Genesis 17-25 (Translated)

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Chapter 17

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect. When Abram was 99 years old, the LORD appeared to Abram, and told him, "I am Almighty God. Walk with me, and be spotless.
2 And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. I will make My covenant between Me and you, and I will make you more numerous than you can imagine."
3 And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying, Abram fell on his face. God continued to talk with him, saying,
4 As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations. "As for Me, look: My covenant is with you, and you will be a father of many ethnic groups.
5 Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee. In fact, your name will not be Abram anymore. From now on, your name is Abraham, because I have made you a father of many nations. In Hebrew, the name Abram means "exalted father," but Abraham means "father of a multitude." Notice the common root אב (av-), "father," in both names.
6 And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee. I will make you fruitful to the highest degree. I will make several ethnic groups come from you. Kings will descend from you.
7 And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. I will establish My covenant between Me and you, and your children after you—a covenant that will last forever throughout all their generations—to be a God for you and your children after you.
8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God. I will give you, and your children after you, the land in which you are now a foreigner, all the land of Canaan, as their property forever, and I will be their God."
9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. And God told Abraham, "Therefore you will keep My covenant, you and your children after you throughout their generations.
10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. This is My covenant, that you will keep, between Me and you and your children after you: Every man-child among you shall be circumcised. Circumcision is a symbol of stripping oneself bare, in total surrender to God. Conventional medicine also recommends it for cleanliness and even the prevention of cancer.
11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. You will circumcise the flesh of your foreskin. This will be token of the covenant between Me and you.
12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. Every eight-day-old boy will be circumcised among you. This includes every man-child in your generations. You shall do the same with slaves, whether born in your household or bought with money from foreigners, who are not your direct descendants.
13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. Anyone born in your household, or bought and paid for by you, must be circumcised, and My covenant will be in your flesh and will hold forever.
14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant. If any man-child among your descendants refuses to be circumcised, that person will be cut off from his people for breaking My covenant."
15 And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. Then God told Abraham, "About your wife Sarai: you won't be calling her Sarai anymore. Sarah will be her name. The name Sarai means "princess"; Sarah means "noblewoman."
16 And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; kings of people shall be of her. I will bless her, and also give you a son from her. I repeat: I will bless her, and she will be a mother of ethnic groups. Kings of peoples will descend from her."
17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear? At that Abraham fell on his face and laughed. He said to himself, "How can a child be born to a hundred-year-old man? And how could Sarah, at the age of ninety, possibly have a child?"
18 And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee! Then Abraham said to God, "O that Ishmael might live before thee!"
19 And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. Then God said, "No, but your wife Sarah will definitely bear a son for you. You will name him Isaac, and I will establish My covenant with him for a lifetime covenant, and with his children after him. The name Isaac means "he shall laugh."
20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. As for Ishmael, I have heard you. Look: I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will make him very, very numerous. He will have twelve princes for sons, and I will make him a great ethnic group.
21 But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. But I will establish My covenant with Isaac, and Sarah will bear him to you on this date next year."
22 And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham. Then God stopped talking to Abraham and went up from him.
23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God had said unto him. Abraham took his son Ishmael, and every man born in his household, and every man that had been bought with his money, in short, every male among the people of Abraham's household, and circumcised them in the foreskin that very day, as God had ordered him.
24 And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. Abraham was 99 years old, when he was circumcised in his foreskin.
25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. His son Ishmael was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in his foreskin.
26 In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. Abraham and Ishmael were circumcised on the exact same day,
27 And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger, were circumcised with him. and all the men of his houehold, both born into the household and bought with money from foreigners, were circumcised along with him.

