Genesis 1-8 (Translated)

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Contents

Chapter 1

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. For starters, God created the heavens and the earth. The Hebrew word שמים (shamayim) means "skies" and is in the dual number.[1]

There is no definite article in the Hebrew text, and thus "for starters" is a better translation than "in the beginning." Creation was not God's beginning, but the universe's.

Alternate view: Neither the Septuagent nor the Masoretic Text include the definite article with reference to the word meaning beginning. But that is of no moment; ancient definite article adjectives were not required in all instances, as they are in modern English and the Romance languages. Hebrew, like Greek, uses definite articles for emphasis. Indefiniteness, in both these languages, is a thing that the user must make explicit, with an indefinite pronoun.

2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. The earth came to exist in a chaotic and uncertain state. Darkness obscured space. The Breath of God calmed the oceans. This verse is perhaps the most important in order to understand physics. Earth was apparently in an uncertain state similar to that discovered by quantum mechanics. The pair of Hebrew words for "chaotic and uncertain state" (תֹּהוּ and בֹּהוּ) are used only two other times in the entire Bible, in Jer. 4:23 and Isaiah 34:11.

One view: The earth is like a blank canvas, awaiting the stroke of the Master Artist. The original Hebrew repeats the concept of formlessness for emphasis. But though the earth began formless, it did not stay formless for long. Gravity gave it form almost at once.

3 And God said, let there be light: and there was light. God commanded, "Light shall exist!" And light came to exist. The rare use of the Hebrew verb היה (hayah), meaning "he existed," emphasizes that the light did not merely exist but came to exist at God's command. This light came about after vast numbers of elementary particles sought ground states at once, and gave off light as they did. The light from the earth itself flashed and winked out in less than a second. The light from the matter that would form the galaxy lasted much longer, and because this matter was still close, it was bright enough, and at the proper "temperature," to give visible light on one side of an already-rotating earth.
4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. God saw the light, and deemed it good. God distinguished between the light and the darkness. By "good" God means "a satisfactory result," i.e., the result He intended. The earth would now have enough light to last for the next three days. He would make the permanent lamp, the sun, at the proper time.
5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. God named the light Day, and the darkness Night. And evening and morning came: the first day. The Hebrew יום (yowm) means "day." In all its uses in the Bible, it most commonly means the solar day with which we are all familiar, i.e. twenty-four hours. The phrase describing "evening and morning coming to exist" confirms this. By Jewish custom and tradition, the day begins at sundown, not midnight.
6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. Then God declared, "A great sheet-like expanse shall come between the waters, and it shall divide waters from waters!"
7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. God made this expanse, and separated the waters underneath the expanse from the waters above the expanse. And so it came to be. This expanse is not the sky; the "sheet of the skies" would come later. This particular expanse is the earth's crust, dividing surface water from a subcrustal ocean.

Note that the word rendered so in English is the Hebrew word ken, which means yes.

8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. God declared that this expanse would be His dwelling-place. (Or: God described this expanse as fire within waters.) And evening and morning came: the second day. The word heaven can mean either the literal sky or "where God dwells." God's first dwelling, after He had made the earth, was the earth itself, and specifically the Garden of Eden.

The word rendered heaven could also be a contraction of the Hebrew אש (fire) and מים (waters), hence fire in waters. Had anyone sent a probe to dive under the earth's crust after the shaping and molding that took place on Day Three, he would have seen glowing pillars in an otherwise black-as-jet environment.

Concerning the sky: the ancient Hebrews believed that the sky was in fact a solid object that separated two classes of waters. Some creation scientists (beginning with Isaac Newton Vail in 1894) took this to mean a water-vapor canopy that protected the earth before the Great Flood. Dr. Walt Brown, originator of the Hydroplate Theory, has shown that no such canopy could have held together for very long. Hence his reinterpretation of the unqualified Hebrew word raqia to mean the earth's crust, not the sky. (The "expanse of the skies" is the actual expanse of outer space.)

The cosmologist John Hartnett holds that the expanse is not matter, but is in fact the very fabric of space, stretched out on Day Four (see below) to the limits of the known universe.

