Genesis 35-42 (Translated)

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Chapter 35

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel, and dwell there: and make there an altar unto God, that appeared unto thee when thou fleddest from the face of Esau thy brother. God said to Jacob, "Rise, go up to Bethel. Live there and make there an altar to God, Who appeared to you when you ran away from your brother Esau." Bethel literally means "house of God." This was the location of Jacob's stairway dream.
2 Then Jacob said unto his household, and to all that were with him, Put away the strange gods that are among you, and be clean, and change your garments: Then Jacob said to his household, and everyone with him, "Put away the foreign gods that are in your midst, and cleanse yourselves, and change your clothes." This certainly includes, perhaps without limitation, the theraphim that Rachel stole from Laban.
3 And let us arise, and go up to Bethel; and I will make there an altar unto God, who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me in the way which I went. "We are going to rise up and go to Bethel. There I will make an altar to God, Who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me wherever I went."
4 And they gave unto Jacob all the strange gods which were in their hand, and all their earrings which were in their ears; and Jacob hid them under the oak which was by Shechem. They gave Jacob all the foreign gods that were in their hand, and all the pendants in their ears, and Jacob hid these under the terebinth tree that was next to Shechem. The terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus) is not an oak at all. It is a tree common to the south and souteast of modern Israel.[1] It is a deciduous tree that grows to a maximum height of 30 feet (9 meters) and produces red berries.[2]
5 And they journeyed: and the terror of God was upon the cities that were round about them, and they did not pursue after the sons of Jacob. And so they journeyed. The dismay of God lay upon the cities that stood round about them, and they did not chase after the sons of Jacob.
6 So Jacob came to Luz, which is in the land of Canaan, that is, Bethel, he and all the people that were with him. So Jacob came to Luz, in the land of Canaan, which is to say, Bethel, together with all the people who were with him.
7 And he built there an altar, and called the place El-beth-el: because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother. There he built an altar, and called the place El-Bethel, because in that place God appeared to him when he ran away from his brother.
8 But Deborah Rebekah's nurse died, and she was buried beneath Bethel under an oak: and the name of it was called Allon-bachuth. Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, died, and was buried underneath Bethel under an oak. Its name was called Allon-Bachuth. Which in Hebrew means "the oak of lamentation." This is an oak, as the word used makes clear.[1]
9 And God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came out of Padan-aram, and blessed him. God appeared to Jacob another time, when he came out from Padan-aram, and blessed him.
10 And God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name: and he called his name Israel. God said to him, "Your name is Jacob. But your name will not be called Jacob any further, but rather Israel will be your name." And he named him Israel.
11 And God said unto him, I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins; God told him, "I am the God Who Suffices. Be fruitful and multiply. An ethnicity and an assembly of ethnicities will come from you, and kings will descend directly from you."
12 And the land which I gave Abraham and Isaac, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after thee will I give the land. "The land that I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give to you, and to your descendants after you I will give the land."
13 And God went up from him in the place where he talked with him. God went up from him in the place where He spoke with him.
14 And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon. Jacob set up a monument in the place where he spoke with Him, a monument of stone. He poured a libation on it, and poured oil on it.
15 And Jacob called the name of the place where God spake with him, Bethel. Jacob called the name of the place where God spoke with him, Bethel.
16 And they journeyed from Bethel; and there was but a little way to come to Ephrath: and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour. They traveled from Bethel, and they were still a short distance from Ephrathah. Rachel entered labor, and had a difficult labor.
17 And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear not; thou shalt have this son also. And so it happened, while Rachel was in difficult labor, the midwife said to her, "Don't be afraid; you will have this son as well."
18 And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died) that she called his name Ben-oni: but his father called him Benjamin. And it happened, as Rachel was on the point of death (for she died in childbirth), she named the boy Ben-Oni. But his fther named him Benjamin. In Hebrew, "son of my right hand." Rachel wanted to call him "son of sorrow."
19 And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. Rachel died, and was buried on the road to Ephrathah, which is modern Bethlehem.
20 And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: that is the pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day. Jacob set up a monument on her tomb. This is the monument of the tomb of Rachel to this day. The tomb of Rachel stands to this day, but today is guarded by a fortress.
21 And Israel journeyed, and spread his tent beyond the tower of Edar. Israel traveled on, and pitched his tent beyond Migdal-Edar. Literally, "tower of Edar."
22 And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father's concubine: and Israel heard it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve: It happened, when Israel lived in that land, Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father's common-law wife. Israel heard about it.