Chapter 18

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD appeared unto him in the plains of Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day; And the LORD was appearing to him among the oak trees of Mamrel He was sitting in the opening of his tent at the height of the day.
2 And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him: and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground, As he lifted up his eyes and looked, he saw three apparently mortal men standing next to him. As soon as he saw them he ran from his tent opening to meet them, and bowed low to the ground.
3 And said, My Lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant: He said, "My Lord, if I have now found grace in Your sight, please don't pass away from Your servant." The Hebrew word used here is the one meaning "lord," and not the Tetragrammaton.
4 Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree: "Please allow me to have a little water fetched, so that you can wash your feet and rest yourselves under the tree." The word used for "rest" means "to lean one's back against something."
5 And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort ye your hearts; after that ye shall pass on: for therefore are ye come to your servant. And they said, So do, as thou hast said. "And I'll fetch a little bit of bread, and give you some comfort in your hearts; then you can move on. After all, that's what you've come here for." And they said, "Yes, do that."
6 And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said, Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes upon the hearth. Abraham rushed back into the tent, to Sarah, and told her, "Quick! Prepare three loaf-measures of fine meal, knead it, and make hearth-loaves with them." The word used literally means "ash-cake," a loaf of bread baked on an open hearth.
7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetcht a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man; and he hasted to dress it. Then Abraham ran to the herd, and took a tender and good calf, and gave it to a young man, who quickly dressed it.
8 And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat. He then fetched clotted cream, milk, and the calf that he had had dressed, and set it before them. He stood by them under the tree while they ate.
9 And they said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife? And he said, Behold, in the tent. They said to him, "Where is your wife Sarah?" And he told them, "Why, in the tent."
10 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the tent door, which was behind him. And he said, "I will be sure to return to you at the end of a gestation period. And you watch: your wife Sarah will have a son." Sarah heard that from where she was sitting in the tent opening behind him.
11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women. Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well-advanced in age, and in fact Sarah had already undergone the woman's change of life.
12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also? So Sarah laughed to herself, saying, "As old and worn out as I am, am I really going to have this luxury, now that my husband is also so old?"
13 And the LORD said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, which am old? Then the LORD said to Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh, saying, 'Will I actually bear a son, as old as I am'?"
14 Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son. "Can anything be too hard to believe that the LORD can do? At the appointed time, I will return to you, at the end of a gestation period, and Sarah will have a son."
15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was afraid. And he said, Nay; but thou didst laugh. Then Sarah dissimulated, and said, "I didn't laugh!", because she was scared. And He said, "No, but you did laugh."
16 And the men rose up from thence, and looked toward Sodom: and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way. Then the men got up from there, headed to Sodom, and Abrham went along with them as a guide.
17 And the LORD said, Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do; And the LORD said, "Shall I hide my plan from Abraham?"
18 Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him? "After all, he will definitely be the founder of a great and staunch people, and My blessing will flow through him out to all the peoples of the earth."
19 For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment; that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him. "I know him, and so I know he will raise his family to keep the ways of the LORD, to act honestly and wisely, so that the LORD will give him what I have promised him."
20 And the LORD said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous; And the LORD said, "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is very loud, and their sin is reputed to be extreme.
21 I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto me; and if not, I will know. So I will descend, and see if this outrage is deserved. If not, I will know."
22 And the men turned their faces from thence, and went toward Sodom: but Abraham stood yet before the LORD. And the men turned and left for Sodom, but Abraham remained standing before the LORD.
23 And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked? Abraham came closer, and said "Will you kill both the indecent and the decent?"
24 Peradventure there be fifty righteous within the city: wilt thou also destroy and not spare the place for the fifty righteous that are therein? "What if there are fifty decent people in the city, you won't have mercy and not destroy the city if that would also kill the fifty decent people?"
25 That be far from thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked: and that the righteous should be as the wicked, that be far from thee: Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right? "That doesn't seem like You, to kill the decent along with the indecent, and to treat the decent just like the indecent who does't love You. You are the Highest Judge on Earth. Am I to understand that such a Judge will not do the right thing?"
26 And the LORD said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare all the place for their sakes. And the LORD said, "If I find fifty decent people in Sodom, I will leave the city alone so they can be safe."
27 And Abraham answered and said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, which am but dust and ashes: And Abraham answered, "Wow, I have talked directly to God, and I am lower than dirt and ashes!"
28 Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous: wilt thou destroy all the city for lack of five? And he said, If I find there forty and five, I will not destroy it. "But what if the city has only forty-five decent people? Will You destroy the city because it's five short?" And God said, "If there are forty-five, I will not destroy it."
29 And he spake unto him yet again, and said, Peradventure there shall be forty found there. And he said, I will not do it for forty's sake. And Abraham said yet another time, "What about forty?" And God said "If it's forty, I'll leave them alone."
30 And he said unto him, Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak: Peradventure there shall thirty be found there. And he said, I will not do it, if I find thirty there. And Abraham said, "Please don't get mad at me for asking, but what if there are thirty decent people?" God replied "If I find thirty decent people, I won't destroy the city."
31 And he said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord: Peradventure there shall be twenty found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for twenty's sake. And Abraham said "I can't believe I'm saying this, but what if there are twenty decent people?" God replied "I will not destroy it if there are twenty."
32 And he said, Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once: Peradventure ten shall be found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for ten's sake. Abraham said again, "Please don't be angry, but let me ask just one more time: what if there are only ten decent people?" And God said, "I won't destroy it if there are ten."
33 And the LORD went his way, as soon as he had left communing with Abraham: and Abraham returned unto his place. And God left, since he was done talking to Abraham, and Abraham went home.

