Exodus 21-26 (Translated)

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Contents

Chapter 21

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them. Now these are the laws that you will give them to live under. Literally, "these are the judgments you shall place before their faces."
2 If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. If you buy a Hebrew slave, he will serve you for six years, and in the seventh year he will be free again and owe you nothing. Slaves are normally not to remain slaves forever. Note the term: six years, corresponding to the six days of creation.
3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him. If he came in single, he will go out single; if he had a wife, then his wife will go out with him.
4 If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself. If his master gives him a wife, and she gave birth to sons or daughters for him, then the wife and her children will still belong to the master, and he will go out single.
5 And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free: Now if the slave is willing to say directly, "I love my master, my wife, and my children, and I would rather not reclaim my freedom," The Hebrew repeats the verb "to say" for emphasis.
6 Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever. then his master will bring him to the judges, and will also bring him close to the door, or to the door jamb. There his mater will bore his ear through with an awl, and he will serve him for the rest of his life. Literally, "serve him for eon." Greek has the same idiom.
7 And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do. If a man sells his daughter as a maidservant, she shall not reclaim her freedom the way a manservant would.
8 If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her. If her master is not pleased with her, after he betrothed her to himself, then he will allow her to be ransomed to freedom. He will not have the right to sell her to a foreign people, because he has dealt treacherously with her. Literally, "if she is evil in the eyes of her master," idiomatic for "not to please"
9 And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters. If he has betrothed her to his son, then he must treat her like a daughter.
10 If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish. If he takes another wife, then he will not diminish anything from his obligation to provide her food, clothing, and shelter.
11 And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money. If he is not willing to provide these three things to her, she will reclaim her freedom and owe him no money.
12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death. Anyone who strikes another man with a fatal blow will certainly be executed. The crime of manslaughter, by this code, is punished as severely as is murder in either degree.
13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee. If a man did not hunt down the other man, but God fated that man to die at his hand, I will appoint for you a place to which he shall flee.
14 But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die. But if a man murders his neighbor with premeditation and treachery, you will drag him away from My altar, as the case may be, and have him executed.
15 And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. Anyone who strikes his father or his mother will certainly be executed.
16 And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death. If a man kidnaps another man and sells him, or if that other man be found in his hands, the kidnapper will certainly be executed.
17 And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. Anyone who slights his father or his mother will certainly be executed.
18 And if men strive together, and one smite another with a stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed: If men are fighting with one another, and one of them strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and the other man does not die, but is made bedridden:
19 If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed. If that man gets up again and is able to walk again using a staff, then the one who struck him will be acquitted--but he must recompense him for lost worktime and see to his complete recovery. This is the first victim's compensation statute on record.
20 And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished. If a man strikes his manservant or maidservant with a club, and the servant dies at his hand, then the dead person shall be avenged.
21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money. However, if the stricken servant remains alive for a day or two, then he will not be avenged, because he is his property. Literally, "remains standing." For "property," the literal word is silver.
22 If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. If men fight with one another, and in the process injure a pregnant woman and cause her to miscarry, but no further mishap follows, then the man doing the injury will pay whatever fine the husband demands and the mediators allow.
23 And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, If further mishap does occur, then you will give life for life, This detailed statement of the lex talionis is meant to
24 Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, restrain the injured party from exacting more vengeance than
25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. scorching for scorching, injury for injury, and welt for welt. is warranted. The malefactor must suffer in precise proportion to the suffering he caused, but no more.
26 And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake. If a man strikes his manservant or maidservant in the eye, and the eye is ruined, then he will dismiss that person immediately to recompense him/her for the loss of the eye. A deterrent against the physical abuse of a slave.
27 And if he smite out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake. If he knocks out his manservant's or maidservant's tooth, he will dismiss him to recompense him for the loss of the tooth.
28 If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit. If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox is to be stoned to death, and his flesh not eaten. The owner of the ox will be acquitted.
29 But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death. But if the ox had been known to threaten to gore others in the past, and if that fact has been made known to the owner, and the owner did not keep the ox in, and then let the ox kill a man or a woman, the ox will be stoned, and moreover the owner will be executed. Literally, "three days from yesterday." This law makes a man responsible for injuries or deaths that his livestock cause, when he has good reason to suspect that any of his livestock might present a public danger or nuisance.
30 If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him. If instead a ransom is imposed on him, he will ransom his life by paying the full sum demanded.
31 Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him. Whether the ox gores a son or a daughter, this will be done to him according to custom.
32 If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned. If the ox threatens a manservant or maidservant with a goring motion, the owner will pay the servant's master thirty silver shekels, and the ox is to be stoned.
33 And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein; If a man opens a dry well, or digs a dry well, and fails to cover it, and an ox or donkey falls in,
34 The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his. the dry well's owner must repay in silver the onwer of the lost animal, and the dead animal will then belong to him.
35 And if one man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox also they shall divide. If one man's ox fatally injures another man's ox, they will sell the live ox and divide the silver price between them, and will also divide the dead ox.
36 Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past, and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own. But if that ox was known to threaten to gore other animals in the past, and its owner has not penned him in, he will repay an ox for the lost ox, and the dead ox will then belong to him.