9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. Then God commanded: "The waters under the sky will come together in one place, and dry ground will appear!" And so it came to be. The earth's crust was uneven. The heavier parts sagged and formed great pillars. They also displaced the subcrustal oceans and formed vast basins to contain the surface oceans. At the same time, other parts of the crust moved upward, after the draining oceans took their weight off them, and the displaced subcrustal waters pushed them up. Thus the dry land formed.
10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. God named this dry ground Earth, and the collected mass of waters He named Seas. God deemed this good. Notice that God does not deem "good" the initial formation of the earth's crust. It is not yet a finished work then. It is now, on Day Three.
11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. Then God declared, "The earth shall make grass sprout, the plant that yields seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit of its created kind, carrying its own seed, to cover the earth!" And so it came to be. Baraminology (Hebrew ברא (bara) he created and מין (min) a kind, and Greek λογος (logos) a word) is the attempt to find all the created kinds from which all present species derive.
12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. And the earth produced grass, and herbs yielding the seeds of their kinds, and trees yielding fruits (that held their own seeds) of their kinds. God deemed this good. Broadly speaking, this includes grains, vegetables, and fruits.
13 And the evening and the morning were the third day. Evening and morning came: the third day.
14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: Then God commanded: "Lights will come to be in the expanse of the skies, to distinguish between the day and the night, and they will serve as signs, for (planting) seasons, for days, and for years. The Hebrew מועד (mow'ed), translated "season," actually means an appointed time for doing something. The Hebrews were originally agrarian, as the original names of their months (Abib, Sivan, etc.) indicate.

Note that this expanse is the expanse of the sky, not the expanse of the earth.

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. They will also serve for lamps in the expanse of the sky to produce light over the earth!" And so it came to be.
16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. God made two particularly intense lamps: the more intense to rule the day, and the less-intense to rule the night. He also made the stars. The two intense lights are, of course, the sun and the moon. In addition, God made every other object in the sky, including the planets, of which the ancients could see five: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.

If He had made the sun and the moon earlier, they would have ruined His working of the earth's crust (see above).

17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, God set these in the expanse of the sky to produce light on the earth,
18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. and to have dominion over the day and the night, and to distinguish light from darkness. God deemed this good. Again, "good" means "finished; ready for the next step."
19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. Evening and morning came: the fourth day.
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. God commanded, "The waters will positively swarm with creatures that move and have life, and birds that fly above the earth in the open sky!" The traditional expression "bring forth abundantly" does not do justice to the original Hebrew. Once again Hebrew employs repetition for emphasis.
21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. So God created gigantic crocodile-like creatures, and made the waters teem with every moving creature after its kind, and every winged bird after its kind. God deemed this good. The largest of sea creatures included more than the great whales. They also included several species of marine dinosaurs, at least two of which (the Loch Ness creature and "Predator X", identified in the Bible as "Leviathan") survived the Great Flood. Leviathan is the crocodile-like creature that the New American Standard translators called a "sea monster."
22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. God blessed them, and commanded them, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas! Birds will multiply in the earth!"
23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. Evening and morning came: the fifth day.
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. Now God commanded, "The earth shall produce living creatures of all kinds: large animals, ground creepers, and other animals of the earth, of all kinds!" And so it came to be.
25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. God made all manner of animal kinds, large animals after their kinds, and ground creepers after their kinds. God deemed this good. Again, finished—and ready for the pièce de résistance: man.

Note: The Hebrew word behemah, translated as "cattle," does not mean the common beef animal. It means any large walker, including the fearsome Behemoth that God describes to Job.

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. Then God declared, "We shall make mankind in Our image, after Our likeness, and they will subjugate the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the large animals, the whole earth, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth!"
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. So God created mankind in His image. In the image of God He created mankind; He created them both male and female.
28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. Then God blessed them, and God told them, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth abundantly, and subdue it. You shall have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and every living thing that moves on the earth!"
29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. Then God said, "Look! I have provided for you every plant that produces seed on the face of the earth, and every tree that bears fruit that yields seed. These shall be your food. Pre-Flood man was supposed to be vegetarian and live entirely on fruits and vegetables. Genesis 9:1-3 supersedes this. But some dietitians, like the inventor of the Hallelujah Diet, insist that vegetarianism reflects God's original and even present intent.
30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. And for every land animal, and every bird of the air, and everything that creeps on the earth, and has life, I have provided every green vegetable for food!" And so it came to be.
31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. God regarded everything He had made. He pronounced it absolutely excellent, finished, and complete. Evening and morning came: the sixth day. The Hebrew מאד (meh'od), when used after an adjective, takes the meaning of that adjective to the highest degree. "Very good" doesn't quite do it justice.

Chapter 2

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. In this way the heavens and the earth were now complete, and everything in them was also complete. The Hebrew phrase כל-צבאם (kalah-tsabam), literally "complete armies," is a idiomatic expression. Note the root tzva, present today in the name of the Tzva HaHaganah LeIsrael, the Defensive Armies of Israel.
2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. On the seventh day God finished the Work of Art That He had made, and He took a rest on the seventh day from all His effort that He had made. That word for "rest" is שבת or literally shabbat, from which we get Sabbath.
3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made. God blessed the seventh day and set it apart from other days. In it He had rested from all His work of creating and making things.
4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, Here ends the Testimony of Heaven and Earth when they were created.