Chapter 19

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground; Two Messengers of God came to Sodom that evening. Lot was on the city council of Sodom at the time. As soon as he saw them he got up and gave them a low bow of respect. The Hebrew word מלאכ (malak) means "messenger," same as the Greek αγγελικος (angelikos), whence angel. The expression "to sit in the gate" can mean either to be a councillor or to do business before official witnesses, much as modern people transact business before notaries public or justices of the peace.
2 And he said, Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay; but we will abide in the street all night. And Lot said, "Gentlemen, please come to my humble home and stay there for the night. You can wash up, and get up early tomorrow and be on your way." And they said "No thank-you, we'll just sleep in the streets."
3 And he pressed upon them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat. But Lot insisted, so they came with him into his house, and he cooked them a huge meal with fresh matzoh bread, and they had dinner together. The Hebrew מצות (matzah) literally means "made without yeast." Moses would institute the Feast of Passover with this "bread of haste" centuries later.
4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter: But before they could go to bed, the Sodomites, young and old, came from every neighborhood of the city and surrounded the house.
5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where are the men which came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them. They shouted to Lot, "Where are the men who came to visit you tonight? Hand them over, so we can rape them."
6 And Lot went out at the door unto them, and shut the door after him, Lot went out to talk to them, carefully locking the door behind him.
7 And said, I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly. He said, "Neighbors, please! Don't commit such a terrible crime!"
8 Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes: only unto these men do nothing; for therefore came they under the shadow of my roof. "Look, I have two virgin daughters, and I'll give them to you and you can do whatever you want to them if you just promise me you'll leave these men alone. They're my guests and I'm honor-bound to protect them."
9 And they said, Stand back. And they said again, This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge: now will we deal worse with thee, than with them. And they pressed sore upon the man, even Lot, and came near to break the door. The Sodomites said, "Come here, you!" Further, they said to one another, "This man comes in as a guest of our city, and now is acting like our judge! Now we'll deal worse with you than with them." They mobbed Lot, and almost broke the door down. The Hebrew word traditionally translated "stand back" actually means "come closer."
10 But the men put forth their hand, and pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door. But the guests reached out and grabbed Lot, pulling him into the house and shutting the door.
11 And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great: so that they wearied themselves to find the door. Then they dazzled every one of the Sodomites at the door with a bright flash of light, that affected small and great one alike, so they couldn't even find the door and got tired trying.
12 And the men said unto Lot, Hast thou here any besides? son in law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whatsoever thou hast in the city, bring them out of this place: Then the men said to Lot, "Have you any relatives here besides yourself? Gather your sons, your sons-in-law, your daughters, and everything you have in the city, and bring them out of this place." "gather" or "fetch"; tentatively suggesting "gather" as it applies more to people, while "fetch" applies to things (and commands to dogs)
13 For we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is waxen great before the face of the LORD; and the LORD hath sent us to destroy it. "We're going to destroy this place, because the outcry against them has swelled greatly in the sight of the LORD, and the LORD has sent us to destroy it completely."
14 And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons in law, which married his daughters, and said, Up, get you out of this place; for the LORD will destroy this city. But he seemed as one that mocked unto his sons in law. Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law, who had married his daughters. He said, "Wake up! Get out of this place! The LORD is going to destroy this city completely!" But his sons-in-law thought he was joking.
15 And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters, which are here; lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city. With the coming of the dawn, the Messengers hurried Lot. They said, "Get up, take your wife and your two daughters that are here, if you don't want to be swept up in the city's destruction." The word used for "here" literally means "found." Many other languages (French, for example) use an expression that translates as "to be found" to mean "to be [located]."
16 And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful unto him: and they brought him forth, and set him without the city. Lot dallied, so the Messengers grabbed Lot, his wife, and his two daughters by the hand, because the LORD had determined to spare them, and they hustled them out and set them outside the city.
17 And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said, Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed. Finally, when they had brought everyone out, they said, "Now run for your lives! Don't look behind you, and don't stay in the basin. Escape into the mountain, or you will be burned up!"
18 And Lot said unto them, Oh, not so, my Lord: And Lot told them, "Wait! Please, my Lord, I can't do that!"
19 Behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shewed unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil take me, and I die: "Look, I'm sure I've found grace in your sight, and I really appreciate your magnificent kindness in saving my life. But I can't escape to the mountain! Some evil might overtake me, and I'll die trying!"
20 Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one: Oh, let me escape thither, (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall live. "Look now: here's a city close enough to flee to, and a little one. Please let me escape there; it's only a little city, and I can make it there and live."
21 And he said unto him, See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow this city, for the which thou hast spoken. And He told him, "All right, I'll grant you this favor also, that I won't destroy this city that you spoke about."
22 Haste thee, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither. Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar. "Now hurry and escape there, because I can do nothing until you have gotten there." For that reason the city was named Zoar. Or literally, "Littletown."
23 The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar. The sun had risen high when Lot entered Zoar.
24 Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven; Then the LORD caused burning sulfur to fall from the LORD out of the sky,
25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground. and He utterly destroyed those cities, and the entire basin, and all who lived in the cities, and everything that grew on the ground.
26 But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt. But Lot's wife look back behind him, and was transformed into a monument of salt.
27 And Abraham gat up early in the morning to the place where he stood before the LORD: Abraham got up in the early morning to the place where he had stood in front of the LORD.
28 And he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace. He gazed on the surface of Sodom and Gomorrah, and on all the land of the valley, and stared. A great fume went up from that land, like the fumes from a lime kiln.
29 And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, when he overthrew the cities in the which Lot dwelt. It happened that when God destroyed the cities of the valley, God remembered Abraham, and had Lot brought out from the path of destruction, when He totally destroyed the cities in which Lot had lived.
30 And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar: and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters. Then Lot left Zoar and came to live in the mountain, with his two daughters, because he was afraid to stay in Zoar. He and his two daughters lived in a cave.
31 And the firstborn said unto the younger, Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth: Then the elder daughter said to the younger, "Our father is old, and there's not a man left on earth to be intimate with."
32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father. "Come on, let's give our father wine to drink, and we'll be intimate with him, so that we can keep our father's line alive." This is one of the rare contexts in which one may reasonably infer that the wine (Hebrew יין or yayin) was intoxicating.
33 And they made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose. So they gave their father wine to drink that night. Then the elder daughter lay down with their father, and he did not even know when she lay down beside him, or when she got up.
34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our Father. And so the next day, the elder said to the younger, "Look, I was intimate last night with my father. Now let's give him wine to drink tonight also, and you go in and lie with him, so that we can keep our father's line alive."
35 And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose. So they gave their father wine to drink that night as well. Then the younger one got up and lay with him, and he did not know when she lay down, nor when she got up.
36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father. In that way, both daughters became pregnant by their father.
37 And the firstborn bare a son, and called his name Moab: the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day. The firstborn bore a son, and named him Moab; he is the progenitor of the modern Moabites.
38 And the younger, she also bare a son, and called his name Benammi: the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day. The younger also bore a son, and named him Ben-Ammi; his is the progenitor of the modern Ammonites. The city of Amman, capital of Jordan, is named after this tribe.

Chapter 20

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the south country, and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. Abraham traveled from there toward the Negev, and lived between Kadesh and Shur, and stayed as a guest in Gerar.
2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah. Abraham said about his wife Sarah, "She is my sister." Then Abimelech, king of Gerar, sent for Sarah to marry her. "Abimelech" means "my father the king."
3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night, and said to him, Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the woman which thou hast taken; for she is a man's wife. But God came to Abimelech in a dream that night, and told him, "Look, you're as good as dead, on account of the woman you thought to marry, because she belongs to someone else."
4 But Abimelech had not come near her: and he said, Lord, wilt thou slay also a righteous nation? But Abimelech had not compromised her yet. So he said, "Lord, you're not going to kill innocent people over this, are you?"
5 Said he not unto me, She is my sister? and she, even she herself said, He is my brother: in the integrity of my heart and innocency of my hands have I done this. "He told me, 'She is my sister.' Besides, she herself said, 'He is my brother.' In all this I have acted with a sincere heart and innocent hands."
6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy heart; for I also withheld thee from sinning against me: therefore suffered I thee not to touch her. God told him in a dream, "Yes, I know that your heart's in the right place. So I had to stop you from sinning against Me, and that's why I didn't let you be intimate with her."
7 Now therefore restore the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine. "So now give the man his wife back. He is a prophet, and he will pray for you, and you will live. But if you don't give her back, know this: you'll be dead meat, you and all your people, too." Hebrew commonly repeats verbs for emphasis, as in the verb "to die" in this verse.
8 Therefore Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their ears: and the men were sore afraid. So Abimelech got up early in the morning, and called all his slaves, and briefed them thoroughly, and the men were very much afraid. Literally, "spoke all these things into their ears."
9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? and what have I offended thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done deeds unto me that ought not to be done. Then Abimelech called Abraham, and asked him, "What have you done to us? And what did I ever do to you, so that you should bring such a great sin on me and my kingdom? Men don't do things like that to other men!"
10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing? Abimelech said to Abraham further, "What possible grounds did you think you had to do this thing?" Literally, "What did you see,...?"
11 And Abraham said, Because I thought, Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me for my wife's sake. And Abraham said, "I told myself, 'There is no fear of God in this place, and they will kill me to have my wife.'"
12 And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife. "And in point of fact, she is my sister; she is my father's daughter, though not my mother's daughter, and so we were married."
13 And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, This is thy kindness which thou shalt shew unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me, He is my brother. "And so it happened that when God caused me to wander from my father's household, I told her, 'Please do me this kindness, that in every place where we come to say, you tell the people, "He is my brother."'"
14 And Abimelech took sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and womenservants, and gave them unto Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife. Abimelech took sheep, oxen, and male and female slaves, and gave them to Abraham, and gave him back his wife Sarah.
15 And Abimelech said, Behold, my land is before thee: dwell where it pleaseth thee. Abimelech also said, "Look, here's my land. You may live wherever you like."
16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver: behold, he is to thee a covering of the eyes, unto all that are with thee, and with all other: thus she was reproved. To Sarah he said, "Look, I've paid your brother a thousand silver pieces. He is like an eye-covering for you, for everyone with you, and for everyone else." Thus she was reprimanded.
17 So Abraham prayed unto God: and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bare children. So Abraham prayed to God. Then God healed Abimelech, his wife, and his female slaves, and they could bear children again.
18 For the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham's wife. (The LORD had restrained all women of childbearing age in Abimelech's household, on account of Sarah, Abraham's wife.) Literally, "restrained the wombs," a Hebrew idiom.

