Gay bowel syndrome

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Gay bowel syndrome, which has also been described as gay bowel disease, was named as an illness in 1976 in the medical literature via the journal Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science and in 2004 Medscape stated that gay bowel syndrome is a significant issue in regards HIV infection (The Johns Hopkins HIV Guide website also presently features a literature review article which is essentially a duplicate of the aforementioned article at Medscape).[1][2][3][4] Gay bowel syndrome is a clinical pattern of anorectal and colon diseases which occur with unusual frequency in homosexual patients (the diseases are not exclusive to male homosexuals).[5][6][7]

The abstract for the 1976 journal article published in Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science entitled The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases describes gay bowel syndrome in the following manner:

The clinical and pathological findings in a group of 260 homosexual men comprising 10% of a private proctologic practice are reviewed. A clinical pattern of anorectal and colon diseases encountered with unusual frequency in these homosexual patients is termed the gay bowel syndrome. The clinical diagnoses in decreasing order of frequency include condyloma acuminata, hemorrhoids, nonspecific proctitis, anal fistula, perirectal abscess, anal fissure, amebiasis, benign polyps, viral hepatitis, gonorrhea, syphilis, anorectal trauma and foreign bodies, shigellosis, rectal ulcers and lymphogranuloma venereum.[8]

Contents

N. Sohn and JG Robilotti Jr., who were among the authors of the previously cited article in the Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science wrote in the American Journal of Gastroenterology regarding gay bowel syndrome that "It is important to recognize homosexual patients and the conditions to which they are predisposed. In 1980 Dr. Michael Heller, who was a San Francisco physician, wrote in the Annals of Emergency Medicine in a article titled The Gay Bowel Syndrome: A Common Problem of Homosexual Patients in the Emergency Department that "In recent years, it has been recognized that homosexual men are subject to a remarkable variety of colorectal disorders."[9]

Glen Hastings and Richard Weber in 1993 wrote the following regarding gay bowel syndrome in the peer reviewed medical journal American Family Physician: "The 1980s brought a recognition of gay bowel disease and its similarities to inflammatory bowel disease."[10]

Dr. Michael Heller's medical journal article in the Annals of Emergency Medicine entitled The Gay Bowel Syndrome: A Common Problem of Homosexual Patients in the Emergency states regarding gay bowel syndrome the following: "Frequently and promiscuity of sexual intercourse is probably a major risk factor. Gay men in this country have both higher rates of intercourse and many more sexual partners than do either straight men or gay women."[11]

HIV Infection and a New Look at Gay Bowel Syndrome

Stylized rendering of a cross-section of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
A September 2010 report of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared : "Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the US population, yet are the population most severely affected by HIV and are the only risk group in which new HIV infections have been increasing steadily since the early 1990s. In 2006, MSM accounted for more than half (53%) of all new HIV infections in the United States..."[12] In August of 2009, LifeSiteNews reported: "An official with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced the CDC's estimate Monday that in the United States AIDS is fifty times more prevalent among men who have sex with men ('MSM') than the rest of the population."[13]

On March 15, 2004 Medscape published an article entitled New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome" by John G. Bartlett, M.D. which commented on the 2004 journal article Etiology of clinical proctitis among men who have sex with men published by JD Klausner and C. Kent in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. The Medscape article declared:

There were multiple studies of the newly recognized "gay bowel syndrome" in the late 1970s and early 1980s. However, subsequent attention and study has been sparse, in part attributed to reduced frequency thought to reflect changing practices by gay men in response to the HIV epidemic. This study clearly indicates that it is still an issue, since the cases were studied in 2001-2002. Also, the etiology is about the same as previously, although HSV is newly recognized as an important component. This finding not only affects management but also has HIV prevention implications. The authors note that two thirds of the participants were HIV negative and that proctitis increases the risk of HIV by up to 9-fold.[14]