(The annals of Adam)

In the day that the LORD God made the earth and the skies,

The word rendered LORD, here and elsewhere, is יהוה (Yahweh, sometimes rendered Yehovah in the Masoretic Text) or YHWH, the Tetragrammaton. The literal meaning is "He exists," sometimes rendered "He is" without a predicate nominative or adjective. Compare this with אהוה (Ehweh), which means I exist, in Exodus 3:14, the one occasion in which God gives His direct calling name to anyone.

The Hebrew תולדות (toledoth) normally means "family history." Here and elsewhere, it is a direct testimony. The word toledoth, wherever it appears, marks a colophon phrase like those at the end of commonly found ancient clay tablets from the Middle East.

5 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. ...none of the land plants were in the ground yet, nor had any land herb sprouted. The LORD God had not made it rain on the land, and no man was available to work the ground.
6 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. But a mist would go up from the earth, and water all parts of the ground. In Hebrew, the word פנים (paniym), meaning "face," has the same idiomatic usage as the word "face" in English. The pan- root persists as the Greek phan-, face, as in "epiphany." See also pas, pasa, pan, meaning "all" or "every."

The "mist" referred to here, in the imperfect tense, is the kind of mist that commonly forms in "terrariums," which are sealed displays meant to duplicate the water cycle. The original water cycle did not have rain as we know it.

7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Then the LORD God formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. And so man became a living person. The Hebrew gives this man's name: Adam which means "ruddy" or "human being" (aw-dawm' אדם); he was created from the dust, which in Hebrew literally meant "earth" or "clay" (‛âphâr עפר).
This verse - a slightly more detailed explanation of Genesis 1:26-27 - has been taken out of context by the liberal establishment, with the claim that a second act of creation took place after God finished the first.
8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. Then the LORD God planted the Garden of Eden toward the east. There He put the man that He had formed.
9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. From the ground the LORD God caused every tree to grow that is pleasant to look at and good to eat. In the middle of the garden He also planted the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. The Tree of Life is probably an almond tree. The Tree of Knowledge may or may not be an apple tree.
10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. A river flowed out of Eden to irrigate the garden. From there it split into four headwaters.
11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; The first of these is called the Pison. This river surrounds the whole land of Havilah, a land rich in natural resources.
12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. The resources of that land are valuable; they include gum resin and onyx. The stone could also be chrysoprasus, beryl, or malachite.
13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. The second river is called the Gihon. This river surrounds the whole land of Ethiopia.
14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. The third river is called the Hiddekel; this is the river that flows toward the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates River.
15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. The LORD God took Adam, and put him into the Garden of Eden, to work it and have charge of it.
16 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: The LORD God gave Adam these orders: "From every tree of the garden you may eat to your heart's content, The Hebrew actually repeats the verb "to eat" for emphasis.
17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. except that you must not eat from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. In the day that you eat from that tree you shall surely die." The Hebrew here repeats the word "die" for emphasis and intensification, not only of the certainty of death but also of its severity. The "death" meant here is separation from God, a thing that Adam probably did not then appreciate.
18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Then the LORD God said, "It is not good for Adam to be alone. I will make him a suitable helper."
19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. From the ground the LORD God had formed every land animal and every bird of the sky, and brought them to Adam to see how he would name them. Whatever name Adam gave to any living creature, that would be its name. God created language, and created Adam able to speak that language. But God left to Adam the task of naming the animals--a fitting assignment for one who was supposed to manage them. Also, in this context it is more precise to use the past perfect "had formed" rather than "formed".
20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. Adam gave names to all cattle, and all the birds in the sky, and every living creature of the field. But in all that company no suitable helper for Adam could be found.
21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; Then the LORD God caused Adam to fall unconscious, into a deep sleep-like trance. He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Today this would be akin to being put under anesthesia; note that word "unconscious" was not invented until 1712 and thus it never appears in the KJV.
22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. Out of this rib, that the LORD God had taken from Adam, He made a woman, and brought her to Adam.
23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Adam said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. She shall be named Woman, because she was taken out of Man."
24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. For that reason, a man will leave his father and mother, and cling to his wife, and they will be one flesh. This is the basis of marriage.
25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. The two of them, Adam and his wife, were naked, and were not ashamed. Shame would not come into their lives until they made one fatal mistake.