Chapter 21

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken. And the LORD visited Sarah as He said He would, and the LORD did for Sarah as He had spoken.
2 For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him. For Sarah fell pregnant, and bore to Abraham a son in his old age, at the appointed time of which God had spoken to him.
3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. Abraham named his son that was born to him from Sarah, Isaac Or literally, "He shall laugh."
4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him. Abraham had Isaac circumcised when he was eight days old, as God had instructed him to do.
5 And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him.
6 And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me. Sarah said, "God has made laughter for me, and everyone who hears about this will laugh along with me." The Hebrew word for "laugh" and "laughter" recalls exactly the name of Isaac.
7 And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck? for I have born him a son in his old age. And she said, "Who would have told Abraham that Sarah would ever nurse a son? I have born him a son in his old age."
8 And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned. The child grew up, and was weaned. Abraham held a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.
9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. And Sarah watched as the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had born to Abraham, making fun.
10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac. So she told Abraham, "Drive this slave woman and her son away from here! The son of this slave will not share the estate with my son! Not with Isaac!"
11 And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son. This whole affair was very difficult for Abraham to bear on account of his son.
12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called. So God told Abraham, "Don't let this situation with this boy and the slave-woman trouble you. Listen to Sarah's voice in everything she tells you. Your descendants will be reckoned through Isaac."
13 And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed. "But I will also make a nation from the slave-girl's son, because he is your descendant."
14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. So Abraham got up early in the morning, and took bread and a flask of water, and gave it to Hagar (setting it on her shoulder) and the child, and sent her away. She left, and wandered in the desert of Beer-sheba. Literally, "house of seven" or "seventh house."
15 And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. The water in the flask ran out, and she threw the child under a shrub.
16 And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. Then she went, and sat down about a bowshot away from him, because she said, "I don't want to see the child die." So she sat apart from him, raised her voice, and wept.
17 And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is. God heard the boy's voice, and the Messenger of God called Hagar out of heaven, and said to her, "What's the matter with you, Hagar? You mustn't worry. God has heard the boy's voice from where He is." Also known as the Angel of the Lord, a possible pre-incarnate manifestation of Jesus Christ
18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation. "Now get up, lift up the boy, and take him by the hand, because I'm going to make a great nation out of him."
19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. Then God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. She went to it, filled the flask with water, and gave some of it to the boy to drink.
20 And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. God was with the boy, and he grew up, and lived in the desert, and became a great bowman.
21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt. He lived in the Paran Desert, and his mother took for him a wife from Egypt.
22 And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech and Phichol the chief captain of his host spake unto Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest: As it happened, at that time King Abimelech, and Phichol his commander-in-chief, spoke to Abraham, saying, "God is with you in all that you do."
23 Now therefore swear unto me here by God that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son's son: but according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned. "So now, swear to me by God that you will not play me false, nor my son, nor my descendants, but just as I treated you kindly, I ask that you treat me with that same consideration, and also so treat the country where you have lived as a guest."
24 And Abraham said, I will swear. Abraham said, "I will swear."
25 And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of a well of water, which Abimelech's servants had violently taken away. Then Abraham rebuked Abimelech on account of a water well of which Abimelech's servants had violently dispossessed him.
26 And Abimelech said, I wot not who hath done this thing: neither didst thou tell me, neither yet heard I of it, but to day. Abimelech said, "I don't know who did this. You didn't tell me, and I didn't even hear about it until today."
27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them unto Abimelech; and both of them made a covenant. Abraham gave Abimelech a present of sheep and oxen, and they both made a solemn treaty. As ever, men made covenants in those days by splitting several animal bodies in saggital section and then walking between them, to signify that either man would be within his rights to do the same thing to the other for breaking that covenant.
28 And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves. Abraham set seven ewe lambs from his flock apart from the rest.
29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What mean these seven ewe lambs which thou hast set by themselves? Abimelech asked Abraham, "What is the meaning of these seven ewe lambs that you have set apart like that?"
30 And he said, For these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand, that they may be a witness unto me, that I have digged this well. And he said, "You may take these seven ewe lambs from my hand, to bear witness for me, that I was the one who dug this well."
31 Wherefore he called that place Beer-sheba; because there they sware both of them. For that reason he called the place Beer-sheba, because in that place both men swore. Beer-sheba literally means "house of seven."
32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba: then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines. In that manner they made a covenant at Beer-sheba. Then Abimelech got up, along with Phichol his commander-in-chief, and they returned to the country of the Avvites. The modern Gaza Strip, classically known as "Philistia" and later as "Palestine." The Avvites occupied the Strip first, and then a "Caphthorite" (Mycenaean, and most likely Cretan) expedition displaced them and lived there instead. The name of Philistines actually means "The Immigrants." Likely, both the Avvites and the later Caphthorites were invaders from the Greek islands. In Hebrew פלישת (philisth), means "invasion, incursion, inroad, overrun," etc. Thus "Philistine" means simply "Immigrant" and is not a true native name.
33 And Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. Abraham planted a stand of tamarisk in Beer-sheba, and there he called on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. The tamarisk, or salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima), commonly grows in thick stands on riverbanks. It is native to Eurasia and the Middle East but was introduced to the American Southwest near the year 1900.[1]
34 And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines' land many days. Abraham stayed several days in Avvite country.