Proctitis and HIV Infection Further Elaborated

As noted earlier proctitis is one of the maladies associated with gay bowel syndrome and greatly increases the chance of HIV infection.[15][16] In 2004, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Robert Kohn, and Charlotte Kent reported in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases the following: "Proctitis, or inflammation of the rectum, is a condition that is not uncommon among men who have sex with men (MSM), and, in HIV-negative men, greatly increases the risk of acquiring HIV infection. With the recent increases in bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among MSM in the United States and Europe, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of cases of clinical proctitis."[17]

Although homosexual men practice various sexual practices which may put them at risk, studies report that anal sex can be an important risk factor for the relay of many diseases.[18][19] Also, according to the Mayo Clinic, "proctitis is an inflammation of the lining of the rectum... Sexually transmitted diseases are the most common cause, but other causes include inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, and non-sexually transmitted infections."[20] Sexually transmitted diseases that cause proctitis include gonorrhea, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, herpes, chlamydia, lymphogranuloma venereum, shigella and amebiasis.[21][22] According to the Mayo Clinic article, proctitis is a condition mainly affecting adult males
A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analysis suggested that approximately 64 percent of all adult primary and secondary syphilis cases in 2004 were among men who have sex with men.

Syphilis, Proctitis, and HIV Infection

Syphilis and proctitis are both maladies associated with gay bowel syndrome as noted earlier.[23] Syphilis can be a cause of proctitis and the disease significantly increases the probability of HIV infection which was mentioned previously.[24][25]

The news organization Cybercast News Service reported the following about homosexuality and syphilis:

The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says homosexual men accounted for 65 percent of the nearly 12,000 cases of syphilis in the United States in 2007, making them the “primary driver” of increased syphilis rates overall.

In a report on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) issued Tuesday, the government said syphilis, a disease that was almost eliminated as a public health threat less than 10 years ago, is on the rise -- with cases increasing each year since 2000.[26]

The CDC declared:

"While surveillance data are not available by risk behavior, a separate CDC analysis suggests that approximately 64 percent of all adult P&S syphilis cases in 2004 were among men who have sex with men, up from an estimated 5 percent in 1999....Syphilis increases, especially among men who have sex with men, demonstrate the need to continually adapt our strategies to eliminate syphilis in the United States,” said Dr. Ronald O. Valdiserri, acting director of CDC’s HIV, STD and TB prevention programs."[27]

Gonorrhea and Proctitis

Gonorrhea and proctitis are both maladies associated with gay bowel syndrome as noted earlier.[28] Gonorrhea can be a cause of proctitis and the disease significantly increases the probability of HIV infection as was mentioned previously.[29][30]

In 2006, the American Association of Family Physicians reported: "Men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of gonococcal infection. In San Francisco, more than one half of these infections occur in MSM, and previous cross-sectional studies have reported a prevalence of up to 15.3 percent in this group."[31]

In respect to homosexuality and gonorrhea, Concerned Women of America issued an article entitled Health and Homosexuality which stated the following:

In a study published by the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 1991, "...gonorrhea was associated with urethral discharge ... and homosexuality (3.7 times higher than the rate among heterosexuals)."[32]

Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreaks Among Homosexuals and HIV Infection

There are three different sub-types of the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis that cause lymphogranuloma venereum.
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease that can cause proctitis and proctitis significantly increases the probability of HIV infection which was mentioned previously. [33][34] Lymphogranuloma venereum and proctitis are both maladies associated with gay bowel syndrome as stated earlier.[35] In March of 2007, the Journal of Clinical Microbiology reported that there was an ongoing epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe, the United Kingdom, and North America. [36] In August of 2007, the Norweigan medical journal Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening stated that LGV has been a rare condition in the western world but since 2004 there have been frequent reports from larger cities in Europe and the United States and the outbreaks have been limited homosexual men.[37] The abstract for the January of 2007 journal Clinical Infectious Diseases states that "We found a significant burden of this once-rare sexually transmitted infection among MSM in the United Kingdom. LGV may be contributing to the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus infection by facilitating transmission." [38] The reports of levels of proctitis in the homosexual men infected with lymphogranuloma venereum varied in the different outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum.[39][40][41]