Chapter 3

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? Now the serpent was craftier than any other land animal that the LORD God had made. He asked the woman, "Wait a minute. Did God really say, 'You may not eat from any tree in the garden?'" The serpent, that is, Satan, twists God's command into a prohibiton against eating from any tree, not just one Tree in particular.
2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: The woman told the serpent, "We may eat the fruits of the trees of the garden,
3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. but concerning the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden, God has said, 'You must not eat this, or even touch it, or else you will die.'" Now Eve distorts God's word by exaggerating, an ever-present danger.
4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: The serpent told the woman, "You won't 'surely die.'
5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. Because God knows that in the day that you eat that fruit, your mind shall become aware, and you will be like gods yourselves, with knowledge of good and evil." The translation of "your mind shall become aware" is closer to the original meaning than "your eyes shall be opened." The Hebrew עַיִן means mental and spiritual faculties, which is the point here, not merely the physical eye.


The devil did deceive here by falsely telling Eve that she would become God-like. It takes a lot more than knowledge of good and evil to be God-like, but Eve did not know that, and she believed a lie.

6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. So the woman considered that the tree was good to eat, pleasant to look at, and desirable for the understanding it might convey. So she took some of its fruit, and ate, and also gave some to her husband, and he ate. The action of the Fall of Man...
7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. Then their minds became aware, and they realized they were naked. They sewed fig leaves together to make loin-coverings for themselves. Translating the Hebrew עַיִן as "mind" rather than "eye" has the additional advantage of avoiding the passive tense here.
8 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. Then they heard the Voice of the LORD God as He walked in the garden in the daily breeze. Adam and his wife hid themselves from the face of the LORD God among the trees of the garden.
9 And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? Then the LORD God called to Adam, "Where are you?"
10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. And Adam said, "I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked. So I hid myself." Adam offers a lame excuse. So God begins to probe.
11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? So He said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I ordered you not to eat from?"
12 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And Adam said, "The woman whom You provided to be with me, gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate." An even lamer excuse: blaming someone else.
13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. Then the LORD God said to the woman, "What have you done?" And the woman said, "The serpent deceived me, and I ate." The woman also blames someone else.
14 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: Then the LORD God told the serpent, "Because you have done this, you will lie under a curse, more than all livestock or any other land animal. You will crawl on your belly and eat dry-powder food throughout the days of your life.
15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. I will incite hatred between you and the woman, and between your children and hers. They will wound you in the head, and you will wound them in the heel. This is both a description of how snakes live today and a prophecy of the Crucifixion, in that Jesus Christ would have His heels pierced and will hang on a cross driven into a hill in the shape of a skull, i.e. a head.
16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. To the woman He said, "I will increase your labor pains to an extreme degree. You will deliver your sons, your desires will be directed toward your husband, and he will rule over you." Again, Hebrew uses repetition for emphasis and intensification.
17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; To Adam He said, "Because you listened to the voice your wife, and ate from the tree that I ordered you not to eat from, the ground will be under a curse on your account. You will have to labor to eat from it all the days of your life.
18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; It will also produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat land herbs.
19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. Your face will sweat as you eat bread, until you return to the ground. You were taken out of the ground, you were made from powder, and you will turn back into powder."
20 And Adam called his wife's name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. Adam gave his wife a name, Eve, because she was the mother of all living persons.
21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them. Then the LORD God made coats of animal skins for Adam and his wife, and clothed them. Without the shedding of blood there can be no salvation. This act is a direct illustration of this principle.
22 And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: Then the LORD God, "Look! The man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. We cannot now let him stretch out his hand, and also take fruit from the Tree of Life, and eat and live forever!"
23 Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. For that reason the LORD God sent him out of the Garden of Eden, to work the ground from which he had been formed.
24 So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. So He drove out the man, and to the east of the Garden of Eden he stationed cherubs, and a flaming sword that turned every which way, to guard the path to the Tree of Life. A cherub is a class of angel. Its exact rank and function are hinted at elsewhere. More to the point: God cannot allow mankind to live forever in a sinful condition.

