Genesis 26-34 (Translated)

From Conservapedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Chapter 26

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And there was a famine in the land, beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham. And Isaac went unto Abimelech king of the Philistines unto Gerar. Famine struck the land, a different event from the former famine that had happened in the days of Abraham. Isaac went to Abimelech king of the Avvites, toward Gerar. Traditionally translated as "king of the Philistines." Deuteronomy 2:23 says that the Avvites lived in the Gaza Strip until a later "Caphthorite" or Mycenaean invasion (probably from Crete) drove them out; the Cretans or "Sea Peoples" continued as the "Philistines" that contended with Judges Shamgar, Jephthah, and Samson, and Kings Saul and David. In fact, the name Philistine (Hebrew פלישתי or philisth) means "one who invades or overruns or makes inroads into a territory", hence an "immigrant."
2 And the LORD appeared unto him, and said, Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land which I shall tell thee of: The LORD appeared to him, and said, "Do not go down toward Egypt. Encamp in the land that I will point out to you."
3 Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, I will give all these countries, and I will perform the oath which I sware unto Abraham thy father; "Sojourn in this land, and I will be with you, and will bless you, for to you, and to your descendants, I will give all these lands, and I will carry out the oath I swore to your father Abraham."
4 And I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; "I will increase your descendants like the stars in heaven, and will give to your descendants all these lands, and all the ethnic groups of the earth will be blessed through Your Descendant,..." The particular Descendant here in view is Jesus Christ.
5 Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws. "...inasmuch as Abraham listened to My Voice, kept My charge, and followed My instructions, and My statutes and laws."
6 And Isaac dwelt in Gerar: So Isaac lived in Gerar.
7 And the men of the place asked him of his wife; and he said, She is my sister: for he feared to say, She is my wife; lest, said he, the men of the place should kill me for Rebekah; because she was fair to look upon. The men of the place asked him about his wife, and he said, "She is my sister." He was afraid to say, "She is my wife," because he said to himself, "The men of this place would kill me for Rebekah, because she is so lovely."
8 And it came to pass, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his wife. And it happened, when he had been there many days, Abimelech king of the Avvites looked through the window of his palace, and saw something strange: Isaac making sport with his wife Rebekah.
9 And Abimelech called Isaac, and said, Behold, of a surety she is thy wife: and how saidst thou, She is my sister? And Isaac said unto him, Because I said, Lest I die for her. Abimelech called Isaac, and said, "Wait a minute: this woman is your wife, isn't she? So why did you say, 'She is my sister'?" And Isaac said, "I was afraid I might die on her account."
10 And Abimelech said, What is this thou hast done unto us? one of the people might lightly have lien with thy wife, and thou shouldest have brought guiltiness upon us. Abimelech said, "What have you done to us? One of my people might have thought nothing of taking your wife to bed with him, and you would have brought guilt on us."
11 And Abimelech charged all his people, saying, He that toucheth this man or his wife shall surely be put to death. Abimelech instructed his people, saying, "Anyone who touches this man or his wife will incur a sentence of execution." The Hebrew repeats the concept of "put to death" for emphasis.
12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, and received in the same year an hundredfold: and the LORD blessed him. Isaac sowed barley in that land, and in that year he reaped a hundredfold harvest. And the LORD blessed him.
13 And the man waxed great, and went forward, and grew until he became very great: The man grew great, and went forward, and grew in wealth until he was very great indeed.
14 For he had possession of flocks, and possessions of herds, and great store of servants: and the Philistines envied him. He acquired flocks, and herds, and a great many servants, and the Avvites were jealous of him.
15 For all the wells which his father's servants had digged in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had stopped them, and filled them with earth. All the wells that his father's servants had delved in the days of his father Abraham, the Avvites had stopped up and filled with soil.
16 And Abimelech said unto Isaac, Go from us; for thou art much mightier than we. Abimelech said to Isaac, "Leave us, because you are much mightier than we are."
17 And Isaac departed thence, and pitched his tent in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt there. So Isaac departed from there, and encamped in the watershed of Gerar, and lived there.
18 And Isaac digged again the wells of water, which they had digged in the days of Abraham his father; for the Philistines had stopped them after the death of Abraham: and he called their names after the names by which his father had called them. Then Isaac re-delved the water wells that they had delved in the days of his father Abraham (the Avvites had stopped them up after the death of Abraham), and he gave them the same names that his father had given them.
19 And Isaac's servants digged in the valley, and found there a well of springing water. As Isaac's servants delved in the watershed, they found there a copious wellspring.
20 And the herdmen of Gerar did strive with Isaac's herdmen, saying, The water is ours: and he called the name of the well Esek; because they strove with him. The shepherds of Gerar contended against the shepherds of Isaac, saying, "This water is ours!" Isaac called that wellspring Esek, because they behaved in an extortionate manner toward him. The name "Esek" is very close to the Hebrew word meaning "to extort."
21 And they digged another well, and strove for that also:and he called the name of it Sitnah. They delved another well,l and fought over that one also. They called that well Sitnah.
22 And he removed from thence, and digged another well; and for that they strove not: and he called the name of it Rehoboth; and he said, For now the LORD hath made room for us, and we shall be fruitful in the land. Isaac struck camp and left that place, and delved another well. They did not fight over that one, so Isaac called that well Rehoboth, saying, "Now the LORD has made room for us, and we will be fruitful in the land." "Rehoboth" is close in Hebrew spelling to the word for "widen" or "make room."
23 And he went up from thence to Beer-sheba. He went up from there to Beer-sheba. "House of Seven"; see Chapter 21.
24 And the LORD appeared unto him the same night, and said, I am the God of Abraham thy father: fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham's sake. The LORD appeared to him that very night, and said, "I am the God of Abraham your father. Do not be afraid. I am with you, and will bless you, and will increase your descendants for the sake of my servant Abraham."
25 And he builded an altar there, and called upon the name of the LORD and pitched his tent there: and there Isaac's servants digged a well. He built an altar there, and called in the name of the LORD and pitched his tent there. There Isaac's servants dug another well.
26 Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath one of his friends, and Phichol the chief captain of his army. Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, with Ahuzzath his associate and Phichol his chief of staff.
27 And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me, and have sent me away from you? Isaac said to him,"Why are you coming to me? I thought you hated me and sent me away from you."
28 And they said, We saw certainly that the LORD was with thee: and we said, Let there be now an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covenant with thee; They said, "We could readily see that the LORD was with you, and we said, "Let us please have a pact between us, between us and you. Let us cut a covenant with you." Abimelech is asking for a non-aggression pact.
29 That thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace: thou art now the blessed of the LORD. "You will not harm us, as we have not touched you, and we have done nothing but good for you, and sent you away in peace. You are the blessed one of the LORD."
30 And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink. He made a feast for them, and they ate and drank,
31 And they rose up betimes in the morning, and sware one to another: and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace. They rose up early in the morning, and swore to one another as brothers. Isaac sent them away, and they left him in peace.
32 And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac's servants came, and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him, We have found water. That very day, Isaac's servants came, and told him about the well they had delved, and told him, "We have found water."
33 And he called it Shebah: therefore the name of the city is Beer-sheba unto this day. He called it Sheba [or literally, "seven"]. That is why the city is named Beer-sheba to this day. "Sheba" means "seven." This probably refers to the earlier pact of the seven sheep. The city name means "House of Seven."
34 And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite: Esau was forty years old when he married Judith daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath daughter of Elon the Hittite.
35 Which were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah. These marriages made Isaac and Rebekah very unhappy.