Amebiasis, Proctitis, and HIV Infection

As mentioned earlier, amebiasis and proctitis are both illnesses associated with gay bowel syndrome.[42] In addition, it was also indicated previously that amebiasis can cause proctitis which increases the risk factor in regards to HIV infection.[43][44] In 2006, the The Medical Journal of Australia reported:

High rates of intestinal parasitism are found in MSM [men who have sex with men] throughout the world.

Amoebiasis has become endemic in MSM in Japan and causes significant morbidity and mortality; complications such as colitis and liver abscesses occur more frequently in homosexual and bisexual men than in heterosexual men. Similar findings on amoebiasis are reported from Taiwan, with MSM at increased risk for invasive amoebiasis and intestinal colonisation with E. histolytica.[45]

In 2001, The journal Internal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan) published an article entitled Amebiasis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in which they declared:

While the overall prevalence of amebiasis is approximately 4% in the United States, certain high-risk groups have a much higher incidence of infection and disease. Prevalence of E. historylitica or E. dispar in the gay population of New York City and San Francisco approached 40-50% . Some Japanese literature also showed homosexual contact was an important risk factor for amebic infection.[46]
Amebiasis is a disease caused by the one-celled parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

The 2004 article an entitled Present characteristics of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection in the big cities of Japan which was published by the medical journal Epidemiology and Infection. The abstract for the article states the following:

Medical records, for 2000 and 2001, of symptomatic amoebic patients who were treated at our hospitals in Tokyo, Yokohama and Osaka were studied retrospectively for the purpose of gathering epidemiological data on symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection. A total of 58 patients were treated. Fifty-five of them were male, and 96% of the male patients were Japanese. The mean age of patients was 44.9 years old, and 91% of patients contracted the disease in Japan. Fifty-six per cent of the male patients indicated that they were practicing homosexuals, and 44% of the male patients denied these practices or left the question unanswered. The serum Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test was positive in 45% of the patients, and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive in 45%. Our study revealed that recent symptomatic E. histolytica infection almost exclusively afflicted middle-aged males in the big cities of Japan, that a majority of the patients were probably exposed to the causative organism during homosexual activity, and that an increasing number of patients will be co-infected with HIV. [47]

In 1985, the peer reviewed medical journal Gut, which is an international medical journal for gastroenterology and hepatology, had an article entitled The Gay Bowel authored by I V Weller which stated the following: "Guardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica have long been regarded as 'exotic' organisms, but are 'hyperendemic' among gay men attending STD clinics with up to 20 excreting cysts."[48]

Shigellosis, Proctitis, and HIV Infection

In February of 2007 the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases reported in a article entitled Another Perfect Storm: Shigella, Men Who Have Sex with Men, and HIV:
In the mid-1970s, outbreaks of Shigella infection among adults in New York and San Francisco raised the possibility that Shigella species may be sexually transmitted, with most infections occurring in men who have sex with men (MSM). Since these early observations, Shigella infection appears to be more frequent among MSM than among other adult populations...[49]

As mentioned earlier, shigellosis and proctitis are both illnesses associated with gay bowel syndrome.[50] In addition, it was also indicated previously that shigella can cause proctitis which may increase the chance of HIV infection.[51][52]

In February of 2007 Journal of Infectious Diseases published an article titled Case-control study of shigellosis in San Francisco: the role of sexual transmission and HIV infection. The abstract for the article stated: 'Among MSM [men who have sex with men], shigellosis is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease, with direct oral-anal contact conferring the highest risk and HIV infection likely contributing to increased host susceptibility."[53]

Shigellosis is particularly hazardous for individuals with AIDS or other immunodeficiency states. [54]

Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis C Virus

As mentioned previous viral hepatitis is one of the maladies of gay bowel syndrome.[55] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) both Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). According to the CDC, "About 10% of all new HAV [Hepatitis A Virus] infections in the United States are among MSM. Although the overall incidence of hepatitis A has declined in the United States over the past decade, frequent outbreaks continue to be reported among MSM." The CDC also reports that "About 15%-20% of all new HBV [Hepatitis B Virus] infections in the United States are among MSM."[56]

In a 2007 article entitled Advances in the Management of Viral Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infection in HIV-Coinfected Patients Vincent V. Soriano, MD, PhD reported in Medscape the following regarding homosexuality and Hepatitus C viral infections:

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has not been thought to be efficiently transmitted through sexual contact. However, recent reports of outbreaks of acute hepatitis C among men who have sex with men (MSM) have changed this view. British researchers examined 7223 MSM who attended a single clinic in Brighton, United Kingdom, since 2000.[7] The study investigators reported that highly risky sexual practices along with multiple sex partners explained the increase in episodes of acute HCV infection in this population.[57]

Bible, Homosexuality, and Sound Health Practices

Given the many diseases associated with homosexuality, the Bible prohibition against homosexuality is arguably one of the many examples where the Bible exhibited knowledge that was ahead of its time.

Current usefulness and usage of the term Gay bowel syndrome

As noted above, the maladies associated with gay bowel syndrome contribute to the acquisition of AIDS.[58]

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC):

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the United States population, yet are the population most severely affected by HIV. In 2010, young MSM (aged 13-24 years) accounted for 72% of new HIV infections among all persons aged 13 to 24, and 30% of new infections among all MSM. At the end of 2010, an estimated 489,121 (56%) persons living with an HIV diagnosis in the United States were MSM or MSM-IDU.[59]

In 2012, an abstract for a The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases articled entitled Clinical manifestations of primary syphilis in homosexual men indicated, "At the beginning of a new millennium, syphilis incidence has been increasing worldwide, occurring primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM)."[60] In the United States, 75 percent of the syphilis cases between 2011 and 2012 were among MSM.[61] In 2012, gonorrhea and syphilis spreading among homosexual men engaging in sexual activity with one another increased in prevalence in the United States.[62] Also, according to WebMD, "Proctitis is increasingly more common in homosexual men..."[63]

Gay bowel syndrome - terminology usage

Although the term gay bowel syndrome is not used as frequently as the 1980's due to liberal promotion of the homosexual agenda and political correctness, as mentioned previously Medscape has an article on gay bowel syndrome which was published in 2004 that was entitled ''New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome".(The Johns Hopkins HIV Guide website also presently features an article which is essentially a duplicate of the aforementioned article at Medscape).[64][65] In addition, a leading provider of online medical health information has an entry on gay bowel syndrome.[66]

Homosexual Activists Opposition to the Medical Term Gay Bowel Syndrome

‎The term gay bowel syndrome angers homosexual activists as it associates homosexual acts with disease. The book The Marketing of Evil by David Kupelian describes how Harvard-educated marketing professionals Marshall Kirk and Hunter Madsen (who authored the acknowledged public relations Bible of the homosexual-rights movement After the Ball: How America Will Conquer Its Fear and Hatred of Gays in the '90s) were able to change some American's perceptions regarding homosexuality.[67] Clearly the disease gay bowel syndrome is not in accordance with the marketing plan associated with the homosexual agenda which attempts to make homosexuals look good as one of its tactics.[68]

The book The Marketing of Evil by David Kupelian describes how Harvard-educated marketing professionals Marshall Kirk and Hunter Madsen were able to change some American's perceptions regarding homosexuality.

In 2001, a homosexual activist got the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) to deleted any reference to gay bowel syndrome from its medical textbook.[69] In 2005 a homosexual activist made efforts to remove the entry for gay bowel syndrome from the online version of MSN Encarta which in an online encyclopedia.[70] Currently, MSN Encarta has no article for gay bowel syndrome.

