Exodus 8-14 (Translated)

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Chapter 8

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me. And the LORD said to Moses, "Go to Pharaoh and tell him: "The LORD says, 'Dismiss my people so that they may be free to worship Me.'" Pharaoh = Neferhotep
2 And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs: "'And if you refuse to dismiss them, I will attack you with frogs within all your boundaries.'" Frogs were God-substitutes in ancient Egypt; killing one was sacrilege. Now imagine them always underfoot!
3 And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs: "The Nile will team with frogs, and they will get into everything--into your house, into your bedroom, onto your bed, into your servants' quarters, all over your people, and into your ovens and bread-making troughs.'"
4 And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants. "'And the frogs will go after you, your family and your servants.'"
5 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt. Then the LORD told Moses, "Tell Aaron, 'Reach out across the streams and waterways with your rod, and summon the frogs to come to Egypt.'"
6 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt. So Aaron reached out over the water, and up came the frogs, and they covered the country of Egypt.
7 And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt. The sacred scribes used their occult arts to summon more frogs.
8 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the LORD. So Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron, and asked them, "Ask the LORD to get rid of the frogs, and in return I will dismiss your people so that they can worship the LORD. This is the first break, however temporary, in Neferhotep's attitude.
9 And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Glory over me: when shall I intreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in the river only? Moses said, "Agreed. What time do you wish this done? I will ask God, on behalf of you, your servants and your people to get the frogs out of your homes and back into the Nile to stay." Moses literally says, "Vaunt yourself over me."
10 And he said, To morrow. And he said, Be it according to thy word: that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the LORD our God. Pharaoh said, "Tomorrow." Moses said, "Consider it done as you just said. This should demonstrate to you that there is nothing like the LORD our God."
11 And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people; they shall remain in the river only. "The frogs will withdraw from you, your houses, your servants, and your people. They will stay in the Nile."
12 And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the LORD because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh. Moses and Aaron went away from Pharaoh. Moses cried out to the LORD on the matter of the frogs that He had brought against Pharaoh.
13 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields. The LORD did as Moses asked: the frogs died out from the houses, the village squares, and the fields.
14 And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank. The people piled them up in homer-sized piles, and the land stank with them.
15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said. But when Pharaoh saw that he had gained a respite, he became obstinate again, and reneged on his promise, as the LORD had said he would. Literally, "did not listen to them." However, the context requires a statement of the full implication of the "not listening."
16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt. The LORD said to Moses, "Now tell Aaron, 'Reach out with your rod, and strike the soil of the land. It shall become lice in all the land of Egypt." Now God directly attacks the earth itself, another object of worship in polytheistic Egypt.
17 And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. And that is what they did. Aaron reached out with his rod, and struck the topsoil of the land, and it became lice, and infested man and beast alike. All the topsoil in the country became lice throughout all the country of Egypt.
18 And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast. This time the sacred scribes tried to bring lice about with their occult practices--and could not do so. And the lice infested man and beast alike.
19 Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said. Now the sacred scribes said to Pharaoh, "This is the finger of God." But Pharaoh remained obstinate, and would not listen to them--as the LORD had said.
20 And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh; lo, he cometh forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me. Now the LORD said to Moses, "Get up early in the morning, and stand and wait for Pharaoh as he comes to the water. Tell him, 'This is what the LORD says: "Dismiss My people, so that they can worship Me!"
21 Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are. "And if you still will not dismiss My people, then I will attack you, your servants, your people, and your houses with swarms of flies. The houses of Egypt will be filled with swarms of flies, and even the ground on which they stand.'" "Swarm" is rendered literally as "mixture."
22 And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth. "'But I will distinguish the land of Goshen, where My people are standing. No swarms of flies will come there. That will show you that I am the LORD within your country!'" This is the first overt statement of a distinction between Goshen and the rest of Egypt.
23 And I will put a division between my people and thy people: to morrow shall this sign be. "'I will place a distinction between My people and your people. This sign shall take place tomorrow.'" "Distinction" is literally the word for "ransom."
