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh: The other was named Eliezer, because Moses had said, "The God of my father was my help, and rescued me from the sword of Pharaoh." Literally, "God is my help."
5 And Jethro, Moses' father in law, came with his sons and his wife unto Moses into the wilderness, where he encamped at the mount of God: Now Jethro, father-in-law of Moses, came to Moses with his sons and his wife, to the wilderness, where he was encamped next to the mountain of God. That is, Mount Horeb or Sinai.
6 And he said unto Moses, I thy father in law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her. He said to Moses, "I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you, with your wife and her two sons with her."
7 And Moses went out to meet his father in law, and did obeisance, and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare; and they came into the tent. Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed down and kissed him. They each asked after the other's well-being, and then came into the (command) tent. The bowing and kissing was a ceremonial greeting. Nomads throughout history have strongly stressed hospitality. Arabs lay this stress on hospitality to this day.
8 And Moses told his father in law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, and all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and how the LORD delivered them. Moses related to his father-in-law everything that the LORD did to Pharaoh and to Egypt on Israel's account, and all the hard work that had they had had to do along the way, and how the LORD continued to rescue them.
9 And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which the LORD had done to Israel, whom he had delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians. Jethro cheered strongly for all the good that the LORD had done for Israel, whom He had rescued from the hand of Egypt.
10 And Jethro said, Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh, who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians. Jethro said, "Blessed be the LORD, Who has rescued you from the hand of Egypt, and from the hand of Pharaoh, and Who has rescued the people from under the hand of Egypt."
11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them. "Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods, for He repaid them in full for their arrogance."
12 And Jethro, Moses' father in law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God: and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses' father in law before God. Now Jethro, father-in-law of Moses, took an ascent offering, and sacrifices for God. Then Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with the father-in-law of Moses in the presence of God.
13 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening. The next day, Moses happened to be sitting in judgment before the people. The people were standing and waiting on Moses from morning to evening.
14 And when Moses' father in law saw all that he did to the people, he said, What is this thing that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand by thee from morning unto even? Moses' father-in-law could see all that Moses did for the people. Then he said, "Why do you do all this for the people? Why should you sit alone in judgment, and have all the people wait on your judgments from morning to evening?"
15 And Moses said unto his father in law, Because the people come unto me to inquire of God: Moses told his father-in-law, "Well, the people come to me to inquire of God."
16 When they have a matter, they come unto me; and I judge between one and another, and I do make them know the statutes of God, and his laws. "When they have a dispute, they come to me, and I judge between the one and the other, and I make known to them the statutes of God, and His laws."
17 And Moses' father in law said unto him, The thing that thou doest is not good. Moses' father-in-law told him, "This thing that you are doing is not a good idea."
18 Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee: for this thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone. "You will wear yourself out! and not only you,l but all these people with you! This administrative burden is too heavy for you; you can't go on doing this all alone!"
19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to Godward, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God: "Now listen to me, and I will give you some advice, and God will be with you: You go to God, as a representative of the people, so that you may bring their cases to God."
20 And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. "Then teach them all the statutes and laws, and show them the way they should walk, and the deeds they have to do."
21 Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: "And then surely you can perceive among your people men of ability, God-fearing men, men of truth, who hate dishonest gain. Place men like these over them, to be chiefs of thousands, chiefs of hundreds, chiefs of fifties, and chiefs of tens."
22 And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge: so shall it be easier for thyself, and they shall bear the burden with thee. "Let these men judge the people in every season. Then they can bring every important case to you, but judge every minor case themselves. This will lighten your load, and they will carry the load with you."
23 If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou shalt be able to endure, and all this people shall also go to their place in peace. "If you will do this, and God instructs you so to act, then you will be able to stand it, and all these people will also come to their place in peace."
24 So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father in law, and did all that he had said. So Moses listened to his father-in-law, and did everything that he suggested.
25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. Moses chose men of ability from all of Israel, and made them heads of the people: chiefs of thousands, chiefs of hundreds, chiefs of fifties, and chiefs of tens.
26 And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves. They judged the people in every season. They brought the difficult cases to Moses, and judge the minor cases themselves.
27 And Moses let his father in law depart; and he went his way into his own land. Moses then dismissed his father-in-law, who went back to his own land.