Chapter 27

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim, so that he could not see, he called Esau his eldest son, and said unto him, My son: and he said unto him, Behold, here am I. Eventually Isaac grew old, and his eyes grew dim so that he was nearly blind. He called Esau his elder son, and said to him, "My son." And he said to him, "Behold me."
2 And he said, Behold now, I am old, I know not the day of my death: And he said, "Please pay attention: I am old, and I don't know how much longer I will live." Literally, "I don't know the day of my death."
3 Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and take me some venison; "So please take your hunting gear, your quiver and bow, go out into the field, and take me some game." The particular species is never mentioned, and therefore there is no Scriptural warrant for supposing that the game was necessarily venison. That deer was what was meant by "game" depends on extra-Biblical evidence of what sort of game animal was the most common in that land.
4 And make me savoury meat, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die. "Make me some tasty foods like those I love, and bring it to me, so that I may eat, so that my soul may bless you before I die."
5 And Rebekah heard when Isaac spake to Esau his son. And Esau went to the field to hunt for venison, and to bring it. Rebekah heard Isaac speaking to his son Esau. Esau went to the field to hunt for game, and bring it.
6 And Rebekah spake unto Jacob her son, saying, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto Esau thy brother, saying, Rebekah spoke to her son Jacob, "Listen: I heard your father speaking to your brother Esau. He said,..."
7 Bring me venison, and make me savoury meat, that I may eat, and bless thee before the LORD before my death. "'Bring me some game, and make me some tasty foods, so that I may eat and bless you before the LORD before I die.'"
8 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice according to that which I command thee. "So listen carefully, my son, to my voice as I instruct you:"
9 Go now to the flock, and fetch me from thence two good kids of the goats; and I will make them savoury meat for thy father, such as he loveth: "Please go to the flock, and fetch me from there two good goat kids. I will make tasty foods from them for your father, of the kind that he loves."
10 And thou shalt bring it to thy father, that he may eat, and that he may bless thee before his death. "Bring them to your father, so that he may eat, and so that he may bless you before his death."
11 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man: Jacob said to his mother Rebekah, "Look, my brother Esau is a hairy man, and compared to him I am slick."
12 My father peradventure will feel me, and I shall seem to him as a deceiver; and I shall bring a curse upon me, and not a blessing. "Suppose my father feels me? I'll become a con artist in his eyes, and I'll bring a slighting on myself, not a blessing."
13 And his mother said unto him, Upon me be thy curse, my son: only obey my voice, and go fetch me them. His mother told him, "I'll make good whatever slighting you receive. Just do as I say, and fetch me [those goat kids]."
14 And he went, and fetched, and brought them to his mother: and his mother made savoury meat, such as his father loved. So he went, and fetched [the goat kids], and brought them to his mother, and his mother made tasty foods of the kind that his father loved.
15 And Rebekah took goodly raiment of her eldest son Esau, which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son: Rebekah took some of her eldest son Esau's best clothes that she had with her in the house-tent, and put them on her younger son Jacob. The word translated "house" probably means "a tent as big as a house."
16 And she put the skins of the kids of the goats upon his hands, and upon the smooth of his neck: Then she put the goat-kid skins on his hands, and on the slick part of his neck.
17 And she gave the savoury meat and the bread, which she had prepared, into the hand of her son Jacob. Then she placed the tasty foods and the bread that she had prepared, into her son Jacob's hands.
18 And he came unto his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I; who art thou, my son? He came to his father, and said, "Father." And he said, "Behold me. Now who are you, my son?"
19 And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau thy firstborn; I have done according as thou badest me: arise, I pray thee, sit and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me. Jacob said to his father, "I am Esau your firstborn. I have done as you told me. Please sit down and eat from my game catch, so that your soul may bless me." Jacob starts off wrong: impersonating his elder brother, and offering tame meat instead of wild game. Any game hunter could tell the difference immediately; that Isaac could not, is a back-handed compliment of Rebekah's skill as a cook.
20 And Isaac said unto his son, How is it that thou hast found it so quickly, my son? And he said, Because the LORD thy God brought it to me. Isaac said to his son, "How could you find it so fast, my son?" And he said, "Because the LORD your God brought it before me." Another lie.
21 And Isaac said unto Jacob, Come near, I pray thee, that I may feel thee, my son, whether thou be my very son Esau or not. Isaac said to Jacob, "Please come closer, so that I can feel you, my son, and tell whether you are really my son Esau or not."
22 And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said, The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau. Jacob came close to his father Isaac, and he felt him, and said, "The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau." Repaired faulty parallelism. Hebrew would never make that mistake, because Hebrew possessives always follow the names of their possessors.
23 And he discerned him not, because his hands were hairy, as his brother Esau's hands: so he blessed him. And he failed to recognize him, because his hands were hairy, like his brother Esau's hands. So he blessed him.
24 And he said, Art thou my very son Esau? And he said, I am. He said, "Are you indeed my son Esau?" And he said, "I am." Another lie.
25 And he said, Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my son's venison, that my soul may bless thee. And he brought it near to him, and he did eat: and he brought him wine, and he drank. And he said, "Bring it close to me, and I will eat this portion of my son's game, so that my soul will bless you." And he brought it close to him, and he ate, and he brought him wine, and he drank. The wine didn't have to be fermented; the fix was in because Isaac was nearly blind.
26 And his father Isaac said unto him, Come near now, and kiss me, my son. And his father Isaac said to him, "Please come close and kiss me, my son."
27 And he came near, and kissed him: and he smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, and said, See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the LORD hath blessed: Jacob came close, and kissed Isaac, and Isaac smelled the scent of his clothes, and blessed him, and said, "See, the scent of my son is like the scent of a field that the LORD has blessed."
28 Therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine: "So God will give you a sample of the dew of heaven, and the oils of the earth, and an abundance of grain and grape juice." The word rendered "dew" is actually "night-mist," an appropriate name, because dew settles on the ground at night. The word traditionally rendered "wine" is not yayin here, but thirsh, meaning grape juice.
29 Let people serve thee, and nations bow down to thee: be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's sons bow down to thee: cursed be every one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that blesseth thee. "Peoples will serve you, and national progenitors will bow down to you. You will be master of your brothers, and your mother's sons will bow down to you. They that curse you will be cursed, and they that bless you will be blessed." There is no reason to suppose that Esau would have gotten exactly this blessing if Jacob had dealt honestly. Isaac was almost certainly a prophet, and would therefore speak the truth about the future of the one he was speaking to, even if he didn't recognize him.

30

And it came to pass, as soon as Isaac had made an end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob was yet scarce gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. Then it happened that when Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, and Jacob had barely gone out from the presence of his father Isaac, his brother Esau came in from his hunt.
31 And he also had made savoury meat, and brought it unto his father, and said unto his father, Let my father arise, and eat of his son's venison, that thy soul may bless me. He had, moreover, made his tasty foods, and was bringing them to his father. He said to his father, "Rise, father, and eat of your son's game, so that your soul may bless me."
32 And Isaac his father said unto him, Who art thou? And he said, I am thy son, thy firstborn Esau. His father Isaac said to him, "Who are you?" And he said, "I am your firstborn son, Esau."
33 And Isaac trembled very exceedingly, and said, Who? where is he that hath taken venison, and brought it me, and I have eaten of all before thou camest, and have blessed him? yea, and he shall be blessed. Isaac was shaken to the core. He said, "Who? But someone else hunted game and brought it to me, and I ate it all before you came, and have blessed him! Indeed he will be blessed."
34 And when Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry, and said unto his father, Bless me, even me also, O my father. When Esau heard his father's words, he cried out with a great and very bitter cry, and said to his father, "Bless me, too, my father!"
35 And he said, Thy brother came with subtilty, and hath taken away thy blessing. And he said, "Your brother came in deceit, and has taken away your blessing."
36 And he said, Is not he rightly named Jacob? for he hath supplanted me these two times: he took away my birthright; and, behold, now he hath taken away my blessing. And he said, Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me? And he said, "Oh, he's Jacob, all right! He has scammed me twice! He took away my birthright, and now see what! He has taken away my blessing!" And he said, "Haven't you a blessing for me besides?"
37 And Isaac answered and said unto Esau, Behold, I have made him thy lord, and all his brethren have I given to him for servants; and with corn and wine have I sustained him: and what shall I do now unto thee, my son? Isaac in answer said to Esau, "Look, I have made him your master, and I have given all his brothers to him as slaves. I have sustained him with grain and grape juice. What indeed can I do for you, my son?"
38 And Esau said unto his father, Hast thou but one blessing, my father? bless me, even me also, O my father. And Esau lifted up his voice, and wept. Esau said to his father, "Have you only one blessing to give, my father? Bless me, too, my father!" And Esau raised his voice and was weeping.
39 And Isaac his father answered and said unto him, Behold, thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above; In answer, his father Isaac said, "Look: your dwelling will be from the oils of the earth and the dew of heaven from above."
40 And by thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck. "You will live by your sword, and will serve your brother. And it will happen that when you hold sway, you will break off his yoke from your neck." Isaac foretells the warlike nature of the nation of Edom, its conquest by Israel, and its eventual revolt against Israel.
41 And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him: and Esau said in his heart, The days of mourning for my father are at hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob. Esau held a grudge against Jacob on account of the blessing that his father had blessed him with. Esau said in his heart, "The days of mourning for my father are approaching, and then I will kill my brother Jacob." This grudge continues to this day in the modern Middle East.
42 And these words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah: and she sent and called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him, Behold, thy brother Esau, as touching thee, doth comfort himself, purposing to kill thee. These words of Esau her elder son were repeated to Rebekah. She sent and called her younger son Jacob, and told him, "Listen: your brother Esau is comforting himself with the thought of killing you."
43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother to Haran; "And now, my son, listen to my voice. Arise and run away to my brother Laban in Haran.
44 And tarry with him a few days, until thy brother's fury turn away; "Live with him for a few days, until your brother's fury turns away,..."
45 Until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, and he forget that which thou hast done to him: then I will send, and fetch thee from thence: why should I be deprived also of you both in one day? "until your brother's anger turns away from you, and he forgets what you have done to him, then I will send and take you out of there--because why should I be bereaved of both of you in one day?" In fact, Rebekah would likely never see Jacob again.
46 And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these which are of the daughters of the land, what good shall my life do me? Rebekah said to Isaac, "I am irritated in my spirit on account of these Hittite daughters-in-law of mine. If Jacob marries a Hittite woman, like these from among the daughters of the land, what purpose will my life serve?" Rebekah gives Isaac an excuse to send Jacob packing.