24 And the LORD did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies. The LORD did this. A heavy swarm of flies came into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants' quarters, and into the entire land of Egypt. The land was ruined from the swarm of flies.
25 And Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said, Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land. Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, "Go! Sacrifice to your God in the land."
26 And Moses said, It is not meet so to do; for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to the LORD our God: lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us? Moses said, "That won't do! The kind of sacrifice that we'll be making to the LORD our God would be abhorrent for the Egyptians to watch. What would happen if we were to make this abhorrent sacrifice in front of the Egyptians? They'd likely stone us." This might indeed be correct. The Egyptians worshiped a lot of animals, including those that the Hebrews would have to sacrifice.
27 We will go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our God, as he shall command us. "We will go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our God, as He tells us."
28 And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not go very far away: intreat for me. Now Pharaoh said, "I will dismiss you, and you may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness. But you (yourselves) will not go very far away. Entreat about me."
29 And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will intreat the LORD that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, to morrow: but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the LORD. Moses said, "All right. I will go out from being with you, and tomorrow I will entreat the LORD to withdraw the swarm of flies from Pharaoh, his servants, and his people. But Pharaoh must not trifle with God again and not dismiss the people to sacrifice to the LORD."
30 And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD. Moses went away from Pharaoh, and entreated to the LORD.
31 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one. And the LORD did as Moses asked: He withdrew the swarm of flies from Pharaoh, his servant, and his people. Not one fly remained.
32 And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go. But Pharaoh became obstinate yet again, and he did not dismiss the people.

Chapter 9

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go in to Pharaoh, and tell him, 'The LORD God of the Hebrews says, 'Dismiss My people, so they can worship Me.'" Pharaoh = Neferhotep
2 For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still, "'For if you refuse to dismiss them, and continue to hold them in captivity,...'"
3 Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain. "'...then the hand of the LORD will strike your cattle in the fields, your horses, your donkeys, your camels, your oxen, and your sheep, with an exceedingly severe plague of murrain.'" Murrain refers to a common disease of livestock.
4 And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel. "'But the Lord will distinguish between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt, and nothing shall die which belongs to the Sons of Israel.'"
5 And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land. The LORD set a time, saying, "Tomorrow I'll do all these things."
6 And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. And the LORD did indeed do them the next day, and all the cattle of Egypt died, but not one specimen of the cattle of the Sons of Israel died.
7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go. Pharaoh investigated and found that there was no Israelite cattle dead. This made Pharaoh furiously obstinate, and he did not dismiss the people.
8 And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "Get some quicklime from a lime kiln, and have Moses sprinkle it into the sky in front of the Pharaoh."
9 And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt. "It shall turn into a fine powder all over Egypt, and it will cause budding pustules all over the men and animals of Egypt." This breaks the pattern. Heretofore, God has done nothing without warning. But now He strikes without specific warning.
10 And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast. So they took quicklime from a lime kiln, and stood before Pharaoh, and Moses threw the quicklime into the sky, and they caused budding pustules to break out on the Egyptian men and their animals.
11 And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians. The sacred scribes couldn't even stand in front of Moses, because they had so many boils, as did all the Egyptians.
12 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses. The LORD removed all prudence from Pharaoh, and he did not listen to them, just as the LORD had told Moses.
13 And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. The LORD said to Moses, "Rise early in the morning, and wait for Pharaoh, and tell him, 'The LORD says, 'Dismiss My people, so that they may worship Me.'" God returns to the warning pattern here.
14 For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth. For this time I will make all My strikes upon your heart, and upon your staff and upon your people, so that you will know there is nobody like Me in the world.'"
15 For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth. "'Now I will reach out and infect you and your people with disease, and you will be cut off from the Earth.'"
16 And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth. "'This is the very reason I put you into your present position, to show My power against you in this way, so that My Name shall be sounded to all the world.'"
17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go? "'Do you still hold yourself up in opposition of my people, by not dismissing them?'"
18 Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now. "'Tomorrow, about this time, I will cause a severe hailstorm, the likes of which have never been seen in Egypt since her founding.'" "Since the dawn of time" wouldn't be accurate; the very worst natural disaster to date is the Great Flood.