Chapter 19

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. In the third month that the Sons of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on this day they came into the wilderness of Sinai. That is, Sivan. The first month was Abib, or the modern Nisan. If the day of the month is not named, and especially when Hebrew uses the phrase "this day", the first day of the month is implied.
2 For they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the desert of Sinai, and had pitched in the wilderness; and there Israel camped before the mount. They were moving out of Rephidim and had now come to the wilderness of Sinai, and were encamped in the wilderness. There Israel was encamped in front of the mountain. That is, before its eastern face. "Front" and "back" mean literally the sunrise and sunset face.
3 And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, to say, "Say this to the house of Jacob, and tell the Sons of Israel:"
4 Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself. "'You have all seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I carried you on the wings of great birds, and brought you to Myself.'" The bird spoken of is the black vulture Gyps fulvus, that has a wingspan comparable to that of an eagle; hence the translation as "eagle" in the KJV.
5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: "'Now if you are really prepared to listen to My voice, and honor My covenant, then you will become very special to Me out of all peoples; because all the earth belongs to Me.'"
6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel. "'You will become to me a kingdom of priests, and a nation set apart.' These are the words you are to speak to the Sons of Israel."
7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which the LORD commanded him. Moses came and called for all the elders of the people. He set before them all these words that the LORD had instructed him to speak.
8 And all the people answered together, and said, All that the LORD hath spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people unto the LORD. All the people said in response, "Everything that the LORD speaks, we will do." Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD.
9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever. And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD. Then the LORD told Moses, "Look: I am coming to you in a thick cloud, so that the people can hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever." Moses repeated the words of the people to the LORD.
10 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their clothes, The LORD said to Moses, "Go to the people, and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and have them rinse their garments." This rinsing was ceremonial.
11 And be ready against the third day: for the third day the LORD will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai. "They must be prepared for the third day. On the third day the LORD will descend before the eyes of all the people onto Mount Sinai."
12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it: whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death: "You are to set a boundary to the people all around, and tell them, 'Watch yourselves, and do not ascend the mountain, or even touch its outermost reaches. Anyone who touches the mountain will certainly be put to death." The Hebrew repeats the phrase "put to death" for emphasis.
13 There shall not an hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live: when the trumpet soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount. "Not one hand is to touch it, or else the owner of that hand is to be stoned or shot. Be he beast or man, he will not live. When the trumpet blows a long note, then they will come up to the mountain." The "trumpet" is actually a special horn blown at the Jubilee (still to be defined).
14 And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes. Moses descended from the mountain to the people, and sanctified them, and they rinsed their garments.
15 And he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day: come not at your wives. He told the people, "Be prepared for the third day, and don't be intimate with your wives."
16 And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp trembled. And so it fell out on the morning of the third day, that thunder and lightning broke out, and a heavy cloud covered the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast. Everyone in the camp shook with fear.
17 And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God; and they stood at the nether part of the mount. Moses brought out the people from the camp to meet with God. They stood at the base of the mountain.
18 And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. Mount Sinai was completely covered with smoke, because the LORD had descended upon it in fire. The smoke of that fire went up like the smoke of a limekiln, and the entire mountain shook very hard. In other words, Sinai behaved for all the world like a volcano, but the fire and quaking came from above the mountain, not from within.
19 And when the voice of the trumpet sounded long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice. When the trumpet blast sounded long, and grew ever louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice.
20 And the LORD came down upon mount Sinai, on the top of the mount: and the LORD called Moses up to the top of the mount; and Moses went up. The LORD descended on Mount Sinai, on the summit of the mountain. Then the LORD called Moses to the summit of the mountain, and Moses climbed.
21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish. The LORD told Moses, "Descend, and make sure the people understand, so that they will not crash through to gaze at the LORD, and many of them die as a result."
22 And let the priests also, which come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them. "Moreover, the priests, who come near to the LORD, must sanctify themselves, if they don't want the LORD to breach forth upon them."
23 And Moses said unto the LORD, The people cannot come up to mount Sinai: for thou chargedst us, saying, Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it. Moses told the LORD, "The people cannot climb Mount Sinai. You gave us strict instructions to set a boundary around the mountain and regard it as holy."
24 And the LORD said unto him, Away, get thee down, and thou shalt come up, thou, and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto the LORD, lest he break forth upon them. The LORD told him, "Go! Descend, and then you will climb, you and Aaron with you, but don't let the priests and the people break through to climb to the LORD, or else He will break out against them."
25 So Moses went down unto the people, and spake unto them. Moses then descended to the people, and spoke to them.

Chapter 20

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And God spake all these words, saying, God spoke all these words, as follows:
2 I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. "I am the LORD your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery."
3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. "You shall have no other gods before Me."
4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: "You shall not make for yourself any carving, or any representation of anything in heaven above, or the earth beneath, or in the waters beneath the earth."
5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; "You will not bow yourself down to them, nor be made to serve them. I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the depravity of the fathers on the sons to the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me,"
6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. "and doing kindness to thousands of them that love Me, and to those who observe My instructions."
7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. You shall not take up the Name of the LORD your God carelessly. The LORD will not find a person innocent if he takes up His Name carelessly." Literally, "futilely."
8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. "Remember the Sabbath day, and set it apart." The Sabbath is the seventh day of the week.
9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: "For six days you will serve and do all your work."
10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: "But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you will not do any work, neither you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your manservant, your maidservant, your livestock, or the sojourner within your gates."
11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. "In six days the LORD made the heaven and the earth, and the sea, and everything in them, and stopped work on the seventh day. And so the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it special."
12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. "Honor your father and your mother, so that your days will be prolonged on the ground that the LORD your God gives you." Literally, "Glorify your father and your mother..."
13 Thou shalt not kill. "Do not murder." The Hebrew רצה (ratzach) literally means "murder" in the criminological sense.
14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. "Do not commit adultery."
15 Thou shalt not steal. "Do not steal."
16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. "Do not answer your associate with false testimony."
17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. "Do not covet your associate's house, do not covet your associate's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his bull, nor donkey, nor anything that belongs to your associate."
18 And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and when the people saw it, they removed, and stood afar off. All the people saw and heard the thunderings and lightnings and trumpet sounds, and the smoking of the mountain. When the people saw all this, they moved away and stood far away.
19 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die. They said to Moses, "You speak to us, and we will hear you. But don't let God speak with us, or we'll die!"
20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not: for God is come to prove you, and that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin not. Moses told the people, "You mustn't be afraid. God came in order to test you, and so that the fear of him will be before your faces, so that you will not sin."
21 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was. The people stood far away, and Moses came close to the murkiness where God was.
22 And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. The LORD said to Moses, "Say this to the Sons of Israel: 'You saw that I spoke with you from the heavens.'"
23 Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold. "You will not make silver gods with me, nor make golden gods for yourselves."
24 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. "'You will make an earthen altar for Me, and will sacrifice My ascent offerings on it, and your peace offerings, and your sheep, and your oxen. In every place where I record My Name I will come to you and bless you."
25 And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast polluted it. "'If you make Me an altar of stone, you will not build it out of trimmed stone. If you lay any tool on it, you will profane it.'"
26 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon. "'And do not climb the stairs to My altar, so that your nakedness will not be exposed on it.'"
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