Chapter 22

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. After all these things had taken place, God probed Abraham. He said to him, "Abraham!" And Abraham said, "Behold me."
2 And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. And He said, "Please take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah. Offer him there for an ascent offering on one of the mountains that I will point out to you." The phrase translated "burnt offering" actually translates as "ascent offering."
3 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. Abraham got up in the early morning, and saddled a donkey, and took two young men with him, along with his son Isaac. He split the wood for the ascent offering, and rose up and went to the place where God told him to go.
4 Then on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes, and could see the place from far away.
5 And Abraham said unto his young men, Abide ye here with the ass; and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you, Abraham told his young men, "Sit here with the donkey; my son and I will go further on and worship, and return to you."
6 And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went both of them together. Abraham took the wood he had prepared for the ascent offering, and placed it on the shoulders of his son Isaac. He took the fire in his hand, and a knife, and they were both going together.
7 And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? Isaac said to his father Abraham, "Father," and he said, "Behold me, my son." And he said, "Here's the fire and the wood. but where is the flockling for an ascent offering?"
8 And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering: so they went both of them together. Abraham said, "Son, God will provide for Himself a flockling for an ascent offering." And they were both going together. The repetition is typical Hebrew poetic form.
9 And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. They came to the place where God told him to come. There Abraham built an altar, and arranged the wood. Then he trussed his son Isaac and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood.
10 And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. Abraham was reaching out and taking the knife in order to slay his son,
11 And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. when the Messenger of the LORD called to him from the skies, saying, "Abraham! Abraham!" And Abraham said, "Behold me." The repetition could mean either that the Messenger, or Angel of the Lord, had to call him twice, or that the call was made with unusually heavy emphasis.
12 And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me. And He said, "Do not lay your hand on the young man, nor do anything to him. I know now that you fear God, and that you did not withhold your son, your only son, from Me."
13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. Abraham lifted his eyes and looked. To his surprise, he saw a ram caught in a thicket by his horns. Abraham went, took the ram, and offered him up as an ascent offering instead of his son.
14 And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah-jireh: as it is said to this day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen. Abraham called that place Jehovah-jireh. And to this day the proverb says, "In the mountain of the LORD it will be seen." Literally, "The LORD shall see"
15 And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, The Messenger of the LORD called to Abraham a second time out of the skies,
16 And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: saying, "In me I swear, says the LORD, that because you did this thing, and did not withhold your son, your only son,"
17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; "that I will bless you exceedingly, and multiply you exceedingly, like the stars in the skies, and like the sand on the seashore, and your descendants will possess the gate of their enemies."
18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice. "And all the ethnicities of the earth will find blessing in your Descendant, because you obeyed My voice." That Descendant is Jesus Christ.
19 So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beer-sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba. So Abraham returned to his young men, and they arose and went as a group to Beer-sheba, and Abraham made his dwelling in Beer-sheba. Literally, "house of seven." See Chapter 21 for how this place got its name.
20 And it came to pass after these things, that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she hath also born children unto thy brother Nahor; Eventually, after these things happened, this news came to Abraham: "Milcah has also given birth to sons for your brother Nahor."
21 Huz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram, Their names were Uz, his firstborn, his brother Buz, and Kemuel the father of Aram,
22 And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. and Chesed and Hazu and Pildash and Jidlaph and Bethuel. "Hazu" is more in keeping with Hebrew convention than "Hazo."
23 And Bethuel begat Rebekah: these eight Milcah did bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother. Bethuel became the father of Rebekah. Milcah bore these eight men to Nahor, brother of Abraham.
24 And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, she bare also Tebah, and Gaham, and Thahash, and Maachah. Nahor had a concubine named Reumah, who also gave birth to Tebah, Gaham, Thahash, and Maachah.

Chapter 23

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty years old: these were the years of the life of Sarah. Sarah lived for 127 years.
2 And Sarah died in Kirjath-arba; the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan: and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. Sarah died in Kirjath-arba, which is Hebron in the country of Canaan. Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and weep for her. Kirjath-arba literally means "City of Four" or "Fourth City."
3 And Abraham stood up from before his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying, Abram stood up from before his dead wife, and sent this message to the Hittites: Literally, "sons of Heth."
4 I am a stranger and a sojourner with you: give me a possession of a buryingplace with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight. "I am a foreigner and a guest in your country. Give me a burial ground in your country, so that I may bury my dead out of sight."
5 And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him, The Sons of Heth answered Abraham back:
6 Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead. "Hear us, my lord. You are a prince of God in our midst. You can have your choice of our tombs for burying your dead; not a man among us will refuse to let you have his tomb for burying your dead."
7 And Abraham stood up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, even to the children of Heth. Abraham arose, and abased himself before the people of the land, and to the Sons of Heth.
8 And he communed with them, saying, If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight; hear me, and intreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar, He sent them this message: "If it is agreeable to you that I should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and negotiate for me with Ephron son of Zohar,"
9 That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; for as much money as it is worth he shall give it me for a possession of a buryingplace amongst you. "so that he grant to me the cave of Machpelah, which belongs to him, and is in the end of his field. I will pay its full price in silver, and he will grant it to me for building a tomb in your country." The Hebrew word כסף or kaseph can mean "silver" or, more generically, "money." Silver was the more common medium of exchange; for larger purchases, gold was used.
10 And Ephron dwelt among the children of Heth: and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the audience of the children of Heth, even of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying, Ephron lived in country of the Sons of Heth. Ephron the Hittite declared to Abraham, in the hearing of the Sons of Heth, and all those who were entering his city's gate, saying, This sort of declaration is as official as it got, short of cutting a covenant.
11 Nay, my lord, hear me: the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it thee; in the presence of the sons of my people give I it thee: bury thy dead. "Oh, no, my lord. Listen to me: I will give you that field free of charge, and the cave in it. I declare this before all my people. Bury your dead."
12 And Abraham bowed down himself before the people of the land. Abraham abased himself before the people of that country.
13 And he spake unto Ephron in the audience of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt give it, I pray thee, hear me: I will give thee money for the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there. He declared to Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, saying, "I insist: I will pay the full price in silver for the field. Take it from me, and I will bury my dead there."
14 And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, Ephron said to Abraham in answer,
15 My lord, hearken unto me: the land is worth four hundred shekels of silver; what is that betwixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead. "Hear me, my lord: the price of the land is four hundred silver shekels. That's a trifle between me and you. So bury your dead."
16 And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant. Abraham accepted Ephron's price. He weighed out the silver, as he had said he would: four hundred shekels of silver, commercial grade.
17 And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure The field of Ephron, in Machpelah, which is before Mamre--the field, the cave in it, and all the trees in the field and within its boundary,
18 Unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city. were acquired by Abraham in the presence of the Sons of Heth and all those who were entering at the city gate.
19 And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre: the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. After this, Abraham buried his wife Sarah in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre, also known as Hebron in the land of Canaan.
20 And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a buryingplace by the sons of Heth. The field, and the cave in it, were deeded to Abraham for a tomb by the Hittites.