19 Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die. "'So go now, and gather all of your cattle, and everything that you have outside in the fields, into a strong shelter. Because every man and beast which is outside when the hailstorm hits will be killed by the hail.'"
20 He that feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses: Those among Pharaoh's staff who had respect for the LORD brought their cattle and their servants to shelter in their houses,
21 And he that regarded not the word of the LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field. but the Egyptians who did not have respect for the LORD left their cattle and servants in the fields.
22 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt. The LORD said to Moses, "Raise your rod to the sky, and it will hail all over Egypt, on every man and every animal and all the crops in the fields." Literally, "herbage in the fields."
23 And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt. Moses raised his rod to the sky, and the LORD made a thunderstorm, which caused hail and lightning all over Egypt. The motion picture treatment of this episode is highly dubious, to say the least: it implies that the hail was on fire as it fell. This has given rise to vain speculation by secular geologists that this event was a "hail" of lava bombs from Mount Etna in Sicily or some other active volcano in the region.
24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. And so a fall of hail, and lightning in the middle of it, fell on Egypt. There had never been a storm so severe in all of Egypt's history.
25 And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field. All throughout Egypt, the hail killed every man and animal in the fields, and all the crops were destroyed, and the branches of all the trees were broken.
26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail. But in the land of Goshen, where the Sons of Israel lived, there was no hail. This region is today called Avaris.
27 And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked. So Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron to him, and said, "I was wrong: the LORD is just, and my people and I were wrong to enslave you."
28 Intreat the LORD (for it is enough) that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer. "Ask the LORD to stop the storm, and I will dismiss you, and you will not even have to stay any longer."
29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the LORD; and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know how that the earth is the LORD's. Moses said to him, "As soon as I leave the city, I'll raise my hands to the LORD, and the storm will stop. And you will see that the Earth belongs to the LORD."
30 But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not yet fear the LORD God. But you cannot deceive me into believing that you or your staff will respect the LORD."
31 And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled. And the flax and the barley were destroyed because the barley was pollinated and the flax was in pod. This is a key chronological point: this took place on or near the new moon that marked the month of Abib, which means "pollinated." Today the month is called Nisan.
32 But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up. But the wheat and the spelt were not destroyed because they were still not ripe. The month of the wheat harvest is called Sivan even today.
33 And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth. Moses left the city, and raised his hands to the LORD, and the thunderstorm, the hail, and the rain all ceased.
34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants. But when Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and thunder had ceased, he added to his sin, and he and his staff all turned obstinate.
35 And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses. Pharaoh was stubborn, and would not dismiss the Sons of Israel, as the LORD had told Moses.

Chapter 10

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him: The LORD said to Moses, "Go in to see Pharaoh. I have made him obstinate, he and his staff both, so that I might set My signs in front of him,..." Pharaoh = Neferhotep
2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD. "...and so that you, too, can tell your son, and your son's son, the things I did in Egypt, and my signs that I gave among them, so that you may know that I am the LORD."
3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me. Moses and Aaron came in to see Pharaoh, and told him, "The LORD God of the Hebrews asks: 'How much longer are you going to refuse to humble yourself before Me? Dismiss My people, so that they may worship Me.'"
4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast: "'If you refuse to dismiss My people, then watch this! Tomorrow I will bring locusts to your border.'"
5 And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field: "'They will cover the face of the land, and no one will be able even to see the ground. They will eat everything that's left, that the hail did not destroy, and will eat every seedling that sprouts in the field.'"
6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day that they were upon the earth unto this day. And he turned himself, and went out from Pharaoh. "'They will fill your houses, and all your servants' quarters, and the homes of all the Egyptians, in a way that neither your fathers, nor your fathers' fathers have ever seen, from the day they walked this ground until today.'" And he turned his face around and walked away from Pharaoh.
7 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed? Pharaoh's staff said to him, "How long will this man be a trap for us? Dismiss those people, so that they may serve the LORD their God. Don't you know yet that Egypt is about to be destroyed?"