Chapter 22

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he must repay five oxen for an ox, or four sheep for a sheep.
2 If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him. If a thief is caught trying to break in, and is struck a fatal blow, no blood will be shed on his account. If the thief dies in the act of thieving, that's the end of the case.
3 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. If the sun rises on him, blood will be shed on his account, in that he must make full restitution. If he has nothing to repay with, he must be sold on account of his theft.
4 If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double. If the stolen livestock is found alive in his hand, be it ox or donkey or sheep, he must repay double.
5 If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution. If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed down, and then releases any of his livestock and grazes it in another man's field, then he must make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard.
6 If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. If a fire breaks out and catches on thorns, and corn shocks or raised grain or field be burnt up, then whoever started that fire must certainly make restitution.
7 If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. If a man gives his neighbor any money or articles to keep, and these goods be stolen out of the man's house: if the thief is found, then the thief will repay double. Literally, silver, a common metaphor for money in certain modern languages.
8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods. If the thief cannot be found, then the master of the house must be brought before the court to determine whether he has kept his neighbor's goods for himself.
9 For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour. In any matter involving a transgression, over an ox or donkey or sheep or clothing or for any sort of lost thing, which another person says actually belongs to him, then the word of both parties will be judged by the court, and whom the court finds guilty shall repay his neighbor double.
10 If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it: If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, and ox, a sheep, or any other livestock animal to keep, and that animal dies, or is injured, or gets captured, with no witnesses to the mishap,
11 Then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good. an oath of the LORD will be taken between the two, that he did not misappropriate his neighbor's goods. The owner will accept that, and the other person will not have to make it good.
12 And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof. But if it has been stolen from him, he must make restitution to its owner.
13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn. If it has been torn to pieces, he must bring in a testimony to the incident, and he need not make good what was torn.
14 And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good. If a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and that thing be injured, or die, and the owner is not with it, then he must make restitution.
15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire. But if the owner was with it, he need not make restitution. If it is a rented thing, then it came for his rent.
16 And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. If a man entices an unattached virgin and is intimate with her, then he must pay the bride price, and she will be his wife.
17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins. Now if her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he must still pay in full the bride-price for virgins. Literally, "weigh out the silver."
18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. Do not allow an enchantress to live.
19 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death. Anyone who copulates with an animal must certainly be executed.
20 He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed. Anyone who sacrifices something to any god, will be doomed unless that sacrifice was made only to the LORD.
21 Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Do not tyrannize or oppress a sojourner. You became sojourners in the land of Egypt.
22 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child. Do not humiliate any widow or orphan.
23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry; If you humiliate them in any manner, and they make any outcry to Me, I will certainly hear their outcry,
24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless. and My anger will grow hot, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives will become widows, and your children orphans.
25 If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury. If you lend any money to any of My people who has become poor by you, you will not act the creditor with him, nor charge him any interest. For "poor" the Hebrew reads "humble."
26 If thou at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down: If you take any of your neighbor's clothes as any kind of pledge, you must restore it to him before the sun sets.
27 For that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious. That is his only covering; it is a garment for his skin. What else would he sleep in? It shall happen that if he cries out to me, I will hear, because I am Gracious.
28 Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people. Do not show contempt of court, nor speak ill of the prince of your people. "Elohim" means either God or a court.
29 Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. Do not delay in offering the first of your ripe fruits, and fruit juices. You will dedicate the firstborn of your sons to Me.
30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me. You will do the same with your oxen, and your sheep. The firstborn will stay seven days with its mother, and on the eighth you will give it to Me.
31 And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs. You will be a people set apart to Me. Nor shall you eat any flesh that was torn to pieces in the field; instead you will throw such flesh to the dogs.