Now the sons of Jacob numbered twelve:

23 The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun: The sons of Leah:
  1. Reuben, Jacob's firstborn.
  2. Simeon
  3. Levi
  4. Judah
  5. Issachar
  6. Zebulun
24 The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin: The sons of Rachel:
  1. Joseph
  2. Benjamin
25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali: The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid:
  1. Dan
  2. Naphtali
26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padan-aram. The sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid:
  1. Gad
  2. Asher

These are the sons of Jacob, who were born to him in Padan-aram.

27 And Jacob came unto Isaac his father unto Mamre, unto the city of Arbah, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac sojourned. Jacob came to his father Isaac, in Mamre, to Kirjath-Arba, or the modern Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had sojourned.
28 And the days of Isaac were an hundred and fourscore years. Isaac lived to be 180 years old.
29 And Isaac gave up the ghost, and died, and was gathered unto his people, being old and full of days: and his sons Esau and Jacob buried him. Isaac expired, and was gathered to his people, having lived a long and full life. His sons Esau and Jacob buried him.

Chapter 36

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edom. Here is the Testimony of Esau, also known as Edom: Jacob took down these details from Esau and included them in his own Testimony (Hebrew תולדות (toledoth), family history, origins history, or as used here, a written testimony.)
2 Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan; Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; Esau selected his wives from among the daughters of Canaan: Adah daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Aholibamah daughter of Anah daughter of Zibeon the Hivite,
3 And Bashemath Ishmael's daughter, sister of Nebajoth. and Bashemath daughter of Ishmael and sister of Nebajoth.
4 And Adah bare to Esau Eliphaz; and Bashemath bare Reuel; Adah gave birth to Eliphaz for Esau, and Bashemath gave birth to Reuel.
5 And Aholibamah bare Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah: these are the sons of Esau, which were born unto him in the land of Canaan. Aholibamah gave birth to Jeush and Jaalam and Korah. These are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.
6 And Esau took his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance, which he had got in the land of Canaan; and went into the country from the face of his brother Jacob. Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and every member of his household, and his cattle, and his beasts, and all his possessions that he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and went into the country away from the presence of his brother Jacob,
7 For their riches were more than that they might dwell together; and the land wherein they were strangers could not bear them because of their cattle. because their respective goods were to many for them to live together in the same place, and the land where they were sojourning could not support them on account of their cattle.
8 Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir: Esau is Edom. So Esau lived on Mount Seir. Esau is the same as Edom. Also known as Idumaea. Among his eventual descendants was Herod the Great.
9 And these are the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in mount Seir: These are the genealogical annals of Esau, father of the Edomites, in Mount Seir:
10 These are the names of Esau's sons; Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Bashemath the wife of Esau. The names of the sons of Esau were: Eliphaz son of Adah, wife of Esau, and Reuel son of Bashemath, wife of Esau.
11 And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam, and Kenaz. The sons of Eliphaz were: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.
12 And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau's son; and she bare to Eliphaz Amalek: these were the sons of Adah Esau's wife. Timna became a common-law wife of Eliphaz son of Esau. She gave birth, for Eliphaz, to Amalek. These were the sons of Adah, wife of Esau. From Amalek come the Amalekites, who would trouble the peace of Israel for centuries. The Amalekites are also a candidate for the identity of the Hyksos, the "shepherd kings" who took over Egypt between the eras of the Middle Kingdom and the Empire.
13 And these are the sons of Reuel; Nahath, and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah: these were the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. The sons of Reuel were: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons of Bashemath, wife of Esau.
14 And these were the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon, Esau's wife: and she bare to Esau Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Aholibamah, daughter of Anah daughter of Zibeon, the wife of Esau: she gave birth, for Esau, to Jeush, Jaalam, and Korah. This is not the same as Korah the Mutineer, grandson of Levi.
15 These were dukes of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the firstborn son of Esau; duke Teman, duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz, These were the sheikhs among the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz, firstborn of Esau: sheikh Teman, sheikh Omar, sheikh Zepho, sheikh Kenaz, The word rendered "duke" in the KJV is אלוף (aluph). The best translation is "sheikh" for a leader of a part-Arab people. Aluph literally means "strong man," and can mean "leader." (Root aleph an ox, or a thousand, or a military unit slightly larger than a battalion and tentatively regarded as a thousand strong). The noble title of "duke" in English (or duc in French, etc.) derives from the Latin duceo, meaning "I lead."