Chapter 4

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD. Adam had relations with his wife, Eve. She conceived, and bore Cain, saying, "I have acquired a man-child from the LORD." The name Cain (Hebrew קין (Qayin) means "possession." The verb translated "acquired" comes from the same Hebrew root. this verse disproves "serpent seed theory" which states that satan had sexual relations with eve producing cain
2 And she again bare his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. Later she bore another son, his brother Abel. Abel was a shepherd, and Cain was a farmer. Literally, "one working the ground."
3 And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD. At the end of many days it happened that Cain brought an offering to the LORD from his harvest.
4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering: Abel, similarly, brought one of the very first lambs from his flock and its fat. The LORD appreciated Abel and his offering, Abel brought the best that his work had produced to God,
5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. but did not appreciate Cain or his offering. Cain was extremely resentful and crestfallen. but Cain probably brought the leftovers. This was not because only animal sacrifice would serve.
6 And the LORD said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countenance fallen? The LORD said to Cain, "Why are you resentful? Why are you crestfallen?
7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him. If you would put forth a proper effort, don't you think you would be accepted? But if you won't make the effort, then sin lies at your door. Sin desires you, but you must master it."
8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. Then Cain spoke with his brother Abel, and it happened, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against his brother Abel and murdered him.
9 And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper? Then the LORD asked Cain, "Where is your brother Abel?" And he said, "I don't know. Am I supposed to be responsible for my brother?"
10 And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground. And He said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood cries out to Me from the ground.
11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand; Now you are cursed from the earth, which has opened its mouth to take your brother's blood from your hand.
12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth. Whenever you try to work the ground, it will never again yield its strength to you. You will be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth."
13 And Cain said unto the LORD, My punishment is greater than I can bear. Cain said to the LORD, "My punishment is more than I can take!
14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the earth; and from thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth; and it shall come to pass, that every one that findeth me shall slay me. Look! You have driven me this day from the face of the land, and I will be hidden from Your face! I will be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth, and anyone who finds me will murder me!"
15 And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him. Then the LORD told him, "For that, if anyone murders Cain, he will pay a seven-fold penalty." Then the LORD placed a special mark on Cain, to make sure that anyone finding him would know not to kill him.
16 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. Then Cain went away from the presence of the LORD, and lived in the land of Nod, to the east of Eden. The root meaning of the name "Nod" means "wandering." This name never appears again; it is a hapax legomenon.
17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. There Cain had relations with his wife, and she conceived and bore him a son named Enoch. Cain built a city, and named that city after his son Enoch. The name Enoch means "dedicated."
18 And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech. Enoch's son was Irad, and Irad's son was Mehujael, and Mehujael's son was Methusael, and Methusael's son was Lamech. The names of these further descendants of Cain meant "fleet", "smitten by God," "who is of God," and "powerful."
19 And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. Lamech married two wives, named Adah and Zillah. The names of Lamech's wives mean "ornament" and "shade."
20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. Adah bore Jabal, the progenitor of those who live in tents, and those who keep livestock. Jabal means "stream of water."
21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. His brother's name was Jubal, the progenitor of all who handle the harp and the organ. Jubal means "stream." Jubal invented musical instruments.
22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubal-cain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah. Zillah bore Tubal-cain, an instructor of every worker of bronze and iron. His sister was Naamah. Tubal-cain means "You will be brought from Cain." Naamah means "loveliness."
23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. Lamech said to his wives, Adah, and Zillah, "Listen to me, you wives of Lamech, listen to what I'm telling you. I have killed a man who wounded me, and a young man who hurt me.
24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. If Cain enjoys seven-fold protection, then Lamech deserves seventy-seven-fold protection!"
25 And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. Adam had relations again with his wife, and she bore a son, and named him Seth. She said, "Because God has appointed me another son in the place of Abel, whom Cain murdered." The name Seth means "appointed." The play on words is obvious in the original Hebrew.
26 And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD. Seth also had a son, named Enos. At that time men began to call on the Name of the LORD. Enosh is another word for "man."

Chapter 5

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him; Here ends the scroll of the Testimony of Adam.

(The annals of Noah)

In the day that God created man, He made him in God's likeness.