Chapter 23

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness. Do not carry a false report; do not set your hand with the wicked one, to become a lying witness. Literally, "report of futility."
2 Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment: Do not follow after many to do evil. Do not respond after many, in a cause before a court, to cause a miscarriage of justice.
3 Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause. Do not grant a man a favorable judgment merely because he is poor.
4 If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. If you come upon your enemy's ox or donkey going astray, make sure you bring it back to him. This prefigures the "love-one's-enemies" instruction of Jesus Christ
5 If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him. If you see the donkey belonging to one who hates you having difficulty carrying its load, even if you would rather not help him, you must help him. Literally, "to set free."
6 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. Do not cause a miscarriage of justice in the case of a poor man.
7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked. Keep far away from false matters, and do not kill the innocent or the just. I will not justify the wicked.
8 And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous. Take no bribe. A bribe blinds the unclosed eyes, and subverts the words of the just.
9 Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Do not oppress a sojourner. You should know the soul of a sojourner, because you were sojourners in the land of Egypt. This is an example of the Golden Rule.
10 And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof: For six years you will sow your land and gather its income.
11 But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard. But in the seventh year you are to let your land lie fallow, so that the needy ones among your people may eat, and the animals of the field will eat their leavings. You will manage your vineyards and olive groves in the same manner. This is the "land sabbath." Before the modern era of "monoculture," any good farmer learned early to let his land lie fallow every seven years, to allow it to recover its ability to sustain a crop.
12 Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed. For six days you will do work, and in the seventh day you will stop working, so that your ox and donkey may rest, and the son of your maidservant, and the sojourner, may be refreshed.
13 And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth. In all things that I have said to you, beware, and do not mention the names of other gods, nor let such a name be heard out of your mouth. In other words, "Don't even think..."
14 Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year. You are to celebrate to Me three times a year.
15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:) You are to observe a celebration of unleavened bread. For seven days you will eat unleavened bread, as I instructed you, in the time appointed in the month of Abib. In that month you came out of Egypt, and no one will come before Me empty-handed.
16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field. You are to observe a harvest celebration, of the firstfruits of your yields that you sow in the field, and the celebration of the ingathering, at the end of the year, when you have gathered in your yields out of the field.
17 Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD. Three times in the year, every male among you is to appear before the Lord GOD. Here the word translated as "Lord" is Adon, not the Tetragrammaton.
18 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning. You must not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread, and the fat of My sacrifice is not to remain until morning.
19 The first of the firstfruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. You are to bring the first of the firstfruits of your land into the house of the LORD your God. You are not to cook a young animal in its mother's milk.
20 Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. See; I am sending a Messenger before you, to keep you on the road, and to bring you into the place that I have prepared.
21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him. Guard yourself from his face, and listen to his voice, and do not provoke him. He will not put up wth your transgressions, because My name is within him. The word rendered "provoke" is actually "embitter."
22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries. But if you truly listen to his voice, and do everything I tell you to do, then I will be an Enemy of your enemies, and a Foe of your foes.
23 For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off. My Messenger will go before you, and will bring you to the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites. And I will suppress them.
24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images. You are not to bow yourself down to their gods, nor be made to serve them, nor do their sort of deeds. You are to destroy them totally, and break down their images completely.
25 And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee. You will serve the LORD your God, and He will best your bread, and your water, and I will take away sickness from within you.
26 There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfill. Nothing will miscarry or be barren in your land. I will make full the number of your days.
27 I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee. I will send the dread of Me before you, and I will discomfit all the people that you come into contact with, and I will make all your enemies turn the napes of their necks to you.
28 And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee. I will send the hornet before you, and it will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before you.
29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. I will not drive them out in a single year; I would not have the land become desolate and the field animals become many against you.
30 By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land. I will drive them out little by little from before you, until you are fruitful and can be allotted the land.
31 And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee. I will set your boundary from the Red Sea even to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the river. I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you.
32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. Make no treaties with them, or with their gods.
33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee. They are not to dwell in your land, or else they will cause you to sin against Me. If you start serving their gods, that will become a trap for you.