The first modern person to carry the title of Aluf was Colonel David D. "Mickey" Marcus, United States Army, also known as Michael Stone, assigned as theater commander of the Jerusalem campaign and the most famous of the foreign volunteers who fought to assure the independence of Israel in 1948. Today an Aluf is a flag-ranked officer in the modern Israel Defense Forces.

16 Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Amalek: these are the dukes that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah. sheikh Korah, sheikh Gatam, and sheikh Amalek. These are the sheikhs that came from Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah. In fact, they've been mentioned already; see above.
17 And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's son; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Shammah, duke Mizzah: these are the dukes that came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. These are the sons of Reuel, son of Esau: sheikh Nahath, sheikh Zerah, sheikh Shammah, sheikh Mizzah: these are the sheikhs that came from Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bashemath, wife of Esau.
18 And these are the sons of Aholibamah Esau's wife; duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah: these were the dukes that came of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. These are the sons of Aholibamah, wife of Esau: sheikh Jeush, sheikh Jaalam, sheikh Korah: these were the sheikhs that came from Aholibamah, daughter of Anah, wife of Esau.
19 These are the sons of Esau, who is Edom, and these are their dukes. These are the sons of Esau, also known as Edom, and these are their sheikhs.
20 These are the sons of Seir the Horite, who inhabited the land; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, These are the sons of Seir the Horite, who lived in the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,
21 And Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan: these are the dukes of the Horites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom. Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan: these are the sheikhs of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the country of Edom.
22 And the children of Lotan were Hori and Hemam; and Lotan's sister was Timna. The sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam. Lotan's sister was Timna.
23 And the children of Shobal were these; Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. The sons of Shobal were: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
24 And these are the children of Zibeon; both Ajah, and Anah: this was that Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. The sons of Zibeon were Ajah and Anah. This is that same Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness, while he was putting out the donkeys of his father Zibeon to graze.
25 And the children of Anah were these; Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah. The sons of Anah were: Dishon, and Aholibamah daughter of Anah.
26 And these are the children of Dishon; Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran. The sons of Dishon were: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.
27 The children of Ezer are these; Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan. The sons of Ezer were: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
28 The children of Dishan are these: Uz, and Aran. The sons of Dishan are: Uz and Aran.
29 These are the dukes that came of the Horites; duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah, These are the sheikhs of the Horites: sheikh Lotan, sheikh Shobal, sheikh Zibeon, sheikh Anah,
30 Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan: these are the dukes that came of Hori, among their dukes in the land of Seir. sheikh Dishon, sheikh Ezer, sheikh Dishan: these are the sheikhs that came from the Horites, among their sheikhs in the country of Seir.
31 And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel. These are the kings that reigned in the country of Edom, before any king reigned over the Sons of Israel:
32 And Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom: and the name of his city was Dinhabah. Bela son of Beor reigned in Edom, and the name of his capital city was Dinhabah.
33 And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead. Bela died, and Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah succeeded him.
34 And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani reigned in his stead. Jobab died, and Husham from the land of Temani succeeded him.
35 And Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Avith. Husham died, and Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the field of Moab, succeeded him. The name of his capital city was Avith.
36 And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead. Hadad died, and Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him.
37 And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead. Samlah died, and Saul from Rehoboth-by-the-stream succeeded him.
38 And Saul died, and Baal-hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead. Saul died, and Baal-hanan son of Achbor succeeded him.
39 And Baal-hanan the son of Achbor died, and Hadar reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Pau; and his wife's name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab. Baal-hanan son of Achbor died, and Hadar succeeded him. His capital city was Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, daughter of Mezahab.
40 And these are the names of the dukes that came of Esau, according to their families, after their places, by their names; duke Timnah, duke Alvah, duke Jetheth, These are the names of the sheikhs that came from Esau, according to their families and places and names: sheikh Timnah, sheikh Alvah, sheikh Jetheth,
41 Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon, sheikh Aholibamah, sheikh Elah, sheikh Pinon,
42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar, sheikh Kenaz, sheikh Teman, sheikh Mibsar,
43 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these be the dukes of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession: he is Esau the father of the Edomites. sheikh Magdiel, and sheikh Iram: these are the sheikhs of Edom, according to their dwelling-places in the land of their freehold: Esau is the father of the Edomites.