8 And Moses and Aaron were brought again unto Pharaoh: and he said unto them, Go, serve the LORD your God: but who are they that shall go? Moses and Aaron were brought before Pharaoh again. He said to them, "Go and worship the LORD your God. But who are the ones that will go?"
9 And Moses said, We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD. Moses said, "We will go with our young people and old people, with our sons and daughters, with our flocks and herds, so that we can hold a proper celebration for the LORD."
10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD be so with you, as I will let you go, and your little ones: look to it; for evil is before you. Pharaoh now said, "Let the LORD act thus toward you, if I dismiss you and your little children. Look: there is evil in front of you."
11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence. "Oh, no! You men may go and serve the LORD. That's what you wanted, wasn't it?" And he drove them away from his presence.
12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail hath left. Now the LORD said to Moses, "Reach out over the land of Egypt for the locusts, so that they may ascend over the land of Egypt and devour all the crops in the land, everything that the hail did not destroy."
13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. Moses reached out with his rod over the land of Egypt, and the LORD brought an east win on the land for a day and a night. And when the morning came, the east wind brought in the locusts.
14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such. The locusts ascended over all the land of Egypt, and remained within all the borders of Egypt. This was an exceedingly heavy swarm; such locusts had never been seen before, and would never be seen again.
15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt. They covered the face of all the land, and the land was made dark. They devoured every plant in the land, and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Not one green thing remained in the trees, or in the crops of the field, throughout the entire country of Egypt.
16 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you. Pharaoh hurriedly called for Moses and Aaron. He said, "I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you."
17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only. "So now please forgive my sin just this once, and entreat the LORD your God. All I ask is that he take away this death."
18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD. So Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the LORD.
19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt. Now the LORD turned a very strong sea wind, that carried off the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. Not one locust remained within all the boundaries of Egypt. Literally, "sea of weeds" or "see of reeds."
20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go. But the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, so that he would not dismiss the Sons of Israel.
21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt. The LORD said to Moses, "Reach out toward the sky, so that darkness may come over the land of Egypt, a darkness that will force men to grope."
22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: Moses reached out with his hand toward the sky, and a gloomy darkness fell in all the land of Egypt for three days.
23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings. Men could not see one another, and they did not get out of bed for three days. But all the Sons of Israel had light in their dwelling places.
24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you. Pharaoh called to Moses, and said, "Go! Worship the LORD, but have your flocks and your herds stay put. Your little children can also go with you."
25 And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God. Moses said, "You must also give us animals for the sacrifices and ascent offerings that we must make to the LORD our God."
26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither. "Our cattle will also go with us; not one hoof will remain--because we have to take some of them in order to serve the LORD our God, and we cannot know what animals to sacrifice to the LORD until we arrive."
27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go. The LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, and he would not dismiss them.
28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die. Pharaoh told him, "Get away from me. I warn you: make sure you do not come into my presence again. In the day that you come into my presence, you will die."
29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more. Moses said, "You have spoken the truth: I will never come into your presence again."

Chapter 11

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether. The LORD had previously told Moses, "I will bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. After that, he will dismiss you, and in fact he'll not only dismiss you, he'll drive you out as far as he can." The Hebrew repeats the concept of "driving out" for emphasis. The particular Pharaoh is Neferhotep.
2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold. "Now make sure that the people understand this: each man is to borrow from his neighbor, and each woman from her neighbor, articles of silver and of gold."
3 And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people. The LORD had given the people a good impression in the eyes of the Egyptians. In fact, Moses as a man was very much a celebrity in the land of Egypt, and respected by Pharaoh's staff and by the people.
4 And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt: Now Moses said [to Pharaoh, continuing], "The LORD says this: 'At midnight I go out in the midst of Egypt.'"
5 And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts. "'Every firstborn individual in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, sitting on his throne, down to the firstborn of the maidservant behind the millstones, and every firstborn of beasts.'"
6 And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more. "'There will be a great outcry in all the land of Egypt, the like of which has never been heard before, and will not be heard again.'"