Michael Scarce

Michael Scarce who served as a coordinator of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Resources at the University of California at San Francisco.[71] Mr. Scarce wrote a book entitled Smearing the Queer: Medical Bias in the Health Care of Gay Men in which he takes exception to the diagnosis gay bowel syndrome, and cited in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).[72] Dr. Debra L. Klamen did a review of his book in the same JAMA issue. Dr. Klamen agrees with Michael Scarce regarding his position that gay bowel syndrome involves "homophobic" thinking and she states regarding Scarce's work that the author "provides eye-opening revelations about heterosexual attitudes: gay men are somehow depraved, pleasure seeking, and they might spread their diseases (such as HIV infection) to a "general population virtually going about its business."" However, in the very next paragraph Dr. Klamen writes regarding Scarces' book the following: "Its use of vulgar language, ribald poetry, and the author's personal sexual details might cause healthcare professionals making an initial foray into gay men's health issues to cringe."[73] Dr. Klamen did not discuss any of the studies regarding male homosexual promiscuity in her review of Scarce's book. As mentioned previously, Dr. Michael Heller's medical journal article in the Annals of Emergency Medicine entitled The Gay Bowel Syndrome: A Common Problem of Homosexual Patients in the Emergency states the following: "Frequently and promiscuity of sexual intercourse is probably a major risk factor. Gay men in this country have both higher rates of intercourse and many more sexual partners than do either straight men or gay women."[74]

Michael Scarce also published an article in 1997 in the Journal of Homosexuality in regards to gay bowel syndrome. [75] The abstract for Scarce's article states the following: "The use and diagnosis of Gay Bowel Syndrome must be abandoned before it further lends itself to the formation of social policies and governing practices that seek to force gay male bodies into positions of social, cultural, and political subordination." [76]

Summary

Even though a clinical pattern of anorectal and colon diseases is encountered with unusual frequency in homosexual patients occurs in homosexual patients as a result of homosexual activity, homosexual activists do take exception to the medical term gay bowel syndrome and one the complaints they have is the various maladies are not solely exclusive to male homosexuals. [77][78][79][80][81][82]

