Federalist Papers

From Conservapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Title page of The Federalist as a book publishing the essays in 1788 (note Roman numeral at bottom of page, year: MDCCLXXXVIII).[1]

The Federalist Papers were a series of articles published anonymously in a New York newspaper during 1787-1788 to encourage New York to ratify the U.S. Constitution. They were also collected as a book titled "The Federalist" published as 2 volumes in 1788 as The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787, and reprinted in later years. These articles, 51 by Alexander Hamilton, 29 by James Madison and 5 by John Jay, are often used today in interpreting the Constitution. All three authors wrote the articles under the pen name "Publius", a salute to Roman consul Publius Valerius Publicola.

A portion of the articles are undated, while the dated ones range from November 20, 1787 to April 4, 1788. Originally, they were numbered with Roman numerals but later reprinted with Arabic numerals.

The most famous article is Federalist No. 10 by James Madison, where he argues that a union of the States will better combat factions, even factions within an individual State.

In Federalist No. 78 by Alexander Hamilton, he explained why the federal judiciary should always be the "least dangerous" branch.

The full text and audio of the Federalist Papers are freely available online.[2]

Background

During the Constitutional Convention, delegates cited the experience of the past to show, that of all national governments, a democratic one was the most unstable, fluctuating, and short-lived; and that despotism, arising from a centralization of power in the national government on one hand, and anarchy, incident to the instability of democracy - "the levelling spirit of democracy" denounced by Elbridge Gerry as "the worst of political evils" - on the other, were the Scylla and Charybdis between which the republic would, in the opinion of their opponents, be placed, with almost a certainty of being destroyed.

These views were ably combated in a series of political essays written by Hamilton and Madison, with a few numbers by John Jay, which were published in two New York newspapers: The Independent Journal and the New York Packet. The object of these essays being, as stated by Hamilton in the first number, "A discussion of the utility of the Union; the insufficiency of the confederation to preserve that Union;" and "the necessity of a government at least equally energetic with the one proposed, to the attainment of this object." These essays; under the general title of The Federalist, were written with uncommon ability, exerted a powerful influence, and present an admirable treatise on the philosophy of our federal constitution.

Long and stormy debates occurred in the state conventions; and it was not until the twenty-first of June, 1788, that New Hampshire, the ninth state in order, ratified the constitution. It then became the organic law of the republic. The Congress, when testimonials of ratification were received from a sufficient number of states, appointed the first Wednesday of January, 1789, for the people of the United States to choose electors of a president in accordance with the provisions of the constitution; the first Wednesday in February following for the electors to meet and make a choice; and the first Wednesday in March ensuing for the new government to meet for organization in the city of New York.[3]

Authors

Alexhamilton.jpg

Alexander Hamilton is the principal author of the Federalist, having authored 51 of the papers.

7648ruy6g.gif

James Madison, pictured to the left, authored 29 of the Federalist.

Johnjay.jpg

John Jay, pictured to the left, wrote 4 out of the first 5 essays.

Influences

There were several major influences stated in the Federalist. Among them John Locke (Federalist 2), Montesquieu (Fed. 47), and important English works such as the Magna Carta, The Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights (Fed. 84).

Individual papers

Paper Date Title Author
Federalist No. 1 October 27, 1787 General Introduction Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 2 October 31, 1787 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
Federalist No. 3 November 3, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
Federalist No. 4 November 7, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
Federalist No. 5 November 10, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence John Jay
Federalist No. 6 November 14, 1787 Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 7 November 15, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 8 November 20, 1787 The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 9 November 21, 1787 The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 10 November 22, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection James Madison
Federalist No. 11 November 24, 1787 The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 12 November 27, 1787 The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 13 November 28, 1787 Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 14 November 30, 1787 Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered James Madison
Federalist No. 15 December 1, 1787 The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 16 December 4, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 17 December 5, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 18 December 7, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison
Federalist No. 19 December 8, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison
Federalist No. 20 December 11, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union James Madison
Federalist No. 21 December 12, 1787 Other Defects of the Present Confederation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 22 December 14, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 23 December 18, 1787 The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 24 December 19, 1787 The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 25 December 21, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 26 December 22, 1787 The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 27 December 25, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 28 December 26, 1787 The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 29 January 9, 1788 Concerning the Militia Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 30 December 28, 1787 Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 31 January 1, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 32 January 2, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 33 January 2, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 34 January 5, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 35 January 5, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 36 January 8, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 37 January 11, 1788 Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government James Madison
Federalist No. 38 January 12, 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed James Madison
Federalist No. 39 January 18, 1788 The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles James Madison
Federalist No. 40 January 18, 1788 The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained James Madison
Federalist No. 41 January 19, 1788 General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution James Madison
Federalist No. 42 January 22, 1788 The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered James Madison
Federalist No. 43 January 23, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered James Madison
Federalist No. 44 January 25, 1788 Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States James Madison
Federalist No. 45 January 26, 1788 The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered James Madison
Federalist No. 46 January 29, 1788 The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared James Madison
Federalist No. 47 January 30, 1788 The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts James Madison
Federalist No. 48 February 1, 1788 These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other James Madison
Federalist No. 49 February 2, 1788 Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government James Madison
Federalist No. 50 February 5, 1788 Periodic Appeals to the People Considered James Madison
Federalist No. 51 February 6, 1788 The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments James Madison
Federalist No. 52 February 8, 1788 The House of Representatives James Madison
Federalist No. 53 February 9, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives James Madison
Federalist No. 54 February 12, 1788 The Apportionment of Members Among the States James Madison
Federalist No. 55 February 13, 1788 The Total Number of the House of Representatives James Madison
Federalist No. 56 February 16, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives James Madison
Federalist No. 57 February 19, 1788 The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many James Madison
Federalist No. 58 February 20, 1788 Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered James Madison
Federalist No. 59 February 22, 1788 Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 60 February 23, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 61 February 26, 1788 The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 62 February 27, 1788 The Senate James Madison
Federalist No. 63 March 1, 1788 The Senate Continued James Madison
Federalist No. 64 March 5, 1788 The Powers of the Senate John Jay
Federalist No. 65 March 7, 1788 The Powers of the Senate Continued Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 66 March 8, 1788 Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 67 March 11, 1788 The Executive Department Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 68 March 12, 1788 The Mode of Electing the President Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 69 March 14, 1788 The Real Character of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 70 March 15, 1788 The Executive Department Further Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 71 March 18, 1788 The Duration in Office of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 72 March 19, 1788 The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 73 March 21, 1788 The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 74 March 25, 1788 The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 75 March 26, 1788 The Treaty Making Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 76 April 1, 1788 The Appointing Power of the Executive Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 77 April 2, 1788 The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 78 May 28, 1788 The Judiciary Department Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 79 May 28, 1788 The Judiciary Continued Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 80 June 21, 1788 The Powers of the Judiciary Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 81 June 25, 1788 The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 82 July 2, 1788 The Judiciary Continued Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 83 July 5, 1788 The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 84 July 16, 1788 Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 85 August 13, 1788 Concluding Remarks Alexander Hamilton

References

  1. Roman numeral MDCCLXXXVIII totals as MDCC=1700 + LXXX=80 + VIII=8 or 1788.
  2. http://www.foundingfathers.info/federalistpapers/
  3. Washington and the American Republic, by Benson John Lossing

External links