7 But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel. "'But against any of the Sons of Israel, not so much as a dog will point his tongue, not against man nor beast, so that you will know that the LORD distinguishes between Egypt and Israel.'"
8 And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger. "Your entire staff will come down to me, and bow themselves down to me. They will say, 'Get out, you and all the people who follow you.' After that, I will go out." And Moses walked away from Pharaoh in the heat of anger.
9 And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. The LORD told Moses, "Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that my miracles will be increased in the land of Egypt."
10 And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land. Moses and Aaron had done all these miracles in front of Pharaoh, but the LORD made Pharaoh obstinate, so that he would not dismiss the Sons of Israel from his land.

Chapter 12

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt. He said:
2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. "This month will be for you the beginning of months, the first of all the months of the year." The month is Abib, or the modern Nisan, or "barley harvest." Most Jewish/Hebrew calendars in the modern day begin with Tishrei, the seventh month, since that is when the Jewish "New Year" of Rosh Hashanah falls. Confusingly, Rosh Hashanah is one of several "Jewish New Years", each in a different context. Rosh Hashanah was considered the First Day of Creation (or by other interpretations, the day Man was created). By contrast, the first day of Nisan in Biblical times would be the equivalent of January 1st in America today.
3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: "Now speak to the entire congregation of Israel, and tell them this: 'In the tenth day of this month, each man is to take a lamb for the house of their fathers, one lamb per household.'"
4 And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb. "'If the household has too few members for one lamb, then let the householder and his nearest neighbor take it, according to the count of household members; every man, according to his food budget, is to make an assessment for a lamb.'"
5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats: "'The lamb will be a flawless male yearling; it can be either an actual lamb or a goat kid.'"
6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. "'You will take it in charge until the fourteenth day of this month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel will kill it between evenings.'"
7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it. "'They must take some of the blood, and paint it onto the two jambs and the lintel of the houses that they eat the lamb in." The "jamb" is the upright or side member; the "lintel" is the cross member of the doorway.
8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. "'They must eat the flesh in one night, roasted by fire, and served with matzoh and bitter herbs.'" Matzoh is bread made without yeast, the "bread of haste."
9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof. "'You must not eat any of it either underdone or cooked with water; it must be roasted with fire, the head with the shanks and the inner parts.'"
10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire. "'Do not reserve any of it for the morning. Anything left over until morning you must burn thoroughly.'" Literally, "burn with fire," another Hebrew idiomatic emphatic repetition.
11 And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD's passover. "'You must eat it with this attitude: with your waist girded, your sandals on your feet, and your walking stick in hand. You must eat it in haste. This is the LORD's Passover.'" Literally, "nervous haste," and Pesach, from which comes the word "Paschal."
12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD. "'Because I am going to pass through the land of Egypt tonight, and will strike down every firstborn individual in the land of Egypt, both man and beast. I will execute judgment against all the "gods" of Egypt. I am the LORD.'"
13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. "'The blood will be a recognition sign for you on the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the stroke will not fall on you to kill you, when I strike the land of Egypt.'"
14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. "'You will keep this day as a memorial, and you will make this a lasting celebration to the LORD throughout your generations. You will celebrate this by statute forever.'" Literally, "in eon," or "into the ages," as the Greeks would also say.
15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. "'For seven days you will eat matzoh. In fact, on the first day you will eradicate any yeast from your houses. Whoever eats any leavened bread, from the first day to the seventh, that person will be cut off from Israel.'"
16 And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you. "'In the first day there will be a meeting of holiness, and in the seventh day another meeting of holiness. No form of work shall be done in those meeting days, except the work of eating itself, since every man must eat.'"
17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever. "'You will observe this feast of unleavened bread. On this very day I brought all your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you will observe this day for generations by statute forever.'"
18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. "'In the first month, on the fourteenth day, in the evening, you will eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day in the evening.'"
19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. "'For those seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses. Anyone who easts anything with yeast in it, that person will be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a foreigner or a native of the land.'"