Chapter 28

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and instructed him, and told him: "You will not marry any of the daughters of Canaan."
2 Arise, go to Padan-aram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father; and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother. "Arise, go to Padan-aram, to the house of Bethuel your mother's father, and take from there a wife from among the daughters of Laban your mother's brother."
3 And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude of people; "The All-sufficient God shall bless you, and make you fruitful, and increase you. You will become a large assembly of people." The word traditionally rendered "almighty" means "all-sufficient" here.
4 And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a stranger, which God gave unto Abraham. "He shall give the blessing of Abraham to you, and to your descendants with you, and you will someday possess the land in which you are a sojourner, the land that God gave to Abraham."
5 And Isaac sent away Jacob: and he went to Padan-aram unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob's and Esau's mother. Isaac sent Jacob away, and Jacob went toward Padan-aram to see Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, brother of Rebekah, mother of Jacob and Esau.
6 When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padan-aram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan; When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and senthim away to Padan-aram, to take a wife from that land, and that while he was blessing him he gave him instructions, saying, "You shall not take a wife from among the daughters of Canaan,"
7 And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padan-aram; and that Jacob listened to his father and mother and was going toward Padan-aram,
8 And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; and Esau could see that the daughters of Canaan were not pleasing in the eyes of his father Isaac,
9 Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife. Esau went to Ishmael, and took Mahalath, daughter of Ishmael son of Abraham, sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife among his other wives.
10 And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba, and went toward Haran. Jacob, meanwhile, went out from Beer-sheba, and toward Haran.
11 And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. He came to a certain place, and lodged there, because the sun had set. He took some of the stones of that place, and placed them to serve as pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep.
12 And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. He was dreaming, and saw a stairway set up on the earth, and its top touched the skies. He also saw Messengers of God ascending and descending on it.
13 And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed; Then as he watched, the LORD was standing on it, and saying, "I am the LORD God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac. The land that you are lying on, I will give it to you, and to your descendants." The verb rendered "to stand" means "to keep station," not "to assume a standing position from a sitting position."
14 And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. "Your descendants will be like the soil of the land, and you will spread abroad toward the sea, and to the east, the north, and the southern rim. In you and in your Descendant will all the families of the earth be blessed." The sea is the western boundary; thus "west" isn't sufficient; it should read "to the sea" to illustrate that the proper boundaries of Israel extend to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
15 And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of. "And take heed: I am with you, and will keep you in all places where you go, and I will bring you back to this land, and will not forsake you, until I have done the things I told you about."
16 And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said, Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not. Jacob awoke from his sleep, and said, "Surely the LORD is in this place, and I did not know it!"
17 And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. He was afraid, and said, "How fearsome is this place! This is nothing else than the house of God, and this is the gateway of the heavens!"
18 And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. Jacob arose early in the morning, and took the stone that he had placed as a pillow, and placed it as a monument, and poured oil on the top of it.
19 And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first. He gave the place the name of Bethel, though Luz had been the name of the city at first.
20 And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, Jacob vowed a vow, saying, "If God will be with me, and keep me in this way that I am traveling, and give me breat to eat and clothes to put on,..."
21 So that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the LORD be my God: "...and I return in peace to the house of my father, then the LORD will be my God."
22 And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house: and of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee. "And this stone that I have placed as a monument, will become the house of God, and of everything that you give me, I will give you back ten percent." This is the establishing authority of the tithe, or the ten-percent remittance to God.