Chapter 37

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan. Jacob continued to live in the country that his father had been a foreigner in, in the land of Canaan.
2 These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report. Here ends the Testimony of Jacob.

(The annals of Joseph)

Joseph was seventeen years of age, and was grazing the sheep together with his brothers. The young man was with the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his father's (common-law) wives. Joseph had a habit of bearing evil tales about them to his father.

Merely because God works wonders in a person's life, does not mean that that person was always a shining example. Joseph starts out as a classic tattler, a most unwise thing to be in such a dysfunctional family.
3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours. Israel loved Joseph more than he did his other sons, because he was the son of his old age. He even made a tunic of distinction for him. The implications of the tunic of distinction were a slap in the face to the older brothers, and especially to Reuben: usually the firstborn, and heir to the double share of the family fortune, wore this tunic. That it was multi-colored, or variegated, or perhaps had long sleeves in it, are only speculations. But the important thing to note was that Jacob was signaling to everyone that Joseph was his favorite, and would inherit the double portion. Presumably this was because Reuben had disgraced himself with Bilhah, one of his father's common-law wives.
4 And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him. His brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers. They hated him for that, and could not speak peaceably to him.
5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren: and they hated him yet the more. Joseph dreamed a dream, and told it to his brothers, and they only added to their hatred of him. This was an act of naïveté, not necessarily arrogance.
6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed: He told them, "Please listen to this dream that I have dreamed."
7 For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf. "We were binding sheaves in the middle of the field. Then—I swear!—my sheaf rose up, and stood on its end, and—get this!—your sheaves surrounded mine and bowed themselves down to my sheaf!"
8 And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words. His brothers said to him, "Are you telling us that you are going to reign over us? Are you saying that you're going to rule over us?" They added further to their hatred of him on account of his dreams and his words.
9 And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me. He dreamed still another dream, and told it to his brothers. He said, "Get this! I dreamed another dream, and in it, the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed themselves down to me!"
10 And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? He told it to his father, and his brothers. His father scolded him, and said to him, "What is this dream that you dreamed? Are you telling me that I, and your mother and brothers, will bow down to the ground before you?"
11 And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying. His brothers were jealous of him, but his father thought long and hard about Joseph's words.
12 And his brethren went to feed their father's flock in Shechem. His brothers were going to graze their father's livestock in Shechem.
13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here am I. Israel said to Joseph, "Aren't your brothers grazing the livestock in Shechem? Go, and I will send you to them." And Joseph said to him, "Behold me."
14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. And Jacob said to him, "Please go and see whether your brothers and the livestock are well, and bring me back word." So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. Jacob had reason to worry. The last time the brothers were in Shechem, they created a deadly serious incident.
15 And a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field: and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? A certain man found him wandering about in the field. The man asked him, "What are you looking for?"
16 And he said, I seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks. And Joseph said, "I'm looking for my brothers. Please tell me where they are grazing their livestock."
17 And the man said, They are departed hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan. The man said, "They have already left here. I heard them say that they were going to Dothan." So Joseph went after his brothers, and found them in Dothan. Joseph makes every effort to carry out the mission.