See Also

External Links

References

  1. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  2. Clinical features and diagnosis - Inflammatory Bowel Disease, part 1 - American Family Physician, Feb 15, 1993 by Glen E. Hastings, Richard J. Weber
  3. [http://www.hopkins-hivguide.org/literature_review/02-2004/new_look_at_gay_bowel_syndrome.html Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, review of the literature - essentially duplicate of Medscape's New Look at Gay Bowel Syndrome]
  4. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  5. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  6. N. Sohn, JG Robilotti Jr. The gay bowel syndrome. A review of colonic and rectal conditions in 200 male homosexuals. AM J Gastroenterol 1977 May;67(5):478-84
  7. Clinical features and diagnosis - Inflammatory Bowel Disease, part 1 - American Family Physician, Feb 15, 1993 by Glen E. Hastings, Richard J. Weber
  8. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  9. Dr. Michael Heller, The gay bowel syndrome: a common problem of homosexual patients in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1980 Sep;9(9), page 487
  10. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n3_v47/ai_13502158/pg_1
  11. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1980 Sep;9(9), page 488
  12. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/msm/index.htm
  13. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/2009/aug/09082609
  14. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  15. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  16. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  17. Klausner JD, Kohn R, Kent C. Etiology of Clinical Proctitis among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;38:300-302
  18. http://www.springerlink.com/content/jx13231641717w48/
  19. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/qa/qa22.htm
  20. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/proctitis/DS00705
  21. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001139.htm
  22. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec09/ch130/ch130f.html
  23. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  24. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/proctitis/DS00705/DSECTION=3
  25. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  26. Homosexual Men Account for 65 Percent of Syphilis Cases, CDC Study Finds
  27. Center for Disease Control - 2004
  28. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  29. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/proctitis/DS00705/DSECTION=3
  30. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  31. Pharyngeal Gonorrhea Is Underdiagnosed in MSM, Am Fam Physician. 2007 Jun 15;75(12):1860-1862
  32. Found citation at university website, material no longer at Concerned Women of America website
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  34. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  35. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  36. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Australia: anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b in men who have sex with men. J Clin Microbiol 2007 Mar;45(3):1029-31
  37. Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening 2007 Aug 23;127(16):2094-5
  38. Clinical infectious diseases 2007 Jan 1;44(1):26-32
  39. Clinical infectious diseases 2007 Jan 1;44(1):26-32
  40. Eurosurveillance 2006;11(9):152-4
  41. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Australia: anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b in men who have sex with men. Eur J Clin Microbiol 2007 Mar;45(3):1029-31
  42. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  43. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001139.htm
  44. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  45. Stark DJ, Fotedar R, Ellis JT, Harkness JL. Locally acquired infection with Entamoeba histolytica in men who have sex with men in Australia. MJA 2006; 185 (8): 417
  46. Amano K, Takeuchi T., Amebiasis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Intern Med. 2001 Jul;40(7):563-4
  47. Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Jan;132(1):57-60
  48. I V Weller, The gay bowel, Gut. 1985 September; 26(9): 869–875
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  50. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
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  53. [http://lib.bioinfo.pl/auth:Reingold,A J Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 1;196 (9):1346-1354 ]
  54. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=6323
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  56. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/msm/hbv_msm_fact.htm
  57. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554156
  58. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  59. Why HIV, syphilis, and gonorrhea are rising among homosexuals
  60. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases.Clinical manifestations of primary syphilis in homosexual men, Milan Bjekića, Milica Markovića, Sandra Šipetićb
  61. CDC Reports 'Troubling Rise' in Syphilis in Gay and Bi Men
  62. Gonorrhea, syphilis spreading among homosexual men engaging in sexual activity with one another
  63. WEBMD - Proctitus
  64. [http://www.hopkins-hivguide.org/literature_review/02-2004/new_look_at_gay_bowel_syndrome.html Johns Hopkins HIV Guide - duplicate of Medscape's New Look at Gay Bowel Syndrome]
  65. Medscape - New Look at "Gay Bowel Syndrome"
  66. Gay Bowel Syndrome from Online Medical Dictionary
  67. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=49958
  68. http://www.citizenlink.org/CLFeatures/A000000562.cfm
  69. Garbo, Jon (December 21, 2004). "Gay Bowel Syndrome" struck from textbook. Gmax.co.za. Retrieved on June 24, 2009.
  70. Activist fights 'outdated' medical phrase: Effort to debunk 'gay bowel syndrome' may face new challenge - Washington Blade - April 8, 2005
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  75. Michael Scarce, Harbinger of plague: a bad case of gay bowel syndrome, Journal of Homosexuality. 1997;34(2):1-35
  76. Michael Scarce, Harbinger of plague: a bad case of gay bowel syndrome, Journal of Homosexuality. 1997;34(2):1-35
  77. The gay bowel syndrome: clinico-pathologic correlation in 260 cases.
  78. N. Sohn, JG Robilotti Jr. The gay bowel syndrome. A review of colonic and rectal conditions in 200 male homosexuals. AM J Gastroenterol 1977 May;67(5):478-84
  79. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_n3_v47/ai_13502158/pg_1
  80. Michael Scarce, Harbinger of plague: a bad case of gay bowel syndrome, Journal of Homosexuality. 1997;34(2):1-35
  81. Garbo, Jon (December 21, 2004). "Gay Bowel Syndrome" struck from textbook. Gmax.co.za. Retrieved on June 24, 2009.
  82. Activist fights 'outdated' medical phrase: Effort to debunk 'gay bowel syndrome' may face new challenge - Washington Blade - April 8, 2005
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