Chapter 29

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then Jacob went on his journey, and came into the land of the people of the east. Jacob went on his way, and came into the country of the sons of the east. Literally, "picked up his feet."
2 And he looked, and behold a well in the field, and, lo, there were three flocks of sheep lying by it; for out of that well they watered the flocks: and a great stone was upon the well's mouth. He looked, and saw a well in the field, and three flocks of sheep reclining next to it. From that well they watered the flocks, and a great stone rested on the mouth of the well.
3 And thither were all the flocks gathered: and they rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the sheep, and put the stone again upon the well's mouth in his place. All the flocks were gathered there, and they rolled the stone from the mouth of the well, watered the sheep, and then restored the stone to its place on the mouth of the well.
4 And Jacob said unto them, My brethren, whence be ye? And they said, Of Haran are we. Jacob said to them, "My brothers, where are you from?" And they said, "We are from Haran."
5 And he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor? And they said, We know him. And he said to them, "Do you know Laban son of Nahor?" And they said, "Yes, we know him."
6 And he said unto them, Is he well? And they said, He is well: and, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh with the sheep. And he asked them, "Is he well?" And they said, "He is well, and look! Here's his daughter Rachel coming with the sheep."
7 And he said, Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and feed them. And he said, "Look, it's still the hight of the day, and this isn't the time for gathering cattle. Give the sheep water to drink, and go and let them graze."
8 And they said, We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered together, and till they roll the stone from the well's mouth; then we water the sheep. And they said, "We can't do that until all the flocks are gathered together, and they roll the stone off the mouth of the well; then we give the sheep water to drink."
9 And while he yet spake with them, Rachel came with her father's sheep: for she kept them. While he was still speaking with them, Rachel came, with her father's flock; she was their shepherdess.
10 And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother. So it happened that when Jacob saw Rachel, daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep belonging to Laban his mother's brother, Jacob went close, and rolled the stone from the mouth of the well, and gave drinking water to the sheep belonging to Laban his mother's brother.
11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. Jacob kissed Rachel, and raised his voice, and wept.
12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son: and she ran and told her father. Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and Rebekah's son. She ran and told her father. The Hebrew word for "brother" can mean "cousin" or any other lateral relationship, including "nephew."
13 And it came to pass, when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister's son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he told Laban all these things. And so it fell out, that when Laban heard the report of Jacob the son of his sister, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he related to Laban everything that had taken place.
14 And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh. And he abode with him the space of a month. Laban told him, "Indeed you are my bone and my flesh." And he lived with him for a month of days. A span of time equal to 29 days, give or take a day, is in view here--not necessarily from new moon to new moon.
15 And Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought? tell me, what shall thy wages be? Laban said to Jacob, "You're my relative. So you shouldn't serve me free of charge. Tell me: what wages will you have?"
16 And Laban had two daughters: the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel. Laban had two daughters, the elder named Leah and the younger Rachel.
17 Leah was tender eyed; but Rachel was beautiful and well favoured. The eyes of Leah were tender, but Rachel had a lovely body and face.
18 And Jacob loved Rachel; and said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter. Jacob loved Rachel, and said, "I will serve you for seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter."
19 And Laban said, It is better that I give her to thee, than that I should give her to another man: abide with me. Laban said, "It is better that I give her to you than that I give her to another man. Live with me."
20 And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed unto him but a few days, for the love he had to her. Jacob was serving out his seven years for Rachel, and they became in his eyes like as many days; that's how much he loved her.
21 And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her. Jacob said to Laban, "Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, so that I may come to her." The "days" referred to here are not Jacob's term of service, but the minimum interval between betrothal and marriage. That interval was one week (see below). Jacob wasn't wasting any time. The "coming" referred to is the consummation.
22 And Laban gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast. Laban gathered together all the men of that place, and gave a feast.
23 And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and he went in unto her. And it happened in the evening, that he took his daughter Leah and brought her to him, and he came to her.
24 And Laban gave unto his daughter Leah Zilpah his maid for an handmaid. Laban gave his maid, Zilpah, to his daughter Leah for a handmaid. This relationship will be important later on.
25 And it came to pass, that in the morning, behold, it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What is this thou hast done unto me? did not I serve with thee for Rachel? wherefore then hast thou beguiled me? It happened that, in the morning, [Jacob saw that] it was Leah. He said to Laban, "What have you done to me? Didn't I agree to serve you for Rachel? Why have you scammed me?" When the scammer gets scammed, that's justice of a sort, though highly imperfect.
26 And Laban said, It must not be so done in our country, to give the younger before the firstborn. Laban said, "It's not the done thing in our country, to give the younger before the firstborn in marriage."
27 Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years. "Fulfill her week, and we will give you this one also for the service that you will render to me, for seven more years." The week means literally seven days, which was the minimum interval.
28 And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week: and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also. Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week. So he also gave him his daughter Rachel as a wife.
29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid. Laban gave his daughter Rachel his handmaid Bilhah to be her maid.
30 And he went in also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years. Jacob also came to Rachel, and also loved Rachel more than Leah, and served Laban for seven more years.
31 And when the LORD saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb: but Rachel was barren. When the LORD saw that Leah was being treated as if she were nothing, He opened her womb. Rachel, on the other hand, remained barren. The verb rendered "to hate" actually means "to treat as a nonentity," not "to treat as an enemy."
32 And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction; now therefore my husband will love me. Leah fell pregnant, and gave birth to a son. She named him Reuben, saying, "The LORD has seen my humiliation, and now my husband will love me."
33 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Because the LORD hath heard that I was hated, he hath therefore given me this son also: and she called his name Simeon. She fell pregnant again, and gave birth to a son, and said, "The LORD has heard that I was hated, and has therefore given me this one as well." And she named him Simeon.
34 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Now this time will my husband be joined unto me, because I have born him three sons: therefore was his name called Levi. She fell pregnant yet again, and gave birth to a son, and said, "Now this time my husband will be obligated to me, because I have given birth to three sons for him." So he was named Levi.
35 And she conceived again, and bare a son: and she said, Now will I praise the LORD: therefore she called his name Judah; and left bearing. She fell pregnant a fourth time, and gave birth to a son. She said, "Now I will acclaim the LORD." So she named him Judah. Then she stopped giving birth.

Chapter 30

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and said unto Jacob, Give me children, or else I die. When Rachel saw that she couldn't give birth to any children for Jacob, she was jealous of her sister. She told Jacob, "Grant me sons! If you do not, then I shall die!"
2 And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel: and he said, Am I in God's stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb? Jacob became hotly angry with Rachel. He told her, "Do I act instead of God? It's God's doing that you have no children, not mine!"
3 And she said, Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear upon my knees that I may also have children by her. And she said, "Here is my handmaid, Bilhah. Take her to bed, and she will give birth on my knees, so that I can have children through her." This is the second instance of surrogate motherhood mentioned in the Bible. The phrase "give birth on another woman's knees" referred to the literal pose that handmaid and mistress would strike, after the handmaid agreed to take the mistress' place in the marital bedchamber for this specific purpose.
4 And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid to wife: and Jacob went in unto her. And she gave him her handmaid Bilhah for a (common-law) wife, and Jacob took her to bed.
5 And Bilhah conceived, and bare Jacob a son. Bilhah fell pregnant, and gave birth to a son for Jacob.