Chapter 24

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Abraham was old, and well stricken in age: and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things. Abraham lived to a ripe old age, and the LORD blessed Abraham in everything.
2 And Abraham said unto his eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he had, Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh: Abraham said to the oldest servant in his household, the steward of everything he had, "Please place your hand under my thigh." This very intimate posture is the posture of an oath binding between father and son, or between master and slave.
3 And I will make thee swear by the LORD, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell: "I adjure you by the LORD, God of the skies and God of the earth, not to take a wife for my son from among the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I am living."
4 But thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son Isaac. "You are to go to my homeland, and my kindred, and there find a wife for my son Isaac.
5 And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: must I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou camest? The servant said to him, "Suppose she is not willing to follow me to this land? Shall I bring your son again to the land that you came from?"
6 And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou that thou bring not my son thither again. Abraham told him, "No! Don't ever bring my son to that land again."
7 The LORD God of heaven, which took me from my father's house, and from the land of my kindred, and which spake unto me, and that sware unto me, saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land; he shall send his angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife unto my son from thence. "The LORD God of heaven, who took me out of my father's household and from the land of my kindred, and who spoke and swore to me, saying, "I will give this land to your descendants," will send His Messenger in front of you, and you will take a woman for my son from there."
8 And if the woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath: only bring not my son thither again. "If the woman is not willing to follow you, then you will be held harmless from my oath. But you must not bring my son there again."
9 And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning that matter. Then the servant placed his hand under his master Abraham's thigh, and swore to him on this subject.
10 And the servant took ten camels of the camels of his master, and departed; for all the goods of his master were in his hand: and he arose, and went to Mesopotamia, unto the city of Nahor. The servant took ten camels from among his master's camels, and left. He held all his master's goods in his hand. He arose and went to Aram-Naharaim, to the city of Nahor. Aram-Naharaim is modern Mesopotamia. Some of this territory would belong to the Syrian and Seleucid Empires.
11 And he made his camels to kneel down without the city by a well of water at the time of the evening, even the time that women go out to draw water. He made his camels kneel down outside the city, near a water well, in the evening, which was when the women went out to draw water.
12 And he said, O LORD God of my master Abraham, I pray thee, send me good speed this day, and shew kindness unto my master Abraham. He said, "O LORD God of my master Abraham, please meet me well this day, and do kindness to my mater Abraham."
13 Behold, I stand here by the well of water; and the daughters of the men of the city come out to draw water: "Look: I'm standing here next to a water well, and the daughters of the people of the city are coming out to draw water."
14 And let it come to pass, that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink; and she shall say, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also: let the same be she that thou hast appointed for thy servant Isaac; and thereby shall I know that thou hast shewed kindness unto my master. "Let it happen that the maiden to whom I say, 'Please stretch out your jar, so that I may drink,' and she says, 'Drink, and I will moreover give your camels water to drink,' let that one be the right one for Your servant Isaac, and in that way I will know that You have done kindness to my master."
15 And it came to pass, before he had done speaking, that, behold, Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel, son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother, with her pitcher upon her shoulder. And as it happened, before he had finished speaking, Rebekah came out, the one born to Bethuel son of Milcah, wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Her jar was on her shoulder.
16 And the damsel was very fair to look upon, a virgin, neither had any man known her: and she went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, and came up. The maiden was exceedingly beautiful to look at, and a virgin, and no man had had any relationship with her. She went down to the well, filled her jar, and came up.
17 And the servant ran to meet her, and said, Let me, I pray thee, drink a little water of thy pitcher. The servant ran to meet her, and said, "Please let me drink a little water from your jar."
18 And she said, Drink, my lord: and she hasted, and let down her pitcher upon her hand, and gave him drink. She said, "Drink, my lord," and hastened to let down her jar on her hand, and gave him water to drink.
19 And when she had done giving him drink, she said, I will draw water for thy camels also, until they have done drinking. When she had finished giving him drink, she said, "Moreover, I will draw water for your camels, until they have finished drinking."
20 And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher into the trough, and ran again unto the well to draw water, and drew for all his camels. She hastened to empty her jar into the watering trough, and ran again to the well to draw water, and drew enough water for all his camels.
21 And the man wondering at her held his peace, to wit whether the LORD had made his journey prosperous or not. The man was struck speechless, and wanted to know whether the LORD had granted him success or not. Literally, "prospered his way."
22 And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man took a golden earring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold; And so it happened, when the camels had finished drinking, the man took a gold pendant weighing half a shekel, and two bracelets for her hands, weighing together ten shekels of gold,
23 And said, Whose daughter art thou? tell me, I pray thee: is there room in thy father's house for us to lodge in? and said, "Whose daughter are you? Please tell me: does your father's house have a place for us to lodge in?
24 And she said unto him, I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, which she bare unto Nahor. She told him, "I am the daughter of Bethuel son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor."
25 She said moreover unto him, We have both straw and provender enough, and room to lodge in. She further told him, "We have plenty of crushed straw and feed, and room to lodge in."
26 And the man bowed down his head, and worshipped the LORD. The man abased himself, and worshipped the LORD.
27 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of my master Abraham, who hath not left destitute my master of his mercy and his truth: I being in the way, the LORD led me to the house of my master's brethren. He said, "Blessed be the LORD God of my master Abraham, who has not forsaken my master with His kindness and faithfulness. The LORD has guided me on my way to the house of my master's brothers."
28 And the damsel ran, and told them of her mother's house these things. The maiden ran, and told these matters to the members of her mother's household.
29 And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban: and Laban ran out unto the man, unto the well. Rebekah had a brother, named Laban. Laban ran outside the city to the man, and to the well.
30 And it came to pass, when he saw the earring and bracelets upon his sister's hands, and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, Thus spake the man unto me; that he came unto the man; and, behold, he stood by the camels at the well. It happened, when he saw the pendant and bracelets on his sister's hands, and heard the words of his sister Rebekah, saying, "This is what the man told me," he came to the man, and stood next to the camels at the well.
31 And he said, Come in, thou blessed of the LORD; wherefore standest thou without? for I have prepared the house, and room for the camels. He said, "Come in, you who are blessed by the LORD. Why are you standing outside? I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels."
32 And the man came into the house: and he ungirded his camels, and gave straw and provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the men's feet that were with him. The man came into the house, and he unfastened the camels' gear, and provided crushed straw and feed for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the feet of the men who traveled with him.
33 And there was set meat before him to eat: but he said, I will not eat, until I have told mine errand. And he said, Speak on. Food was set before him, but he said, "I shall not eat until I have said what I came to say." And his host said, "Say on."