Chapter 24

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off. Then He told Moses, "Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the old men of Israel, and bow yourselves down from a distance."
2 And Moses alone shall come near the LORD: but they shall not come nigh; neither shall the people go up with him. "Moses alone shall come close to the LORD, but they shall not come close, nor shall the people ascend with him."
3 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do. Moses came and told the people everything that the LORD had said, and all the laws He had given. The people answered with one accord, saying, "all the words that the LORD has spoken, we will do!"
4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. Then he rose up early in the morning, and built an altar below the mountain, and twelve monuments to represent the twelve Tribes of Israel.
5 And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD. He sent young men among the Sons of Israel. They brought up ascent offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the LORD. Literally, "young bulls."
6 And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basons; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. Moses took half the blood, and collected it in goblets, and sprinkled half the blood on the altar.
7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient. Then he took the scroll of the covenant and read it where the people could hear it. They said, "Everything that the LORD has spoken, we will do, and will listen!"
8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words. Now Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Behold! This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you concerning all these matters!" Literally, "the covenant that the LORD cuts," because the cutting of animals in sagittal section was part of the ritual of the making of solemn treaties.
9 Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the old men of Israel went up.
10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness. They saw the God of Israel. Under His feet was something like a tiled handicraft made from sapphire, and the very essence of the heavens for purity.
11 And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink. He did not put out His hand toward the selectmen of the Sons of Israel. They also could perceive God, and were eating and drinking.
12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them. The LORD said to Moses, "Come up to Me into the mountain, and be there. I will give you tablets of stone, and the law, and the instructions that I have written, so that you may direct the people in them."
13 And Moses rose up, and his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God. Moses rose up, with Joshua, his chief of staff. Moses went up into the mountain of God.
14 And he said unto the elders, Tarry ye here for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: if any man have any matters to do, let him come unto them. He told the old men, "Wait here for us, until we come back to you. Look: Aaron and Hur will be with you. If any of you have any cases to bring, let him draw near to them."
15 And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount. Moses went up into the mountain, and a cloud covered the mountain.
16 And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud. The glory of the LORD made its camp on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days. On the seventh day He called to Moses from the middle of the cloud.
17 And the sight of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel. The glory of the LORD appeared to the Sons of Israel like a devouring fire on the summit of the mountain.
18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights. Moses entered into the middle of the cloud, and climbed into the mountain. Moses stayed on the mountain for forty days and forty nights.