20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread. "'You will eat nothing leavened. In all your dwelling places you will eat unleavened bread.'"
21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover. Now Moses called for all the elders of Israel. He told them, "Draw out and select a lamb for your families, and slay the Passover."
22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. "Take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it into the blood in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two jambs with the blood in the basin. And none of you is to go out through the portal of his house until morning."
23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. "The LORD is going to pass through to strike the Egyptians. When He sees the blood on the lintel and the two jambs, the LORD will pass over the portal, and will not allow the Destroyer to come into your houses to strike you." The "Destroyer" is a very special Messenger or angel.
24 And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. "You are to observe this word by statute for you and your sons forever."
25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service. "And it will happen that when you enter the land that the LORD is giving to you, the land that He spoke about, you will observe this service."
26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? "And when your children happen to ask you, 'What does this service mean to you?...'"
27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped. "...you are to tell them, 'This is the passover sacrifice of the LORD, Who passed over the houses of the Sons of Israel in Egypt, when He struck the Egyptians, and rescued our households.'" The people bowed their heads and bowed themselves down.
28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. The Sons of Israel went away, and did everything that the LORD had instructed Moses and Aaron to tell them.
29 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. And this is what happened: at midnight the LORD struck every firstborn individual in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of the regnant Pharaoh to the firstborn of the lowliest prisoner in the House of the Pit, and every firstborn beast. "The Pit" or "The Hole" is the most common name that any inmate has ever given his prison.
30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. Pharaoh got up in the middle of the night, both he and everyone on his staff, and all the Egyptians. A great outcry rang out in Egypt, because there was not a household to be found that did not have a dead person in it. Some have vainly speculated that the firstborn, lying as they did on beds spread on the floor, were subject to acute carbon dioxide poisoning from a volcanic vent. This explanation, of course, begs the question of why blood painted on jamb and lintel should neutralize carbon dioxide in this manner.
31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said. He called Moses and Aaron during the night, saying, "Get up, and get out from among my people, you and the Sons of Israel, and go and serve the LORD, as you said!"
32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also. "And take your flocks and your herds, as you said, and go! But bless me, too."
33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men. The Egyptians in fact insisted on dismissing the people from the land in haste, and they all said, "We are all dying men."
34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. The people carried their dough before it was leavened, because their kneading troughs were bundled up in their clothes on their shoulders.
35 And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: The Sons of Israel did everything that Moses had told them to do: they borrowed articles of silver and gold, and clothing, from the Egyptians.
36 And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians. The LORD gave the people a good impression in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that they lent them everything they asked. Thus they despoiled the Egyptians. Later, the reader will see what became of all this silver, gold, and cloth.
37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. The Sons of Israel traveled from Rameses to Succoth. They numbered six hundred thousand infantrymen, together with children.
38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle. Furthermore, a mixed crowd went up with them, with flocks and herds, an exceedingly great herd of cattle.
39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual. They baked ember cakes with the dough that they were bringing out of Egypt, because it had not been leavened. They were practically thrown out of Egypt, and were not allowed to dally, and had not even prepared any victuals for themselves.
40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. The span of the sojourning of the Sons of Israel, who had lived in Egypt, was 430 years. See Galatians 3:17.
41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt. And it happened that at the end of the 430 years, on the very day that it came to pass, all the armies of the LORD went out of the land of Egypt.
42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations. This is a night of observance to the LORD for bringing them out of the land of Egypt: this was the night of the LORD for observances for all the Sons of Israel for all their generations.
43 And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof: The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, "This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner is to eat any of it."
44 But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. "But if any man among you buys a slave for silver, and has him circumcised, he, too, will eat some of it."
45 A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof. "A foreigner or a hired hand is not to eat of it."
46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. "It is to be eaten in one house. You are not to bring any of the flesh out of the house, or break any of its bones."
47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. "The whole congregation of Israel is to do this."
48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. "When any stranger sojourns with you, if he wants to keep the passover of the LORD, then every male in his household must be circumcised. Then he can draw near and keep it, and he will be regarded as a native. No uncircumcised person will eat any of it."