See the note on תולדות (toledoth) at Genesis 2:5.
2 Male and female created he them; and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created. He created them male and female, and blessed them, and called them "mankind," in the day that they were created. Adam means "man."
3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth: When Adam had lived for 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, after his own image, and named him Seth. That is, "appointed."
4 And the days of Adam after he had begotten Seth were eight hundred years: and he begat sons and daughters: And after Adam had become the father of Seth he lived 800 more years and had other sons and daughters.
5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died. Altogether Adam lived for 930 years, and he died.
6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and begat Enos: When Seth had lived 105 years, he had a son named Enos. That is, "man" again.
7 And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters: After Seth had Enos, he lived 807 more years and had other sons and daughters.
8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years: and he died. Altogether Seth lived for 912 years, and he died.
9 And Enos lived ninety years, and begat Cainan: When Enos was 90 years old, he had a son named Cainan. That is, "possession."
10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters: After Enos had Cainan, he lived for 815 years and had other sons and daughters.
11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years: and he died. Altogether Enos lived for 905 years, and he died.
12 And Cainan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalaleel: When Cainan had lived for 70 years, he had a son named Mahalaleel. That is, "Praise of God."
13 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and daughters: After Cainan had Mahaleel, he lived for 840 years, and had other sons and daughters.
14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years: and he died. Altogether Cainan lived for 910 years, and he died.
15 And Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, and begat Jared: Mahaleel lived for 65 years, and had a son named Jared. That is, "descent," which could mean "coming down."
16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters: After Mahaleel had Jared, he lived for 830 years and had other sons and daughters.
17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight hundred ninety and five years: and he died. Altogether Mahaleel lived for 895 years, and he died.
18 And Jared lived an hundred sixty and two years, and he begat Enoch: When Jared had lived 162 years, he had a son named Enoch. That is, "dedicated."
19 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: After Jared had Enoch, he lived for 800 years and had other sons and daughters.
20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years: and he died. Altogether Jared lived for 962 years, and he died.
21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methuselah: When Enoch had lived for 65 years, he had a son named Methuselah. That is, "man of the dart."
22 And Enoch walked with God after he begat Methuselah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: After Enoch had Methuselah, he lived for 300 more years and had other sons and daughters.
23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years: Altogether Enoch lived for 365 years.
24 And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him. Enoch walked with God. Then suddenly he didn't exist anymore, because God took him away. Reason: God directly translated him, as He would do for Elijah several thousand years later.
25 And Methuselah lived an hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lamech: When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he had a son named Lamech. That is, "powerful."
26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons and daughters: After Methuselah had Lamech, he lived another 782 years and had other sons and daughters.
27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years: and he died. Altogether Methuselah lived for 969 years, and he died. Methuselah lived longer than any other man who ever lived, and died in the year of the Great Flood.
28 And Lamech lived an hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son: When Lamech had lived 182 years, he had a son named Noah That is, "comfort" or "rest."
29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed. Lamech named his son Noah, and said, "My son will comfort us on account of our labor and work of our hands, on account of the ground that the LORD has cursed."
30 And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and daughters: After Lamech had Noah, he lived for another 595 years and had other sons and daughters.
31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died. Altogether, Lamech lived for 777 years, and he died. Lamech died five years before the Great Flood.
32 And Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth. When Noah was 500 years old, he had three sons named Shem, Ham, and Japheth. That is, "name", "hot", and "opened." These sons are not named in the actual birth order: Japheth was likely born first, then Shem, and finally Ham.

Chapter 6

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, Eventually, when men began to populate the land, and many young women were born, The Hebrew starts with the imperfect of "to exist," which is idiomatic for "eventually" here.
2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. the sons of God regarded these young women as beautiful, and took as many of them as they chose as brides. Some commentators (Harold Camping among them) say that these "sons of God" were simply members of Seth's line who married outside the true faith. But Jude (in the New Testament) says almost directly that these "sons of God" were fallen angels who thus produced a race of angel-human hybrids.
3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. The LORD said, "My spirit shall not continue this quarrel with man forever, because indeed he is sinful flesh. I give him one hundred twenty years more." God issues this warning 120 years before the Great Flood; see also Noah's Ark.
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. The Fallen Ones were abroad in the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God had relations with young human women, and these women bore children to them. These hybrids became strong men in ancient times, men of renown. The Hebrew נפל (nephil) translates as a dud, an abortive thing, or even a stillborn baby. As used here, this refers to a race of beings that God never intended should ever walk this earth. Every culture on (post-Flood) earth has its giant legends. Moses would later call these the Anakim, giant-sized inhabitants of Canaan whom his twelve scouts reported seeing. Whether Hercules was one of them is impossible to determine, though Goliath might have been.
5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. God realized that the evil that man did in the earth was great, and that everything that he thought and imagined in his heart, every single day, was utterly evil.
6 And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. And the LORD regretted that he had made man on the earth, and He was heartsick.
7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them. The LORD said, "I will wipe mankind, whom I have created, off the face of the land—mankind and land animals and insect life and birds of the air—because I regret that I have made them." Notice that God does not say here that he will destroy all marine life, and also that the word He actually uses means not merely to kill but to rub out, as if it never existed. Which is what the Great Flood did, to the extent that modern-day scoffers insist that it never occurred and cite a "lack of evidence," not realizing how complete a change the Great Flood made to the land.
8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD. But Noah found favor in the sight of the LORD.
9 These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God. Here ends the Testimony of Noah.

(The annals of Shem, Ham and Japheth)

Noah was a just man, and the most wholesome man of his time, and Noah walked with God.