6 And Rachel said, God hath judged me, and hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son: therefore called she his name Dan. Rachel said, "God has adjudicated me, and has heard my voice, and given me a son." So she named him Dan. Which in Hebrew means "judged."
7 And Bilhah Rachel's maid conceived again, and bare Jacob a second son. Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel, fell pregnant again, and gave birth to a second son for Jacob.
8 And Rachel said, With great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed: and she called his name Naphtali. Rachel said, "I have wrestled a mighty bout with my sister, and have won." So she named him Naphtali. Which in Hebrew means "I wrestled." The Hebrew is repeated for emphasis here.
9 When Leah saw that she had left bearing, she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her Jacob to wife. When Leah saw that she had stopped giving birth, she took her own handmaid, Zilpah, and gave her to Jacob for a (common-law) wife. Not to be outdone, Leah does the same thing that Rachel did.
10 And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a son. Zilpah, the handmaid of Leah, fell pregnant and gave birth to a son for Jacob.
11 And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad. Leah said, "A troop of raiders is coming!" So she named him Gad. Which in Hebrew means "raid."
12 And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a second son. Zilpah, the handmaid of Leah, gave birth to a second son for Jacob.
13 And Leah said, Happy am I, for the daughters will call me blessed: and she called his name Asher. Leah said, "I am very happy indeed, because the daughters will call me blessed!" So she named him Asher. Which in Hebrew means "happy" or "blessed."
14 And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, Give me, I pray thee, of thy son's mandrakes. Now Reuben went out, in the month of wheat harvest (Sivan), and discovered mandrakes in the field. He brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, "Please give me some of your son's mandrakes." The common mandrake (Mandragora officinarum) was a source of highly potent and dangerous alkaloids that once had a high medicinal value. The mandrake also had a reputation as an aphrodisiac. Reuben was blessed indeed that he did not poison himself through improper handling of these plants.
15 And she said unto her, Is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? and wouldest thou take away my son's mandrakes also? And Rachel said, Therefore he shall lie with thee to night for thy son's mandrakes. And she said to her, "Do you think so little of having taken my husband's affections from me? Now you want to take my son's mandrakes, too?" So Rachel said, "All right, so Jacob will take you to bed tonight, in exchange for your son's mandrakes." Rachel probably made a bad bargain.
16 And Jacob came out of the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, Thou must come in unto me; for surely I have hired thee with my son's mandrakes. And he lay with her that night. Jacob came out of the field that evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, "You need to take me to bed tonight. I have rented you with my son's mandrakes." So he took her to bed that night. The Hebrew phrase "to hire, I have hired you" is repeated for emphasis. "Hire" can mean "rent" or "engage for wages."
17 And God hearkened unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare Jacob the fifth son. God listened to Leah, and she fell pregnant, and gave birth to a fifth son for Jacob.
18 And Leah said, God hath given me my hire, because I have given my maiden to my husband: and she called his name Issachar. Leah said, "God has paid me my wages for giving my handmaid to my husband!" So she named the boy Issachar. Which in Hebrew means "rent" or "wages."
19 And Leah conceived again, and bare Jacob the sixth son. Leah fell pregnant yet again, and gave birth to a sixth son for Jacob.
20 And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry; now will my husband dwell with me, because I have born him six sons: and she called his name Zebulun. Now Leah said, "God has settled a generous dowry on me. Now my husband will prefer me, because I have given birth to six sons for him." So she named the boy Zebulun. Which in Hebrew means "dowry" or "endowment."
21 And afterwards she bare a daughter, and called her name Dinah. After that, she gave birth to a daughter, and named her Dinah.
22 And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and opened her womb. Now God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her, and opened her womb.
23 And she conceived, and bare a son; and said, God hath taken away my reproach: She fell pregnant, and gave birth to a son, and said, "God has taken away my shame!"
24 And she called his name Joseph; and said, The LORD shall add to me another son. She named the lad Joseph, and said, The LORD will add another son to me." The name Joseph literally means YHWH shall add.
25 And it came to pass, when Rachel had born Joseph, that Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away, that I may go unto mine own place, and to my country. When Rachel had given birth to Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, "Send me away, so that I may go to my own place and land."
26 Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have served thee, and let me go: for thou knowest my service which I have done thee. "Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have served you, and I will go. You know my service that I have done to you."
27 And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry: for I have learned by experience that the LORD hath blessed me for thy sake. Laban said to him, "Please stay, if you like me at all. The auguries have told me that the LORD's blessings on me are due to you."
28 And he said, Appoint me thy wages, and I will give it. He said, "Specify your wages, and I will pay them."
29 And he said unto him, Thou knowest how I have served thee, and how thy cattle was with me. And he said to him, "You know how I have served you, and how your cattle herd has grown under my management."
30 For it was little which thou hadst before I came, and it is now increased unto a multitude; and the LORD hath blessed thee since my coming: and now when shall I provide for mine own house also? "You started out with few cattle before I came, and your herd has swelled to a multitude, and the LORD has blessed you since I came. Now when do I start providing for my own household as well?"
31 And he said, What shall I give thee? And Jacob said, Thou shalt not give me any thing: if thou wilt do this thing for me, I will again feed and keep thy flock: And he said, "What would you have me give you?" And Jacob said, "Don't give me anything. Just do this one thing for me, and I will graze and keep your flock." "To graze" means "to allow to graze" here.
32 I will pass through all thy flock to day, removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle, and all the brown cattle among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats: and of such shall be my hire. "I will pass through your whole flock today, to take away from it all the speckled and flecked cattle, and all the brown lambs among the sheep, and the flecked and speckled goats. This will be my wage."
33 So shall my righteousness answer for me in time to come, when it shall come for my hire before thy face: every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and brown among the sheep, that shall be counted stolen with me. "My righteousness will answer for me in future, when it will come for my wages before you: every one that is neither speckled nor flecked among the goats, nor brown among the sheep, that is in my possession, you may consider stolen." A common technique even today: anticipate the possible use of "fighting words."
34 And Laban said, Behold, I would it might be according to thy word. Laban said, "All right, I'll take your word on that."
35 And he removed that day the he goats that were ringstraked and spotted, and all the she goats that were speckled and spotted, and every one that had some white in it, and all the brown among the sheep, and gave them into the hand of his sons. So on that day he removed the billy-goats that were striped and flecked, and all the nanny-goats that were speckled and flecked, and every specimen having any white in it, and all the brown specimens among the sheep, and entrusted these to his sons.
36 And he set three days' journey betwixt himself and Jacob: and Jacob fed the rest of Laban's flocks. Then he put a distance of three days' journey between himself and Jacob. Jacob then set the rest of Laban's flocks and herds out to graze.
37 And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chesnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. Then Jacob took for himself some smooth green sticks of white poplar, and hazel and chestnut. He peeled away the bark to make the white resin appear in the sticks.
38 And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink. He set these peeled sticks before the flocks, in the basins of the watering troughts, when the flocks came to drink, so that they might fall pregnant when they came to drink.
39 And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted. The ewes, nannies, and cows fell pregnant among the sticks, and gave birth to lambs, kids, and cattle that were striped, spotted, and flecked.
40 And Jacob did separate the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto Laban's cattle. Jacob separated the sheep, and set the faces of the flocks toward the striped ones, and all the brown ones in Laban's flock. He put his own flocks apart, and did not place them near Laban's cattle.
41 And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods. So it happened that whenever the more sinewy cattle were in conception season, Jacob set the sticks in the faces of the cattle in the troughs, so that they might conceive among the sticks.
42 But when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in: so the feebler were Laban's, and the stronger Jacob's. But when the cattle were droopy, he did not put the sticks in. So the droopy cattle belonged to Laban, and the sinewy cattle belonged to Jacob.
43 And the man increased exceedingly, and had much cattle, and maidservants, and menservants, and camels, and asses. The man thus grew very, very rich, and had a lot of livestock, and maidservants, and menservants, and camels, and donkeys.