49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. "One law will be for the native, and another to the stranger sojourning in your midst."
50 Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. All the Sons of Israel were doing as the LORD had instructed Moses and Aaron.
51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies. And it happened, on that very day, that the LORD brought the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt, with their armies.

Chapter 13

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, The LORD said to Moses,
2 Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine. "Set all your firstborn apart to Me, every one who opens up the womb among the Sons of Israel, of man and beast: it belongs to Me."
3 And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten. Moses said to the people, "Remember this day, in which you came out of Egypt, from the house of slavery. By strength of hand the LORD brought you out of this place. There will be no leavened bread eaten."
4 This day came ye out in the month Abib. "You came out on this day, in the month of Abib. The modern Nisan.
5 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep this service in this month. "And when the LORD brings you into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, that he swore to your fathers that he would give you, a land gushing with milk and honey, you will observe this service in this month."
6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to the LORD. "For seven days you will eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day you will hold a celebration to the LORD."
7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy quarters. "Unleavened bread will be eaten for seven days, and no leavened bread will be seen with you, and no yeast will be seen with you in all your boundaries."
8 And thou shalt shew thy son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which the LORD did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt. "You will tell your son in that day: 'This is done for the sake of what the LORD did for me when I came out of Egypt.'"
9 And it shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes, that the LORD's law may be in thy mouth: for with a strong hand hath the LORD brought thee out of Egypt. "This will exist for a sign to you by your hand, and as a memorial between your eyes, so that the law of the LORD will be in your mouth, because with a steadfast hand the LORD brought you out of Egypt."
10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to year. "So you will observe this statute in its appointed time from year to year."
11 And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee, "And it will happen when the LORD brings you into the land of the Canaanites, as He swore to you and to your fathers, and gives it to you,..."
12 That thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the matrix, and every firstling that cometh of a beast which thou hast; the males shall be the LORD's. "...you will set apart for the LORD everything that opens up the womb, and every firstborn that comes from a beast that you own; the males will belong to the LORD."
13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem. "Every firstling of a donkey you will ransom with a lamb, and if you don't ransom it, then you must break its neck. You will also ransom the firstborn of man among your children."
14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the LORD brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondage: "And it will happen that when your son asks you in future, 'What is this?' you will tell him, 'By a steadfast hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt, from the house of slavery....'"
15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem. "'And it happened that when Pharaoh was obstinate against dismissing us, the LORD killed every firstborn individual in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man and the firstborn of beast. So I am sacrificing to the LORD every male thing that opens up the womb, but I will ransom the firstborn among my children.'"
16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt. "'This will be for a token on your hand, and for brow bands between your eyes, that in steadfastness of hand the LORD brought us out of Egypt.'" The Pharisees took this literally, and so the custom of the phylacteries and the mezuzah symbol continues to this day among the Jews.
17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: Now it happened that after Pharaoh had dismissed the people, God did not guide them by the road to Philistine country. God had said to Himself, "I would not want the people to have regrets at their first sight of war, and go back to Egypt." That is, Neferhotep
18 But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt. So God caused the people to turn about, and go by way of the wilderness to the Red Sea. The Sons of Israel went up in ranks of five out of the land of Egypt.
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you. Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, because Joseph had made the Sons of Israel swear a strict oath, saying, "God will certainly notice you, and you will carry my bones away from here with you."
20 And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness. So they journeyed from Succoth, and encamped in Etham on the border of the wilderness.
21 And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night: The LORD also went before them by day in a column of cloud, to guide them by the way, and by night in a column of fire, to give them light. And thus He guided them both day and night.
22 He took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people. He did not remove the column of cloud by day, or the column of fire by night, from in front of the people.

Chapter 14

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, The LORD said to Moses,
2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea. "Speak to the Sons of Israel, and have them return and encamp in front of Pi-hahiroth between Midgol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon. You will encamp on the seashore opposite it."