34 And he said, I am Abraham's servant. He said, "I am the steward of Abraham."
35 And the LORD hath blessed my master greatly; and he is become great: and he hath given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and menservants, and maidservants, and camels, and asses. "The LORD has blessed my master exceedingly, and he has become very rich and powerful. He has given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and menservants, and maidservants, and camels, and donkeys. The clear naming of the different precious metals is a further measure of Abraham's wealth.
36 And Sarah my master's wife bare a son to my master when she was old: and unto him hath he given all that he hath. "Sarah, my master's wife, bore my master a son in her old age; this son is his sole heir."
37 And my master made me swear, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife to my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell: "My master adjured me, saying, "You must not take a wife for my son from among the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I am living."
38 But thou shalt go unto my father's house, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son. "You must go to my father's household, and my family, and take a wife for my son."
39 And I said unto my master, Peradventure the woman will not follow me. "I said to my master, "What if the woman is not willing to go after me?"
40 And he said unto me, The LORD, before whom I walk, will send his angel with thee, and prosper thy way; and thou shalt take a wife for my son of my kindred, and of my father's house: He said, "The LORD, before Whom I walk, will send His Messenger with you, and bring you success, and you will take a wife for my son from my family, and from my father's household."
41 Then shalt thou be clear from this my oath, when thou comest to my kindred; and if they give not thee one, thou shalt be clear from my oath. "Then you will be held harmless from my imprecation, when you come to my family, and if they will not give you one, you will be held harmless from my imprecation." Today a lawyer would say, "You will be indemnified and held harmless."
42 And I came this day unto the well, and said, O LORD God of my master Abraham, if now thou do prosper my way which I go; "Today I came to the well, and said, 'O LORD God of my master Abraham, if you are going to grant me success,...'"
43 Behold, I stand by the well of water; and it shall come to pass, that when the virgin cometh forth to draw water, and I say to her, Give me, I pray thee, a little water of thy pitcher to drink; "'...look: I am standing by a water well, and it will happen that when a virgin comes out to draw water, and I ask her, "Please give me a little water to drink from your jar,"...'"
44 And she say to me, Both drink thou, and I will also draw for thy camels: let the same be the woman whom the LORD hath appointed out for my master's son. "'...and she says to me, "Drink, and moreover I will draw for your camels," let that one be the woman whom the LORD finds to be the right one for my master's son.'"
45 And before I had done speaking in mine heart, behold, Rebekah came forth with her pitcher on her shoulder; and she went down unto the well, and drew water: and I said unto her, Let me drink, I pray thee. "Before I had finished speaking in my heart, here was Rebekah coming out with her jar on her shoulder. She went down to the well, and drew water. I said to her, 'Please let me drink.'"
46 And she made haste, and let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and said, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also: so I drank, and she made the camels drink also. "And she hastened to let her jar down from her shoulder, and said, "Drink, and I will also give water to your camels to drink." So I drank, and she watered the camels, too."
47 And I asked her, and said, Whose daughter art thou? And she said, The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor's son, whom Milcah bare unto him: and I put the earring upon her face, and the bracelets upon her hands. "I asked her, 'Whose daughter are you?' She said, 'The daughter of Bethuel, son of Nahor, whom Milcah bore to him.' So I placed the pendant on her nose and the bracelets on her hands."
48 And I bowed down my head, and worshipped the LORD, and blessed the LORD God of my master Abraham, which had led me in the right way to take my master's brother's daughter unto his son. "Then I bowed my head, and worshipped the LORD, and blessed the LORD of my master Abraham, Who had guided me in the true way to take my master's brother's daughter to his son."
49 And now if ye will deal kindly and truly with my master, tell me: and if not, tell me; that I may turn to the right hand, or to the left. "So now if you will deal kindly and faithfully with my master, tell me, and if not, tell me that, so that I may turn to the right or the left."
50 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, The thing proceedeth from the LORD: we cannot speak unto thee bad or good. Laban and Bethuel said in answer, "This matter comes from the LORD; we cannot speak evil or good to you about it."
51 Behold, Rebekah is before thee, take her, and go, and let her be thy master's son's wife, as the LORD hath spoken. "Look: Rebekah is face-to-face with you. Take her, and go, and let her be the wife of your master's son, as the LORD has spoken."
52 And it came to pass, that, when Abraham's servant heard their words, he worshipped the LORD, bowing himself to the earth. And so it happened that when Abraham's servant heard their words, he bowed down to the earth, to the LORD.
53 And the servant brought forth jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave them to Rebekah: he gave also to her brother and to her mother precious things. The servant brought out articles of silver and gold, and clothes, and gave them to Rebekah. He also gave token-presents to her brother and her mother. These "articles" are not necessarily jewels, though they probably included them.
54 And they did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him, and tarried all night; and they rose up in the morning, and he said, Send me away unto my master. They ate and drank, he and his men, and spent the night there. In the morning they arose, and he said, "Send me on my way to my master."
55 And her brother and her mother said, Let the damsel abide with us a few days, at the least ten; after that she shall go. Her brother and mother said, "Let the maiden stay with us for ten days or so, and afterward she will go."
56 And he said unto them, Hinder me not, seeing the LORD hath prospered my way; send me away that I may go to my master. He said to them, "You must not delay me, because after all, the LORD has brought me my success. Send me away, so that I may go to my master."
57 And they said, We will call the damsel, and inquire at her mouth. They said, "We will call the maiden and ask her straight-out."
58 And they called Rebekah, and said unto her, Wilt thou go with this man? And she said, I will go. They called Rebekah, and said to her, "Are you willing to go with this man?" And she said, "I will go."
59 And they sent away Rebekah their sister, and her nurse, and Abraham's servant, and his men. So they sent away their sister Rebekah, and her nursemaid, and Abraham's servant, and his men.
60 And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, Thou art our sister, be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate them. They blessed Rebekah, and said to her, "You are our sister; may you become the mother of thousands of myriads, and may your descendants possess the gate of those that hate them."
61 And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man: and the servant took Rebekah, and went his way. Rebekah arose, with her maidservants, and they, riding on the camels, followed the man. Thus the servant took Rebekah and went on his way.
62 And Isaac came from the way of the well Lahai-roi; for he dwelt in the south country. Isaac came from the way of the Well of Lachai-Rai; he was living in the Negev.
63 And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the eventide: and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, the camels were coming. Isaac was accustomed to go out to worship in the field in the evening. He lifted up his eyes, and saw a troop of camels coming.
64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she lighted off the camel. Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she dismounted from the camel. Literally, "fell."
65 For she had said unto the servant, What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And the servant had said, It is my master: therefore she took a vail, and covered herself. She had said to the servant, "Who is this man walking in the field tomeet us?" The servant had said, "It is my master." So she took a veil and covered herself with it.
66 And the servant told Isaac all things that he had done. The servant told Isaac all the things that he did.
67 And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her: and Isaac was comforted after his mother's death. Isaac brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah. He took Rebekah, and she became his wife, and he loved her, and so was comforted after his mother's death.