Chapter 31

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And he heard the words of Laban's sons, saying, Jacob hath taken away all that was our father's; and of that which was our father's hath he gotten all this glory. Jacob heard the things that Laban's sons were saying about him: "Jacob has taken away everything that belonged to our father, and has gotten as rich as he is from the things that our father had."
2 And Jacob beheld the countenance of Laban, and, behold, it was not toward him as before. Jacob also noticed Laban's attitude, and it was definitely not what it had been before. Literally, "not with him as yesterday, or three days ago."
3 And the LORD said unto Jacob, Return unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy kindred; and I will be with thee. The LORD said to Jacob, "Go back to the land of your fathers, and to your own kin, and I shall be with you."
4 And Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field unto his flock, Jacob sent word to Rachel and Leah to come at once to the field, and to his flocks.
5 And said unto them, I see your father's countenance, that it is not toward me as before; but the God of my father hath been with me. He told them, "I've noticed your father's attitude toward me, and it is definitely not what it was before. But the God of my father has been with me."
6 And ye know that with all my power I have served your father. "You know that I have given your father the best years of my life."
7 And your father hath deceived me, and changed my wages ten times; but God suffered him not to hurt me. "In return, your father has played games with me, and changed my wages ten separate times. But God did not allow him to do me evil."
8 If he said thus, The speckled shall be thy wages; then all the cattle bare speckled: and if he said thus, The ringstraked shall be thy hire; then bare all the cattle ringstraked. "If he said, 'The speckled ones will be your wages,' then all the cattle gave birth to speckled calves. If he said, "The striped ones will be your wages,' then the cattle all gave birth to striped calves." Jacob conveniently leaves out the methods he used to ensure these outcomes.
9 Thus God hath taken away the cattle of your father, and given them to me. In that way, God has taken away your father's cattle and given them to me." Literally, "rescued."
10 And it came to pass at the time that the cattle conceived, that I lifted up mine eyes, and saw in a dream, and, behold, the rams which leaped upon the cattle were ringstraked, speckled, and grisled. So it happened during the mating season of the cattle, I lifted up my eyes, and had a dream, and in it the billy-goats that were the most vigorous at mating were striped, specked and dappled."
11 And the angel of God spake unto me in a dream, saying, Jacob: And I said, Here am I. "The messenger of God spoke to me in a dream, saying, 'Jacob.' And I said, 'Behold me.'"
12 And he said, Lift up now thine eyes, and see, all the rams which leap upon the cattle are ringstraked, speckled, and grisled: for I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee. "He said, 'Lift up your eyes, and see: all the billy goats that are vigorously mating are striped, speckled, and dappled, because I have seen everything that Laban has been doing to you."
13 I am the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst the pillar, and where thou vowedst a vow unto me: now arise, get thee out from this land, and return unto the land of thy kindred. "I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed the monument, and where you vowed a vow to me: now rise, and get out of this country, and go back to the land of your kin." A calculated speech for ensuring their loyalty. In a word, propaganda.
14 And Rachel and Leah answered and said unto him, Is there yet any portion or inheritance for us in our father's house? Rachel and Leah then said in answer, "Do we even have any portion or allotment left to us in our father's house?"
15 Are we not counted of him strangers? for he hath sold us, and hath quite devoured also our money. "Aren't we reckoned to him no differently from foreigners? After all, he has good as sold us, ad moreover he has eaten out our money." Literally, "our silver," the more common of the two precious metals used for money.
16 For all the riches which God hath taken from our father, that is ours, and our children's: now then, whatsoever God hath said unto thee, do. "All the riches that God has taken from our father, belongs to us and to our sons. So now whatever God told you to do, you do!"
17 Then Jacob rose up, and set his sons and his wives upon camels; Then Jacob rose up, and lifted his sons and his wives onto camels.
18 And he carried away all his cattle, and all his goods which he had gotten, the cattle of his getting, which he had gotten in Padan-aram, for to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan. And he drove forth all his cattle, and carried away all his goods that he had obtained, the cattle that he had acquired in Padan-aram, in order to go to his father Isaac in the land of Canaan.
19 And Laban went to shear his sheep: and Rachel had stolen the images that were her father's. Laban went to shear his sheep, and Rachel had stolen the theraphim that belonged to her father. These theraphim (תרפים) were household idols. In those days, every household had a collection of private idols that they worshiped like gods. These mean nothing to the True God, of course. Later, Jacob would order everyone in his camp to throw such things out.
20 And Jacob stole away unawares to Laban the Syrian, in that he told him not that he fled. Jacob stole away, and Laban the Syrian knew nothing about it, because Jacob did not tell him that he was running away. Literally, "Laban the Aramean." "Aram" is another name for Syria.
21 So he fled with all that he had; and he rose up, and passed over the river, and set his face toward the mount Gilead. So he ran away with everything he had, and rose up, and crossed the stream, and set out for Mount Gilead. The stream is probably the Euphrates River, though this is never specified.
22 And it was told Laban on the third day that Jacob was fled. Laban was told on the third day that Jacob had run away.
23 And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him seven days' journey; and they overtook him in the mount Gilead. He took his brothers with him, and chased after him for a seven-days' journey, and they followed hard on Jacob's tail in Mount Gilead.
24 And God came to Laban the Syrian in a dream by night, and said unto him, Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad. God came to Laban the Syrian in a dream at night, and told him, "Watch yourself! Don't let your communication with Jacob go from friendly to unfriendly." Literally, "beware-you to you from to speak of with Jacob from good unto evil." The common interpretation of "not speak to him either good or bad" does not appear to be well-supported here.
25 Then Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mount: and Laban with his brethren pitched in the mount of Gilead. Then Laban caught up with Jacob. Jacob had pitched his tent on the mountain, and now Laban with his brothers camped on Mount Gilead.
26 And Laban said to Jacob, What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen away unawares to me, and carried away my daughters, as captives taken with the sword? Laban said to Jacob, "What have you done? Why have you run off without telling me, and why are you leading away my daughters as though they were prisoners of war?"
27 Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me; and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth, and with songs, with tabret, and with harp? "Why did you run away by stealth, and steal away from me, and not tell me? I might have sent you on your way with rejoicing, with songs, with tambourine, and with the harp."
28 And hast not suffered me to kiss my sons and my daughters? thou hast now done foolishly in so doing. "You didn't even let me kiss my sons and daughters good-bye--what a silly thing to do!"
29 It is in the power of my hand to do you hurt: but the God of your father spake unto me yesternight, saying, Take thou heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad. "Lawfully, I could bring you much harm. But the God of your father spoke to me last night, and said, 'Watch yourself! Don't change your communication with Jacob from friendly to unfriendly.'"
30 And now, though thou wouldest needs be gone, because thou sore longedst after thy father's house, yet wherefore hast thou stolen my gods? Now I understand that you need to leave, because you very much want to go back to your father's house. But why did you steal my gods?" This refers to the missing theraphim.
31 And Jacob answered and said to Laban, Because I was afraid: for I said, Peradventure thou wouldest take by force thy daughters from me. Jacob said to Laban in answer, "Well, I was afraid that you'd snatch your daughters back from me." A ridiculous excuse.
32 With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, let him not live: before our brethren discern thou what is thine with me, and take it to thee. For Jacob knew not that Rachel had stolen them. "And if you find your gods in the hands of anyone in my camp, you have my permission to execute him. You may identify for yourself, in front of our kinfolk, whatever belongs to you that is in my camp, and take it back!" Jacob said this because he did not know that Rachel had stolen them.
33 And Laban went into Jacob's tent, and into Leah's tent, and into the two maidservants' tents; but he found them not. Then went he out of Leah's tent, and entered into Rachel's tent. Laban went into Jacob's tent, and into Leah's tent, and into the two maidservants' tents, and didn't find them. Then he was coming out of Leah's tent and into Rachel's tent.
34 Now Rachel had taken the images, and put them in the camel's furniture, and sat upon them. And Laban searched all the tent, but found them not. Rachel had taken the theraphim and placed them in the camel's saddle-basket, and was sitting on them. Laban felt around everything in the tent and didn't find them.
35 And she said to her father, Let it not displease my lord that I cannot rise up before thee; for the custom of women is upon me. And he searched, but found not the images. She said to her father, "Please don't be angry that I cannot rise up in your presence. The way of women is on me." And he searched, and didn't find the theraphim. That "way of women" is menstruation. There is no real way to tell whether Rachel was actually menstruating or not.
36 And Jacob was wroth, and chode with Laban: and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass? what is my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after me? Jacob was furious, and spoke contentiously with Laban. He said to Laban in answer, "What is my transgression? What sin did I commit, that you dashed after me the way you did?"
37 Whereas thou hast searched all my stuff, what hast thou found of all thy household stuff? set it here before my brethren and thy brethren, that they may judge betwixt us both. "Now you've just felt all my furnishings, and what have you found in all my household furnishings? Now place it right here in front of my cousins and your cousins, and let them judge between the two of us." Literally, "correct." Jacob is asking for a "trial" by jury.
38 This twenty years have I been with thee; thy ewes and thy she goats have not cast their young, and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten. "I have been with you for twenty years. Your ewes and nanny-goats have never once miscarried, nor have I ever eaten the rams out of your flock."
39 That which was torn of beasts I brought not unto thee; I bare the loss of it; of my hand didst thou require it, whether stolen by day, or stolen by night. "I never brought you any animal that had been torn to pieces; I took the loss! You demanded that from my hand, whether it was stolen by day or by night."
40 Thus I was; in the day the drought consumed me, and the frost by night; and my sleep departed from mine eyes. "That's what my position was. The drought plagued me by day, and the frost by night. I didn't get much sleep, either."
41 Thus have I been twenty years in thy house; I served thee fourteen years for thy two daughters, and six years for thy cattle: and thou hast changed my wages ten times. "That's how it's been for me, for twenty years in your household. I served you for fourteen years for your two daughters, and six years for your cattle. You changed my wages ten separate times." That's a rather bold-faced statement for Jacob to make, seeing that he has not a scrap of evidence. But Jacob has Laban trapped by the Divine injunction to keep everything on a friendly basis, and Jacob knows it.
42 Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the fear of Isaac, had been with me, surely thou hadst sent me away now empty. God hath seen mine affliction and the labour of my hands, and rebuked thee yesternight. If the GOd of my father, the God of Abraham, and the awe of Isaac, had not been with me, you would have sent me away empty-handed. God has seen my humiliation and the weariness of my hands, and that's why He corrected you last night!"
43 And Laban answered and said unto Jacob, These daughters are my daughters, and these children are my children, and these cattle are my cattle, and all that thou seest is mine: and what can I do this day unto these my daughters, or unto their children which they have born? Laban said to Jacob in answer, "These daughters are my daughters, and these sons my sons, and these cattle my cattle, and everything you see is mine. Now what can I do this day to my own daughters, or to their children to whom they have given birth?"
44 Now therefore come thou, let us make a covenant, I and thou; and let it be for a witness between me and thee. So come: you and I should cut a covenant and let that be for a testimony between me and you."
45 And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. Jacob took a stone and raised it up as a monument.
46 And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made an heap: and they did eat there upon the heap. Jacob then said to his kinfolk, "Pick up stones." And they took stones, and built a mound of them, and ate there on the mound.
47 And Laban called it Jegar-sahadutha: but Jacob called it Galeed. Laban named the place Jegar-sahadutha, but Jacob named it Galeed.
48 And Laban said, This heap is a witness between me and thee this day. Therefore was the name of it called Galeed; Laban said, "This mound is a testimony between me and you this day." So the name of it was called Galeed. The Hebrew עד (od) means "testimony" and is part of the noun Galeed.
49 And Mizpah; for he said, The LORD watch between me and thee, when we are absent one from another. And it was also named Mizpah, because he said, "May the LORD watch between me and you, when we are hidden from one another." The name Mizpah contains the root verb meaning "let him watch" (imperfect tense).
50 If thou shalt afflict my daughters, or if thou shalt take other wives beside my daughters, no man is with us; see, God is witness betwixt me and thee. If you humiliate my daughters, or take any other wives beside my daughters, there is no man with us. Look! God is a Witness between me and you."
51 And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have cast betwixt me and thee; Laban said to Jacob, "See this mound, and see this monument, that I have cast between me and you."
52 This heap be witness, and this pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap and this pillar unto me, for harm. "This mound is a testimony, and this monument is a testimony, that I will not pass over over this mound to you, and you will not pass over this mound and this pillar to me, for evil."
53 The God of Abraham, and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge betwixt us. And Jacob sware by the fear of his father Isaac. "May the God of Abraham, and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between us." And Jacob swore by the awe of his father Isaac.
54 Then Jacob offered sacrifice upon the mount, and called his brethren to eat bread: and they did eat bread, and tarried all night in the mount. Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain, and called his kinfolk to eat bread. They did eat bread, and lodged overnight in the mountain.
55 And early in the morning Laban rose up, and kissed his sons and his daughters, and blessed them: and Laban departed, and returned unto his place. Early the next morning Laban rose up, kissed his sons and daughters, and blessed them. Laban went away and returned to his own place.