The two words translated "generations" in the KJV are radically different in meaning. See the note on תולדות (toledoth) at Genesis 2:5.
10 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Noah was the father of three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. That is, "name", "hot," and "opened." Yet the proper birth order is Japheth first, then Shem, then Ham.
11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence. The earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was an utterly violent world.
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. Wherever God looked on the earth, He saw corruption, because all men had become thoroughly evil and corrupt. All men, that is, except for Noah and his family.
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. So God told Noah, "The end of all mankind has come before Me, because the earth is full of violence on their account. So look: I am going to destroy them along with the earth.
14 Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. Build for yourself an ark of gopher wood. Build nests in the ark, and coat it with pitch inside and out. The Hebrew תבה (teveth) appears only here and in the story of Moses in the bulrushes. It probably means simply "lifeboat." The term עצי-גפר (etsi-gopher) never appears again in the Bible or any other literature (thus making it a hapax legomenon). Various English translators, including the Geneva Bible translators, have rendered this as a lost species of tree, an antediluvian composite, or a lost art of producing wood for shipbuilding. At least one witness reported that a "gophering" process is still known in modern Israel. The product is like plywood, but much stronger.

"Pitch" usually means "ransom" and its use here prefigures the ransom that Jesus Christ paid for mankind.[2]

15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. Build it according to these dimensions:
  • Length: 300 cubits (515 feet).
  • Beam: 50 cubits (86 feet).
  • Depth: 30 cubits (52 feet).
This is probably the long cubit, at least 20 US Customary inches long. These dimensions probably translate to slightly more than 150 by 25 by 15 SI meters.[2] Note also that the depth and beam are in a Golden Ratio.
16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it. Set a skylight hatch in its top deck, with its bottom edge one cubit above the weatherdeck. Set the door of the ark in its side. Build it with lower, second, and third deck levels. The Hebrew text does not specify a word for "deck levels," but merely says, "lower, second, and third." This usage suggests that the door was at the second deck level, perhaps midway up from the bottom.[2]
17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die. Look: I Myself will bring a Flood of waters on the earth, to destroy all men and animals having the breath of life in them from under the sky. Everything in the earth will die.
18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. But I will establish my covenant with you, and you will enter the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons' wives with you.
19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. And out of every living thing among all animals, you are to bring two of every sort into the ark, a male and a female, to keep them alive with you.
20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. Two of every created kind of bird, and every kind of livestock, and of every ground creeper, will come to you so that you can keep them alive.
21 And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them. You will take with you samples of every kind of foodstuff, and gather it for yourself. This will be your food, and theirs."
22 Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he. So Noah did all these things, exactly as God instructed him.

Chapter 7

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. Then the LORD said to Noah, "Come, you and all your household, into the ark. You're the only just person I've seen in this generation of men.
2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female. Take seven specimens of every clean animal, male and female, and take two specimens of unclean animals, male and female.
3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. Also take seven specimens of every bird, male and female, in order to raise live offspring to repopulate the earth afterward.
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth. Seven days from now, I will make it rain on the earth for 40 days and nights. and I will wipe out every living thing I have made from the face of the earth."
5 And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him. Noah followed all the LORD's orders.
6 And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. Noah was 600 years old when the Great Flood came on the earth.
7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. Noah boarded the ark, with his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives with him, to escape the Flood waters.
8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth, Of clean animals, and unclean animals, and birds, and of every living thing that creeps on the ground, including insects and worms
9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah. two and two went to Noah aboard the ark, male and female, as God had ordered Noah.
10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. After the seven days had passed, the waters of the Flood came upon the earth.
11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. In the 600th year of Noah's life, on the seventeenth day of the second month, on that very day the deep subcrustal springs were broken open, and the windows of the sky were thrown open. The date is 17 Bul 1656 AM, corresponding to October 23, 2348 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

That last idiomatic phrase reflects the ancient Hebrew view of the sky as a solid object; see Genesis 1:6-8. It refers actually to the torrential rain, which came not only from rainclouds but also fell back to earth after gushing out of the subcrustal springs. See also Hydroplate Theory and entries for the Galilean moons of Jupiter, three of which are supposed to have subcrustal oceans.

12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. Τhe rain fell on the earth for 40 days and nights.
13 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark; On that very day Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, Noah's sons, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, boarded the ark.
14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort. With them went specimens of every created kind of land animal, including livestock, ground creepers, and birds,
15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. two specimens of each kind of air-breathing animal,
16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the LORD shut him in. male and female, as God had ordered Noah. Then the LORD shut him in. God makes the call that the time of judgment has come, and gives an obvious and direct signal.[2]
17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and it was lift up above the earth. The Flood lasted for forty days, and then the steadily increasing waters floated the ark and lifted it up above the ground.
18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters. The waters were tremendous, and rose to great depths on the earth, and the ark rode the surface of the waters.
19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. The waters were exceedingly powerful and deep, and all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered.
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. The waters kept rising for another fifteen cubits, and the mountains were covered. How high those mountains were before the Flood is impossible to say. Many of the modern mountain ranges formed in the process of the Flood, as the subterranean waters, escaping through the Mid-Oceanic Ridge system, shoved the continents into one another or off to one side, causing them to buckle and form mountains by faulting.
21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: Everything that moved on the earth died, including birds, livestock, wild animals, ground creepers, and every man.
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. Every animal that went about on dry land and breathed air, died. The great whales are air breathers, but they are also marine animals and were thus able to survive.
23 And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven; and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. Every living creature was wiped off the face of the ground, including mankind, livestock, ground creepers, and birds in the sky. They were wiped out from the earth, and only Noah and those with him in the ark remained alive.
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days. The waters covered over the earth for 150 days.