Chapter 25

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,
2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offering. Speak to the Sons of Isreal, so that they shall bring me an offering: every man who gives it willingly with his heart shall give my offering to you. Hebrew תרומה (thrumeh), literally "heave-offering," or something thrown.
3 And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and silver, and brass, This is the offering you are to take from them; gold, silver, and copper, Brass is a modern alloy of copper and zinc. Most English translations specify antique bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. But the Temple Institute of Jerusalem says positively that the Hebrew word for copper can mean nothing but copper—pure and unalloyed.
4 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, And violet, purple, and crimson double-dipped cambric, and goats' hair Literally, "amethyst." All known amethysts are violet in color, not blue. "Purple" means the very deep purple made from a particular variety of oyster—the Tyrian or Phoenician purple that would be highly prized in the Roman Empire.
5 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood, And reddened rams' skins, and porpoise skins, and acacia wood Literally, "skins of azure ones." This animal is not a badger and was probably a porpoise, also known as a bottlenosed dolphin.
6 Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense, Oil for the lantern, spices for anointing oil and for incense, Literally, "aromatics" or "sweet-smelling substances." The term incense implies a sweet-smelling mixture; hence "sweet incense" is redundant.
7 Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate. Onyx and other stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate. The ephod was a special vest that the High Priest would later use to "inquire of the Lord."
8 And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. They are to make a sanctuary for Me, so that I may dwell among them. Literally, "tabernacle," or "dwell in a tent."
9 According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it. I will show you the model of the Tabernacle and the model of all its instruments, and you will make it exactly that way.
10 And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. Make Me a chest of acacia wood, two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high. Wood is a symbol for man. Acacia wood, knotty as it is, is difficult to work with—a symbol of man being difficult to work with.
11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about. Overlay it with pure gold, both inside and out, and encircle the top with a golden flange. Wood covered with gold: a presaging of Jesus Christ.
12 And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it. Cast four golden rings for it, and set them at the four corners of the chest; two rings on each side.
13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold. Make poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold.
14 And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them. Insert the poles into the rings by the sides of the chest, in order to carry the chest with them.
15 The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it. The poles are to be kept in the rings of the chest and are not to be taken from it.
16 And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee. Put into the chest the testimony that I shall give you. That "testimony" will be the Tablets of Law; hence the name "Ark of the Testimony" sometimes used for the Ark of the Covenant.
17 And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof. Next, make a mercy seat of pure gold to cover the chest, two and a half cubits long, and a cubit and a half wide. Literally, "propitiary shelter."
18 And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat. Make two golden cherubim, of hammered work, to be located at the two ends of the mercy seat. Literally, "stiff-shell."
19 And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof. Set one cherub at one end of the mercy seat, and the other cherub at the other end; the cherubim on the two ends are to be blended in as part of the mercy seat. Meaning that they are not separate objects; they are to be permanently attached.
20 And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be. The cherubim shall be made with raised wings stretched toward each other, covering the mercy seat with the span of these wings, and they shall look at each other facing toward the center of the mercy seat.
21 And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee. You are to cover the chest with the mercy seat. You are to put into the chest the testimony that I shall give you. A second reference to this "testimonial" object.
22 And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel. I will keep appointments with you there, and I will speak with you from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim sitting atop the Ark of the Testimony, concerning all the things which I will provide to you as commandments for the Sons of Israel.
23 Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. You are also to build a table of acacia wood, two cubits long, a cubit wide, and a cubit and a half tall. The Table of Showbread
24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about. Overlay it with pure gold, and surround the top with a golden flange.
25 And thou shalt make unto it a border of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about. And you shall surround it with a border of a hand's breadth in width, and cap this border with a golden flange.
26 And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof. Make four golden rings for it, and set the rings in the four corners by the legs,
27 Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the staves to bear the table. Located against the border, so the rings can provide places for poles to lift the table.
28 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them. Make the poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold, so that the table may be carried with them.
29 And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold shalt thou make them. Make dishes, spoons, chalices, and waste pans to be used with this table, and they shall be made of pure gold. A chalice is a drinking vessel.
30 And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me always. Set showbread on the table for Me at all times. Literally, "bread of faces," or bread to show before the face of God. "Showbread" was the offering of loaves required for temple. The new version will not retain the Elizabethan spelling "shewbread" but will retain the original pronunciation of "shew-" which rhymes with "Oh", not "You."
31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same. Make a lampstand of pure gold, of hammered work. Make its stem, tubes, cones, spheres and buds all in one piece. A new version of this lampstand, or menorah, stands today in the Old City of Jerusalem.
32 And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side: Six tubes will branch out of its sides, three tubes of the lampstand from one side, and three from the other side.
33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick. Make three almond-shaped cones, with a sphere and bud in one tube, and three almond-shaped cones in the other tube: make six tubes after this manner branching out from the lampstand shaft.
34 And in the candlestick shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers. In the shaft make four almond-shaped cones, with spheres and buds.
35 And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick. Make a sphere under a pair of branching tubes, and a sphere under another pair of branching tubes, and a sphere under a third pair of branching tubes, for all six branching tubes of the lampstand.
36 Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all it shall be one beaten work of pure gold. Their spheres and branching tubes will be one piece, one hammered work of pure gold.
37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it. Make seven golden lamps. Have them light these lamps, so that they may give light across the enclosure. The enclosure is yet to be described.
38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold. Their snuffers and firepand are to be made of pure gold.
39 Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. Have [the craftsman] use a talent weight of pure gold to make it, along with all these vessels. The talent was the weight that a porter could carry on his back. This would be about 75 pounds in the English system.
40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount. See that these are made after their model that was showed to you on the mountain.

