Framing is carpentry work done on a building after the foundation is laid. It forms the rough structure of the building, usually consisting of vertical studs, horizontal joists, and (often) rafters set at an angle to support the roof. Part of the work done by framers includes adding sheathing to the outside and subflooring on the joists.
An alternate framing technique to the "stick construction" described above is called post and beam, which was used on many older buildings and is sometimes still used today for various reasons.
In a figurative sense, framing is often applied to arguments, political speech, and other agenda, where one person or the moderator creates a particular outcome by setting the question in a particular foundation. This can be neutral, such as saying "Tonight's debate will focus on the Economy" or it can be a form of deceit by cornering the speaker into a position he or she does not agree with. "yes or no, have you stopped beating your wife yet" - the speaker who does NOT beat his wife cannot ever truthfully answer the question as framed. This is a form of deceit.
Framing is also used in the legal context when referring to someone being framed for a crime. This means that the true criminal has set things up so that a different person (the person being framed) is assumed to be guilty.