Chapter 32

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him. Jacob went on his way, and Messengers of God came upon him. These are the angels.
2 And when Jacob saw them, he said, This is God's host: and he called the name of that place Mahanaim. When Jacob saw them, he said, "This is the camp of God!" And he named that place Mahanaim. Which in Hebrew literally means "two camps," being the dual form of the word for "camp."
3 And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the country of Edom. Jacob sent messengers ahead of him to his brother Esau, toward the land of Seir, in the region of Edom.
4 And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye speak unto my lord Esau; Thy servant Jacob saith thus, I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now: He instructed them thus: "Say this to my lord Esau: 'Your servant Jacob says this: I sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now.'" The word for "stayed" actually means "delayed."
5 And I have oxen, and asses, flocks, and menservants, and womenservants: and I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find grace in thy sight. "'I have oxen, donkeys, flocks, manservants, and maidservants. I am sending this message to you, my lord, in the hope that I will find grace in your eyes.'"
6 And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother Esau, and also he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him. The messengers returned to Jacob, and said, "We came to your brother Esau, and in fact he's coming to meet you, and he has four hundred men with him."
7 Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed: and he divided the people that was with him, and the flocks, and herds, and the camels, into two bands; Jacob was exceedingly afraid and distressed. He split the people with him, and the flocks, herds, and camels, into two camps.
8 And said, If Esau come to the one company, and smite it, then the other company which is left shall escape. He said, "If Esau comes to one camp and destroys it, then the other, remaining camp will escape." Literally, "achieve deliverance."
9 And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the LORD which saidst unto me, Return unto thy country, and to thy kindred, and I will deal well with thee: Now Jacob said, "O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the LORD who said, 'Return to your land and kindred, and I will do good for you,'"
10 I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast shewed unto thy servant; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I am become two bands. "I don't deserve even the smallest of the kindnesses and faithfulness that You have shown to Your servant. With my walking-stick I have crossed over this river Jordan, and have become two camps."
11 Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau: for I fear him, lest he will come and smite me, and the mother with the children. "Please rescue me from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau. I am afraid that he will come and kill me, and the mother with the sons."
12 And thou saidst, I will surely do thee good, and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude. "And you said, 'I will definitely do good for you, and make your descendants like the grains of sand of the sea, which are too numerous to count.'" The word "good" is repeated for emphasis.
13 And he lodged there that same night; and took of that which came to his hand a present for Esau his brother; He lodged there that very night, and took whatever was ready to hand as a present for his brother Esau:
14 Two hundred she goats, and twenty he goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams, 200 nanny goats and 20 billy goats; 200 ewes and 20 rams;
15 Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty kine, and ten bulls, twenty she asses, and ten foals. 30 milk camels with their colts, forty heifers and ten bulls, twenty jenny donkeys and ten colts.
16 And he delivered them into the hand of his servants, every drove by themselves; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space betwixt drove and drove. He entrusted these to his servants, every drove separately, and told his servants, "Pass ahead of me, and put some distance between one drove and the next."
17 And he commanded the foremost, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee? He instructed the lead drovers, saying, "When my brother Esau encounters you, and asks you, 'Whom do you serve, where are you going, and to whom do these animals in front of you belong,...'"
18 Then thou shalt say, They be thy servant Jacob's; it is a present sent unto my lord Esau: and, behold, also he is behind us. "Then you shall say, "They belong to your servant Jacob; and are a present sent to my lord Esau, and in fact he's behind us."
19 And so commanded he the second, and the third, and all that followed the droves, saying, On this manner shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him. He furthermore instructed the second, third, and each following drover team, saying, "Give this message to Esau when you find him."
20 And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will appease him with the present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his face; peradventure he will accept of me. "And make sure you say, 'Jacob is behind us.'" He said to himself, "I will propitiate him with the present that goes before me, and afterward I will see him face-to-face, and perhaps he'll be friendly to me."
21 So went the present over before him: and himself lodged that night in the company. And so the present passed before him, and he himself spent the night in camp.
22 And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two womenservants, and his eleven sons, and passed over the ford Jabbok. He rose up that night, anbd took his two wives, and two maidservants, and eleven sons, and crossed the Jabbok ford.
23 And he took them, and sent them over the brook, and sent over that he had. He took them and sent them over the ford, and sent over everything he had.
24 And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. Jacob was left alone, and he wrestled with a man until the rising of the dawn. The "man" is undoubtedly a Messenger of God, i.e. an angel.
25 And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him. When the stranger realized that he was not winning against Jacob, he touched the hollow of his thigh. The hollow of Jacob's thigh was dislocated as he wrestled with the man.
26 And he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh. And he said, I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. The man said, "Let me go! Dawn is rising!" And Jacob said, "I will not let you go, unless you bless me."
27 And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. The man said, "What's your name?" And Jacob said, "Jacob."
28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed. The man said, "You shall not be named Jacob anymore, but rather Israel--because you are upright with God and with men, and you have won." Israel literally means "he strugged with God" or else "the struggle of God."
29 And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, thy name. And he said, Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. Jacob asked him, "Tell me your name, please." And the man said, "What do you ask my name for?" And he blessed him there.
30 And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved. Jacob named the place Peniel, saying, "Because I have seen God face to face, and lived to tell about it." Peniel means "face of God."
31 And as he passed over Penuel the sun rose upon him, and he halted upon his thigh. The sun shone on him as he passed over Penuel, and he was limping on his thigh. "Penuel" and "Peniel" are the same name, with the Hebrew ו (vav) replacing י (yod) in the name.
32 Therefore the children of Israel eat not of the sinew which shrank, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day: because he touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh in the sinew that shrank. For that reason the Sons of Israel do not eat the numbed sinew on the hollow of the thigh, to this day: because the man touched the hollow of the thigh in the numbed sinew.