Chapter 26

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them. Next, make the tabernacle with ten curtains of corded cambric, in violet, deep purple, and crimson. Make them with cherubim woven into them by one skilled in this art. Tabernacle = "dwelling-place." The phrase rendered "cunning work" in the KJV means "work of one designing"—generally the work of one skilled in whatever craft is called for.
2 The length of one curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and every one of the curtains shall have one measure. The length of each curtain shall be twenty eight cubits, and their width four cubits: all the curtains shall be the same size.
3 The five curtains shall be coupled together one to another; and other five curtains shall be coupled one to another. The first five curtains shall be attached together in sequence; and other five curtains attached in the same manner.
4 And thou shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling; and likewise shalt thou make in the uttermost edge of another curtain, in the coupling of the second. Make violet loops on the edge of the one curtain, attached from the hem; and likewise do the same for the other curtains. Made more concise
5 Fifty loops shalt thou make in the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make in the edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of the second; that the loops may take hold one of another. Attach fifty loops to the first curtain, and attach fifty loops in the edge of second; so that the loops may be used to join the two.
6 And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, and couple the curtains together with the taches: and it shall be one tabernacle. Then make fifty golden clasps, and couple the curtains together with them; this will form a single tent. Gold is the metal of royalty, indicating the kingship of God.
7 And thou shalt make curtains of goats' hair to be a covering upon the tabernacle: eleven curtains shalt thou make. Then make eleven goats-hair curtains to cover the tabernacle. More concise wording
8 The length of one curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four cubits: and the eleven curtains shall be all of one measure. Each of these curtains shall be thirty cubits long, and four cubits wide: all eleven curtains are to be of the same size.
9 And thou shalt couple five curtains by themselves, and six curtains by themselves, and shalt double the sixth curtain in the forefront of the tabernacle. Attach five curtains as one set, and six curtains as another set. Locate and fold the sixth curtain over itself in the front of the tabernacle.
10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the curtain which coupleth the second. Attach fifty loops on the edge of the last curtain in each of the two sets. Shortened
11 And thou shalt make fifty taches of brass, and put the taches into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one. Make fifty copper clasps, and put the clasps into these loops, and couple the tent together, so that is a single unit. Again, the metal is copper, not antique bronze or brass. The literal word is copper, the metal of judgment.
12 And the remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remaineth, shall hang over the backside of the tabernacle. And the portion of that tent which overlaps the tabernacle, which should be a half-curtain in length, shall hang over the back of the tabernacle.
13 And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it. And a cubit's worth of the remaining length of the tent shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on both sides, to cover it. Note that the corded-cambric curtains were each 28 cubits long, not 30.
14 And thou shalt make a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering above of badgers' skins. Make a covering for the tent out of reddened rams' skins, and a covering above that made of porpoise skins.
15 And thou shalt make boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood standing up. Make boards for the tabernacle of acacia wood, placed upright. Literally, "hollow tapers." Thus these boards were not to be solid-core boards. Hollow-core boards would be lighter in weight.
16 Ten cubits shall be the length of a board, and a cubit and a half shall be the breadth of one board. Each board shall be ten cubits long and one and a half cubits wide.
17 Two tenons shall there be in one board, set in order one against another: thus shalt thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle. Each board shall have two tenons, set in order one against another: all the boards of the tabernacle shall be made this way. Literally, "projections." A tenon is a projection, made as part of the wood itself, meant for insertion into a cavity of some kind. This cavity could be either a mortise (a hollowed-out cavity) in an adjoining piece of wood, or, as in this case, a metal socket (see below).
18 And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side southward. Make twenty boards for the tabernacle, located on the south side facing southward. Literally, "toward the Negev," which was the southernmost part of the Promised Land.