18 And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him. When they saw him coming from a distance, even before he came close to them, they plotted against him, to put him to death.
19 And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh. They were saying to one another, "Oh, look, here comes the guy with the dreams!"
20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams. "What say we kill him, and throw him into one of these dry wells? We can say that some wild animal devoured him. Then we'll see what becomes of those dreams of his!"
21 And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands; and said, Let us not kill him. Reuben heard it, and determined to rescue him from their hands. He said, "No, we shall not kill him."
22 And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again. Reuben said, "You must not shed any blood. Fling him into this dry well here in the desert, but don't lay a hand on him." He intended to rescue Joseph from their hands and bring him back to his father. Actually, Reuben was trying to set his brothers up, thus increasing the inheritance portion, and also to ingratiate himself with his father, though he had that act of quasi-incest on his record.
23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him; So what happened, when Joseph had come to his brothers, was this: First they stripped off Joseph his tunic, the tunic of distinction that he was wearing.
24 And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. Then they seized him and flung him into a dry well. This well was empty and had no water in it.
25 And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. They sat down to eat some bread, and when they lifted their eyes and looked, they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead, with camels carrying perfumes and balms and labdanum, going to carry this cargo down toward Egypt.
26 And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Then Judah said to his brothers, "What would we gain by killing our brother and covering up his blood?"
27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content. "Come, let's sell him to the Ishmaelites, and not lay a hand on him. He is our brother and our flesh." His brothers listened to this plan.
28 Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt. Then the Midianite merchantmen came passing by. The brothers lowered a rope and brought up Joseph from the dry well, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty silver pieces. The Ishmaelites brought Joseph into Egypt.
29 And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes. Reuben returned to the dry well, and was shocked to see that Joseph was not in the dry well. So he tore his clothes. This is the first recorded instance of clothes-rending as a gesture of deep sorrow.
30 And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I go? He returned to his brothers, and said, "The boy is not there! Where shall I go?" His plan to ingratiate himself at his brothers' expense had just come to nothing. Nor dared he pursue the Midianites; at this point, Joseph might implicate him.
31 And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood; Then they took Joseph's tunic, and killed a goat kid, and dipped the tunic in the blood,
32 And they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their father; and said, This have we found: know now whether it be thy son's coat or no. And sent the tunic of distinction, and brought it to their father, and said, "We found this. Please identify it as to whether it's your son's tunic or not."
33 And he knew it, and said, It is my son's coat; an evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. He recognized it, and said, "It is my son's tunic; a wild animal must have devoured him. Joseph must have been torn to pieces."
34 And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. Jacob tore his clothes, and put on sackcloth around his waist, and mourned for his sons for many days. This is the second instance in the Bible of clothes-rending.
35 And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave unto my son mourning. Thus his father wept for him. All his sons and all his daughters rose up to console him, but he refused to be consoled, and said, "I will go down into the Unseen Place, mourning for my son." Thus his father lamented him. The Hebrew word is שאל (shal), commonly written as "Sheol" in English.
36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard. The Midianites, meanwhile, sold Joseph into Egypt, to Potiphar, a eunuch of Pharaoh, who served him as chief executioner.