Chapter 33

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and, behold, Esau came, and with him four hundred men. And he divided the children unto Leah, and unto Rachel, and unto the two handmaids. Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold! Here was Esau coming, with four hundred men at his side. Jacob divided the children among Leah, Rachel, and the two handmaids. That is, Zilpah and Bilhah.
2 And he put the handmaids and their children foremost, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and Joseph hindermost. He set the handmaids and their children in the front rank, then Leah and her children, and Rachel and Joseph in the last rank.
3 And he passed over before them, and bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother. He then passed in front of them, and bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came close to his brother.
4 And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him: and they wept. Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him, and both men were weeping.
5 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the women and the children; and said, Who are those with thee? And he said, The children which God hath graciously given thy servant. He lifted up his eyes, and saw the women and children, and said, "Who are these with you?" And Jacob said, "The are the children that God has graciously granted to your servant."
6 Then the handmaidens came near, they and their children, and they bowed themselves. Then the handmaids came close, with their children, and bowed down.
7 And Leah also with her children came near, and bowed themselves: and after came Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed themselves. Leah also came close with her children, and bowed themselves. Then Joseph came close, and then Rachel, and they bowed themselves down.
8 And he said, What meanest thou by all this drove which I met? And he said, These are to find grace in the sight of my lord. Then Esau said, "What did you mean by sending that big cattle drove that I encountered?" And Jacob said, "I sent it to find grace in the eyes of my lord."
9 And Esau said, I have enough, my brother; keep that thou hast unto thyself. Esau said, "I have a lot of substance myself, brother. Keep what you have for yourself."
10 And Jacob said, Nay, I pray thee, if now I have found grace in thy sight, then receive my present at my hand: for therefore I have seen thy face, as though I had seen the face of God, and thou wast pleased with me. Jacob said, "No, please, if I have found grace in your eyes, then take this present from my hand. After all, I have seen your face, and it's as it I had seen the face of God, and you were pleased with me."
11 Take, I pray thee, my blessing that is brought to thee; because God hath dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough. And he urged him, and he took it. "Please take my blessing that has been brought to you. God has dealt graciously with me, and I have everything I need." And he urged him, and Esau took it.
12 And he said, Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before thee. And he said, "Let us journey, you and I, and I will go in front of you."
13 And he said unto him, My lord knoweth that the children are tender, and the flocks and herds with young are with me: and if men should overdrive them one day, all the flock will die. And Jacob said to him, "My lord knows that the children are tender, and the flocks and herds with their young are with me. If my men were to trot them out, the whole flock will die."
14 Let my lord, I pray thee, pass over before his servant: and I will lead on softly, according as the cattle that goeth before me and the children be able to endure, until I come unto my lord unto Seir. "Please, let my lord pass over ahead of his servant, and I will lead my camp with care for a safe pace for the cattle and the children, until I can come to my lord at Seir.
15 And Esau said, Let me now leave with thee some of the folk that are with me. And he said, What needeth it? let me find grace in the sight of my lord. Esau said, "Please let me leave with you some of the people who are with me." And Jacob said, "There's no need of that, for I have found grace in my lord's eyes."
16 So Esau returned that day on his way unto Seir. So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir.
17 And Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built him an house, and made booths for his cattle: therefore the name of the place is called Succoth. Jacob traveled to Succoth, and built a house for himself, and set up booths for his cattle. This is why the place is called Succoth. Which in Hebrew means "booths." The Feast of Booths, or Sukkot, is observed to this day by the Jews on and around the full moon in the middle of the month originally called Ethanim, and today called Tishrei.
18 And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan-aram; and pitched his tent before the city. Jacob then came to the peaceable city of Shechem, which sits in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padan-aram, and encamped in front of the city.
19 And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred pieces of money. He then acquired a portion of the field where he had pitched his tent, from the hand of the sons of Hamor, father of Shechem, for a hundred kesitot. The kesitah (קשיטה) was a money piece, cast in the shape of a lamb, of unknown weight and composition.[1]
20 And he erected there an altar, and called it El-elohe-Israel. He set up an altar there and called it El-of-Elohim-Israel That is, "God of Gods of Israel."


Chapter 34

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Dinah the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. Dinah, daughter of Leah, to whom Leah had given birth for Jacob, went out to see some of the young women in the land. Literally, "daughters of the land."
2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her. Shechem son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her. He then took her, was intimate with her, and humiliated her.
3 And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel. His soul clung to Dinah daughter of Jacob, and he loved the young woman, and spoke to her heart.
4 And Shechem spake unto his father Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife. Then Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, "Take this girl for me as my wife."
5 And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter: now his sons were with his cattle in the field: and Jacob held his peace until they were come. Jacob heard that he had defiled his daughter Dinah. His sons were with his cattle in the field, and Jacob kept silent until they had come.
6 And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to commune with him. Hamor father of Shechem went out to Jacob in order to speak with him.
7 And the sons of Jacob came out of the field when they heard it: and the men were grieved, and they were very wroth, because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying with Jacob's daughter; which thing ought not to be done. The sons of Jacob came out of the field when they heard it. They were mortified and terrifically angry, because he had done a decadent thing in Israel by lying with Jacob's daughter, and this sort of thing was not done.
8 And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter: I pray you give her him to wife. Hamor spoke with them, saying, "My son Shechem's soul is attached to your daughter. Please give her to him for a wife."
9 And make ye marriages with us, and give your daughters unto us, and take our daughters unto you. "And intermarry with us, and give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves." This was carrying "marriage of state" to a great extreme.
10 And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before you; dwell and trade ye therein, and get you possessions therein. "And live with us, and the land will be before you. Live in the land, and be merchants in it, and have business interests in it." Hamor proposes not only intermarriage but a thoroughgoing commercial alliance.
11 And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will give. Shechem said to her father and brothers, "Let me find grace in your eyes. I will pay whatever price you name."
12 Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me: but give me the damsel to wife. "Name the highest bride-price and gift, and I will pay whatever you say, but give me the young woman to be my wife."
13 And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father deceitfully, and said, because he had defiled Dinah their sister: The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and his father Hamor in deceit, and justified themselves by saying that Shechem had defiled their sister Dinah.
14 And they said unto them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us: So they told them, "We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to a man having his foreskin still attached. That would shame us."
15 But in this will we consent unto you: If ye will be as we be, that every male of you be circumcised; "We will consent to you if you will become like us: every male must be circumcised."
16 Then will we give our daughters unto you, and we will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people. "Then we will give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters for ourselves, and will live with you, and will become one people."
17 But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be circumcised; then will we take our daughter, and we will be gone. "But if you won't listen to us, and won't be circumcised, we will take our daughter, and will go away."
18 And their words pleased Hamor, and Shechem Hamor's son. Their words were good in the eyes of Hamor and of his son Shechem.
19 And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's daughter: and he was more honourable than all the house of his father. The young man did this thing without delay, because he found Jacob's daughter delightful. He showed greater honor than the entire household of his father.
20 And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and communed with the men of their city, saying, So Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gate of their city, and spoke with the men of their city, and said,
21 These men are peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the land, behold, it is large enough for them; let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters. "These men are peaceable with us. So let them live in the land, and be merchants in it. The land can certainly support them. And we will take their daughters to be our wives, and give them our daughters."
22 Only herein will the men consent unto us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if every male among us be circumcised, as they are circumcised. "And on this condition they will consent to live with us and be one people: every male among us must be circumcised, as they have been circumcised."
23 Shall not their cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only let us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us. "Will not their cattle and goods and every beast belonging to them, belong to us? So let us consent to them, and they will live with us." Hamor is looking ahead to enriching his kingdom by assimilating Jacob and his people. Or so he thinks.
24 And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the gate of his city; and every male was circumcised, all that went out of the gate of his city. Everyone who went out of the gate of Hamor's city listened to him and his son Shechem. Every male was circumcised among those who went out of the gate of the city.
25 And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males. And so it happened on the third day, when they were sore, two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, took a sword each, came upon the city when everyone trusted them, and killed every male.
26 And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out. They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of the house of Shechem and went away.
27 The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister. The sons of Jacob then came upon the slain men, and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister.
28 They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field, They took their sheep, their oxen, and their donkeys, and everything valuable in the city and in the field.
29 And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the house. They captured their entire estate, and all their little children and their wives, and plundered everything in the house.
30 And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, Ye have troubled me to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and I being few in number, they shall gather themselves together against me, and slay me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house. Jacob told Simeon and Levi, "You have caused me a lot of trouble, and made me a stench among those who live in the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites. I will be doomed to die! We are outnumbered, and they will gather together against me, and kill me, and I will be exterminated, I and my entire household!"
31 And they said, Should he deal with our sister as with an harlot? And they said, "Should we treat our sister as though she were a prostitute?"

References

  1. Easton MG, "Entry for Kesitah," Easton's Bible Dictionary, acc. 22 Dec 2009.
Personal tools