Federalist No. 49
Federalist No. 49, authored by James Madison under the pen name Publius, is the forty ninth of 85 essays. Titled "Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government", Madison responds to ideas written in Notes on the State of Virginia. He addresses topics such as a second convention, public passions vs public reason, and the separation of powers between the branches.
It was published on February 2, 1788.