Chapter 38

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah. It happened in that season that Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside to a certain Adullamite, and his name was Hirah.
2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite, whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her. Judah saw there a daughter of a Canaanite named Shuah. He married her and was intimate with her.
3 And she conceived, and bare a son; and he called his name Er. She fell pregnant, and gave birth to a son, and named him Er.
4 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and she called his name Onan. She fell pregnant again, and gave birth to a son, and named him Onan.
5 And she yet again conceived, and bare a son; and called his name Shelah: and he was at Chezib, when she bare him. She fell pregnant still another time, and gave birth to a son, and named him Shelah. He was at Kezib when she gave birth to him.
6 And Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, whose name was Tamar. Judah procured a wife for his firstborn, Er. Her name was Tamar.
7 And Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD slew him. Er, firstborn of Judah, became evil in the eyes of the LORD, and the LORD put him to death.
8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to thy brother. Judah then said to Onan, "Marry your brother's wife, and do your levirate duty toward her, and raise up an heir for your brother." This is the first instance of the Levirate Law, by which a man would marry his dead brother's wife, and the first son of that union would inherit the dead brother's estate.
9 And Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed to his brother. Onan knew that the son would not be his heir. So what happened was that when he was intimate with his brother's wife, he spilled his gism on the ground, so as not to give his brother an heir.
10 And the thing which he did displeased the LORD: wherefore he slew him also. What he did was evil in the eyes of the LORD, and He put him to death as well.
11 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter in law, Remain a widow at thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown: for he said, Lest peradventure he die also, as his brethren did. And Tamar went and dwelt in her father's house. Now Judah said to his daughter-in-law Tamar, "Live as a widow at your father's house, until Shelah has come of age." To himself he said, "I don't want him to die as well, as his brothers have." So Tamar went and lived in her father's house.
12 And in process of time the daughter of Shuah Judah's wife died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheepshearers to Timnath, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite. Eventually the daughter of Shuah, the wife of Judah, died. Judah was consoled, and went up to his sheep-shearers, both he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite, toward Timnath. Timnath would be the place where Judge Samson would try to find a wife.
13 And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold thy father in law goeth up to Timnath to shear his sheep. Someone told Tamar, saying, "Look, your father-in-law is going up to Timnath to shear his sheep."
14 And she put her widow's garments off from her, and covered her with a vail, and wrapped herself, and sat in an open place, which is by the way to Timnath; for she saw that Shelah was grown, and she was not given unto him to wife. She doffed her widow's weeds, and covered herself with a veil, and bedecked herself, and sat in the opening of Enaim on the Timnath road. She knew already that Shelah had come of age, and she had not been given to him as his wife. The "bedecking" implies putting on too much make-up and too many jewels.
15 When Judah saw her, he thought her to be an harlot; because she had covered her face. Judah saw her, and reckoned that she was a cult prostitute, because he had covered her face.
16 And he turned unto her by the way, and said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee; (for he knew not that she was his daughter in law.) And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me? He turned aside to her by the roadside, and said, "Please grant that I may be intimate with you." (He did not know that this woman was his daughter-in-law.) She said, "What will you pay me for the privilege of being intimate with me?"
17 And he said, I will send thee a kid from the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it? He said, "I will send you a goat kid from my flock." She said, "Are you going to give me some security until you send it?"
18 And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him. He said, "What kind of security should I give you?" She said, "Your signet ring, your bracelets, and that rod in your hand." He gave her these things, and was intimatewith her, and she fell pregnant by him. Both parties to this sordid transaction are equally guilty.
19 And she arose, and went away, and laid by her vail from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood. Then she rose up and went away, and took off her veil and put her widow's weeds on once more.
20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge from the woman's hand: but he found her not. Judah sent the goat kid by the hand of his associate the Adullamite, to take back the security from the woman's hand. But the associate didn't find her.
21 Then he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot, that was openly by the way side? And they said, There was no harlot in this place. Then he asked the men of that place, "Where is that cult prostitute that was in the opening of Enaim by the roadside?" ANd they said, "There was no cult prostitute here."
22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I cannot find her; and also the men of the place said, that there was no harlot in this place. He came back to Judah, saying, "I can't find her, and in fact the men of the place told me that there never was a cult prostitute there."
23 And Judah said, Let her take it to her, lest we be shamed: behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her. Judah said, "Let her have the security, then, or else we'll look ridiculous. It's bad enough as it is! I sent this goat kid, and you couldn't find her."
24 And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter in law hath played the harlot; and also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. Three months later, this news was told to Judah: "Your daughter-in-law Tamar has committed prostitution, and worse yet, she has fallen pregnant through that prostitution." Judah said, "Bring her out here; she is to be burned alive."
25 When she was brought forth, she sent to her father in law, saying, By the man, whose these are, am I with child: and she said, Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and bracelets, and staff. As she was being brought out, she sent a message to her father-in-law: "I am pregnant by the man who owns these things. Please identify the owner of this signet ring, bracelets, and rod."
26 And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She hath been more righteous than I; because that I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he knew her again no more. Judah recognized them, and said, "She has acted with greater honor than I, because I failed to give her my son Shelah for a husband." And he was never intimate with her again.
27 And it came to pass in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb. Eventually, at the time of her parturition, twins were discovered in her womb.
28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his hand: and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first, It happened, while she was in labor, one of them thrust out his hand. The midwife tied a double-dipped token on his hand, saying, "This came out first."
29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, How hast thou broken forth? this breach be upon thee: therefore his name was called Pharez. But what actually happened was that he drew his hand back, and then his brother came out. The midwife said, "How did you break out like that?" And she named him Pharez. Which in Hebrew means "a breach" or "a breakout."
30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his name was called Zarah. Afterward his brother came out, the one having the double-dipped token on his hand. He was named Zerah.