19 And thou shalt make forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards; two sockets under one board for his two tenons, and two sockets under another board for his two tenons. Make forty sockets of silver under the twenty boards; two sockets for the tenons of each board's end. Shortened. Silver is a metal of redemption and is in fact the same word used for "money." This is also true in certain modern languages, especially the Romance languages.
20 And for the second side of the tabernacle on the north side there shall be twenty boards: On the second, or northern, side, make twenty more boards boards,
21 And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board. and forty silver sockets for them, two sockets within the end of each board.
22 And for the sides of the tabernacle westward thou shalt make six boards. For the western side of the tabernacle, make six boards. Literally, seaward—back toward the Red Sea.
23 And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the tabernacle in the two sides. Also, make two boards for the corners of the tabernacle on the two sides.
24 And they shall be coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled together above the head of it unto one ring: thus shall it be for them both; they shall be for the two corners. Attached them together underneath, and attach them together above its head to form one ring: do this for both corners.
25 And they shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under one board, and two sockets under another board. Make eight boards, each with two silver sockets, two set in the end of each board.
26 And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle, Next, make bars of acacia wood; five for the boards of one side of the tabernacle,
27 And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the two sides westward. five bars for the boards of the other side, and five bars for the boards of the rearward, or westward side of the tabernacle. The tabernacle faces to the east (toward the sun), so that is the open end. The westward end is closed.
28 And the middle bar in the midst of the boards shall reach from end to end. The middle bar of each five-board set shall reach from end to end.
29 And thou shalt overlay the boards with gold, and make their rings of gold for places for the bars: and thou shalt overlay the bars with gold. Overlay the boards with gold, and attach golden rings as places for the bars. The overlayment command is repeated for emphasis.
30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the fashion thereof which was shewed thee in the mount. Raise up the tabernacle according to the manner that you were shown on the mountain.
31 And thou shalt make a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work: with cherubims shall it be made: Next, make an inner curtain of violet, purple, and crimson double-dipped cambric, skillfully decorated with cherubim.
32 And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold: their hooks shall be of gold, upon the four sockets of silver. Hang it on four pillars of acacia wood overlaid with gold. Each pillar must have golden hooks, and the pillars set on four silver sockets. Royalty and redemption meet again, as they do in the joining of the tabernacle boards.
33 And thou shalt hang up the vail under the taches, that thou mayest bring in thither within the vail the ark of the testimony: and the vail shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy. Hang the inner curtain under the clasps, so that you may bring the Ark of the Covenant inside this curtain. This curtain will serve as the boundary between the holy place, and the Holy of Holies. The Holy of Holies would be a perfect cube, ten cubits on an edge.
34 And thou shalt put the mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place. Set the mercy seat on top of the ark of the covenant in this Holy of Holies.
35 And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south: and thou shalt put the table on the north side. Set the Table of Showbread outside this inner curtain, and the lampstand on the other side of the table. Set the lampstand on the south side and the table on the north side.
36 And thou shalt make an hanging for the door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with needlework. Make a doorway curtain for the door of the tent, of violet, deep purple, and crimson double-dipped cambric, covered with embroidery. Such a curtain is called a portiere in French. All that is meant here is a curtain serving to guard an entrance.
37 And thou shalt make for the hanging five pillars of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, and their hooks shall be of gold: and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them. Make five pillars of acacia wood for this doorway curtain, and overlay them with gold, and fashion golden hooks for them. Cast five copper sockets for them. The entryway pillars rest on sockets of judgment, but the pillars to the Holy of Holies have sockets representing redemption.
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