Freedmen were freed slaves, especially during Reconstruction of the U.S. after 1863. The term includes both men and women. The most important agency was the Freedmen's Bureau, a unit of the U.S. Army.
The most famous Freedman was Booker T. Washington.
- Belz, Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and Freedmen's Rights, 1861-1866. (1976). 199 pp. by a leading conservative historian online edition
- Du Bois, W.E.B. "Reconstruction and its Benefits," American Historical Review, 15 (July, 1910), 781—99 JSTOR, by leading black historian
- Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. 2005. 268 pp. popular version from neoabolitionist perspective
- Kerr-Ritchie, Jeffrey R. Freedpeople in the Tobacco South: Virginia, 1860-1900. (1999). 345 pp.
- Litwack, Leon. Been in the Storm So Long (1979). Pulitzer Prize; focus on the African Americans from neoabolitionist perspective
- Rabinowitz, Howard N. Race Relations in the Urban South, 1865-1890. (1978). 441 pp.
- Ransom, Roger L. and Sutch, Richard. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. (1977). 409 pp. statistical studies
- Berlin, Ira, ed/ Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. (1982- ), multivolume collection
- Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Reconstruction: Political, Military, Social, Religious, Educational, and Industrial 2 vol (1906). Uses broad collection of primary sources; vol 1 on national politics; vol 2 on states; volume 1 493 pp online and vol 2 480 pp online