Chapter 8

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged; Now God still remembered Noah, and every living creature, and all the livestock that was with him in the ark. So God sent a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters receded.
2 The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained; The subcrustal springs and the windows of the sky were stopped, and the rain from the sky was restrained.
3 And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. The waters continued to recede from the earth. At the end of 150 days the waters had drained away.
4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. The ark ran aground on the seventeenth day of the seventh month, in some of the highest mountains in the region. The date is 17 Abib 1656 AM, or April 18, 2347 BC (proleptic Gregorian).

The Hebrew אררט (Urartu) is not necessarily the name of a mountain range in eastern Armenia, that includes a particular mountain named "Mount Ararat" in Turkey. It could also be the Assyrian word for "highest."

5 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen. The waters continued to decrease until the tenth month, so that on the first day of the tenth month, the mountaintops became visible. 1 Tammuz 1656 AM, or 30 June 2347 BC (proleptic Gregorian). These post-Flood mountains were likely higher than any pre-Flood mountains.
6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made: Eventually, forty days later, Noah opened the skylight hatch of the ark that he had built.
7 And he sent forth a raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. He sent out a raven, and the raven flew every which way until the waters were dried up from the earth.
8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground; Then he sent out a dove, to see whether the waters had receded from the ground.
9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth: then he put forth his hand, and took her, and pulled her in unto him into the ark. The dove found no place to alight, so it flew back to him into the ark, because the waters still covered all the ground. Noah held out his hand, took the dove, and pulled it in to him into the ark.
10 And he stayed yet other seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; He waited for seven more days, and sent the dove out again from the ark.
11 And the dove came in to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. The dove came back to him that evening, but, to Noah's delighted surprise, it had an olive leaf plucked off in its beak. So Noah knew that the waters had gone down significantly. That an olive tree had taken root so soon was a minor miracle and could have been an intended sign.
12 And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more. He waited seven days more, and sent the dove out, and this time the dove never came back.
13 And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. Eventually, in the 601st year of Noah's life, in the first day of the first month, the waters were dried up from the earth. Then Noah removed some of the hull planking of the ark, and looked out, and saw that the ground was now dry. The door of the ark was on the middle deck. Noah chopped out a hole in the hull on the lower deck after the ark was grounded, and then waited for God's command to disembark and unload.
14 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried. On the twenty-seventh day of the second month, the earth was completely dry. 27 Bul 1657 AM, or 21 November 2347 BC (proleptic Gregorian). In this verse, the Hebrew uses a different word for "dry," one conveying a higher degree of dryness.
15 And God spake unto Noah, saying, Now God spoke to Noah, and said,
16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. "Go out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and your sons' wives with you.
17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth. Bring out with you every living thing that is with you, of all kinds of animals, birds, livestock, and ground creepers, so that they may breed profusely in the earth, and be fruitful and multiply on the earth."
18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him: And Noah went out, with his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives.
19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark. Every land animal, every ground creeper, and every bird, after its created kind, left the ark.
20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. Then Noah built an altar to the LORD. He took specimens of every clean land animal, and every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. The Hebrew עלה (olah) describes this specific kind of offering. The word also connotes a climbing of stairs and reflects the need to "step up" to the altar. This is also why Noah took seven clean-animal specimens of each kind, rather than the usual two.
21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. The LORD smelled a soothing odor, and the LORD said in His heart, "Never again will I curse the ground on account of mankind, because the imagination of man's heart is evil starting in his childhood. Nor will I ever again kill every living thing, as I have done.
22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease. While the earth remains, planting time and harvest time, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night will not stop."

References

  1. The opening creative verse covers all needed dimensions of our universe which are interdependent: in the beginning (time) God created (Action) the heaven (space) and the earth (matter). Western man delineated these concepts in the 19th century, but God revealed them to us from the beginning.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Lovett T, Noah's Ark: Thinking Outside the Box, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2008.
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