3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in. "Pharaoh will say of the Sons of Israel, 'They don't know where they're going in the land, and the wilderness has closed in on them.'" That is, Neferhotep
4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so. "I am going to make Pharaoh obstinate, and he will pursue after them. I will then be glorified at the expense of Pharaoh, and the expense of his entire army, because I want the Egyptians to know that I am the LORD." And they did so.
5 And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us? The king of Egypt was told that the people had run away. The hearts of Pharaoh and his staff were turned against the people. They said to one another, "Why did we do this, and dismiss Israel from our service?"
6 And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him: The king had his chariot hitched up, and took his people with him.
7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them. He took six hundred elite charioteers, and all the charioteers of Egypt, and squad leaders over every one of them. Literally, "third-fighters," implying that the chariot corps moved in squadrons of threes.
8 And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand. The LORD made Pharaoh the king of Egypt obstinate, and he pursued after the Sons of Israel. The Sons of Israel were going out with hands held high,
9 But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon. but the Egyptians were pursuing after them, and overtook them as they encamped on the sea, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, on Pi-hahiroth in front of Baal-zephron.
10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the LORD. When Pharaoh drew near, the Sons of Israel looked up, and with a shock saw the Egyptians marching after them. They were exceedingly fearful, and the Sons of Israel cried out to the LORD.
11 And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? They were saying to Moses, "Was it from lack of tombs in Egypt that you took us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you done this to us, to bring us out of Egypt?"
12 Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness. "Didn't we keep telling you in Egypt, 'Leave us alone, and let us serve the Egyptians'? Better for us to be slaves to the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness!"
13 And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever. Moses said to the people, "You must not be afraid! Make your stand, and see the salvation of the LORD, that he will do for you today. The Egyptians that you see this day, you will never see again!"
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace. "The LORD will fight for you, if you will but be silent!"
15 And the LORD said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward: The LORD was saying to Moses, "Why are you drying to Me? Tell the Sons of Israel to go forward!"
16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea. "Raise your rod high and reach out over the sea, and split it. The Sons of Israel will enter into the middle of the sea on dry ground."
17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. "And I--look at Me--I will make the Egyptians obstinate, and they will follow them. Thus I will gain glory at the expense of Pharaoh, and at the expense of all his army, and his chariots, and his horsemen."
18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. "Those Egyptians will realize that I am the LORD, when I have gained My glory at the expense of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen."
19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them: The Messenger of God, who was journeying in front of the camp of Israel, moved away and went behind them, and the column of cloud went up from in front of them and took station behind them.
20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night. It came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel, and it became a cloud of darkness to them, but gave light by night to them, so that neither army could approach the other all night long.
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. Moses reached out over the sea, and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and placed a drained area in the sea, and the waters were split.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. The Sons of Israel were entering into the midst of the sea, on dry ground, and the waters formed a wall to their right and to their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. The Egyptians pursued them, every one of Pharaoh's horses and chariots and horsemen entered after them in the middle of the sea.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, And in the morning's first watch the LORD gazed at the camp of the Egyptians through the column of fire and cloud, and discomfited the camp of the Egyptians,
25 And took off their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the LORD fighteth for them against the Egyptians. and clogged their chariot wheels, and made them drive them with great difficulty. The Egyptians said, "We should flee from before Israel; the LORD is fighting for them against Egypt!"
26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen. Now the LORD said to Moses, "Reach out over the sea, and the waters will return on the Egyptians, on their chariots and horsemen."
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. Moses reached out over the sea, and the sea returned to its place when the dawn came, and the Egyptians fled away from it, and the LORD shook off the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them. The waters came rushing back, and covered the chariots and horsemen and the entire army of Pharaoh that had entered after them into the sea. Not one of them remained alive.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. But the Sons of Israel walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, and the waters formed a wall to their right and left.
30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. This is how the LORD saved Israel from the hand of Egypt. The Israelites saw the Egyptians lying dead on the seashore.
31 And Israel saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the LORD, and believed the LORD, and his servant Moses. Israel saw the great hand of the LORD upon the Egyptians. Now the people feared the LORD, and believed in the LORD, and His servant, Moses.
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