Chapter 25

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah. Abraham took another wife, and her name was Keturah.
2 And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.
3 And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan. The sons of Dedan were Asshurim, Letushim, and Leummim.
4 And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah. The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.
5 And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. Abraham bequeathed the bulk of his estate to Isaac.
6 But unto the sons of the concubines, which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country. But to the sons of Abraham's concubines, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from his son Isaac while he was still alive, eastward to eastern lands. In order to forestall any disputes over the inheritance, Abraham pays remittances to his illegitimate sons.
7 And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years. In all, Abraham lived for 175 years. The original Hebrew clearly says "seventy and five." The "threescore and fifteen" notation is Elizabethan English and derives partly from Britain's Celtic heritage. Celtic numbers had a base of twenty; this persists in more pronounced form in the French language. For example, the French word for "eighty" is quatre-vingts, or literally, "fourscore."
8 Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people. Abraham expired in a ripe old age, being an old man who had lived a full life. He was gathered to his people.
9 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite. This field faces Mamre.
10 The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife. This is the field that Abraham purchased from the Hittites. Abraham was buried there, with his wife Sarah.
11 And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by the well Lahai-roi. Eventually after the death of Abraham, God blessed his son Isaac. Isaac was living next to the well of Lachai-rai.
12 Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham: Herewith the annals of Ishmael, son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bore to Abraham:
13 And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their genealogical annals:
14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,
15 Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:
16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations. These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, according to their court and domiciliary records: twelve princes over their clans.
17 And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people. In all, Ishmael lived for 137 years. He expired, and was gathered to his people.
18 And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren. They camped from Havilah as far as Shur, which faces Egypt, as you come toward Assyria; and he died before the faces of all his brothers.
19 And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begat Isaac: Here ends the Testimony of Isaac, son of Abraham.

(The annals of Jacob)

Abraham was the father of Isaac.

20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padan-aram, the sister to Laban the Syrian. Isaac was forty years old when he married Rebekah, daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padan-aram, sister of Laban the Syrian. "Aram" is an ancient name for Syria.
21 And Isaac intreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren: and the LORD was intreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived. Isaac entreated the LORD, because she was barren; and the LORD was entreated by him, and his wife Rebekah fell pregnant.
22 And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the LORD. Twin sons actually bruised one another inside her, and she said, "What is happening to me?" And she went to inquire from the LORD.
23 And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger. The LORD told her, "Two ethnicities are in your womb, and two ethnic progenitors will be parted from your bowels. The one folk will be stronger than the other folk, and the older will serve the younger. The word rendered "womb" is the generic "belly." For "older" and "younger," the Hebrew actually translates as "grand" and "inferior."
24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. When her gestative days were fulfilled, twins were found in her womb.
25 And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau. The first came out ruddy, and covered all over like a fur coat. They gave him the name Esau. Literally, "Red."
26 And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them. After that his brother came out, his hand holding Esau's heel. His name was given as Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when she bore them. "Jacob" means "grasper by the heel."
27 And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents. When the boys grew up, Esau became a skilled game hunter and a man of the field. Jacob became a man of flawless skin, living in tents.
28 And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebekah loved Jacob. Isaac loved Esau, because Esau gave him wild game to eat. Rebekah loved Jacob. There is actually little Scriptural warrant to assume, from this verse, that the usual game meat that Esau served to Isaac was venison. The "venison" idea could be an Elizabethan interpolation, because deer and especially the animal called "elk" in Europe (and moose in North America) were the most common game animal in England.
29 And Jacob sod pottage: and Esau came from the field, and he was faint: Jacob was making a stew one day. Esau came in from the field, and was close to fainting.
30 And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom. Esau said to Jacob, "Please feed me some of that red stuff! I'm starving!" From that day forward he was called Edom. Edom means "famished."
31 And Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birthright. Jacob said, "Sell me your birthright today." The birthright was the right of primogeniture.
32 And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point to die: and what profit shall this birthright do to me? Esau said, "Look, I'm about to die. What good will a birthright do me?"
33 And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he sware unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. Jacob said, "Swear to me this day." And he swore to him, and sold his birthright to Jacob.
34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and went his way: thus Esau despised his birthright. Then Jacob gave Esau bread and lentil stew to eat, and he ate and drank, and arose and went on his way. This was how little regard Esau showed for his birthright.

References

  1. Stevens LE, "Exotic Tamarisk on the Colorado Plateau," Land Use History of North America, accessed November 18, 2009.
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