Chapter 39

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought him down thither. Joseph was brought down to Egypt. Potiphar, a eunuch in the service of Pharaoh, chief of the executioners, an Egyptian, bought him out of the hands of the Ishmaelites who had brought him there. Any officer as ranking in Egyptian society as the chief executioner had to submit to castration as a condition of employment. But such offices carried with them such honor and privilege that the loss of one's procreative ability was a small price to pay.

The chief executioner was commandant of the royal bodyguard force and head of the ancient Egyptian equivalent of the Bureau of Prisons.

2 And the LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian. The LORD was with Joseph, and he enjoyed a measure of prosperity. He became one of the household slaves of his Egyptian master. That is, he was not a mere field hand.
3 And his master saw that the LORD was with him, and that the LORD made all that he did to prosper in his hand. His master could see that the LORD was with him, and that the LORD made everything he did, succeed in his hands. Possibly Potiphar noticed or heard about Joseph's habit of praying, and judged Joseph's religion by its apparent result.
4 And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him: and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand. So Joseph found favor in his eyes, and served him quite closely. So his master made him the supervisor of his household, and entrusted everything he owned to him.
5 And it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the LORD blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of the LORD was upon all that he had in the house, and in the field. And from the day that he made Joseph supervisor of his household, and over everything he owned, the LORD blessed the Egyptian's household on Joseph's account, and the blessing of the LORD came upon everything he owned, both in his house and in his field.
6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's hand; and he knew not ought he had, save the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was a goodly person, and well favoured. He trusted Joseph with everything he had, and did not even ask for an accounting for anything but the bread he ate.

Joseph was also a handsome and good-looking man.

7 And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, Lie with me. And so it fell out after these events, that his lord's wife infatuated herself with Joseph, and she said, "Lie down with me." Potiphar probably became a married man before he rose high enough in rank to be required to submit to castration. The wife of any man who might advance to such a level accepted that fact as a risk of the match—or at least, such was expected.
8 But he refused, and said unto his master's wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath to my hand; Joseph refused. He told his master's wife, "Look, my master doesn't even know what is in my care in his own house. He has trusted me with everything he owns."
9 There is none greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept back any thing from me but thee, because thou art his wife: how then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God? "There is no one in this house having more authority than myself, and he has not withheld anything from me, except only yourself, because you are his wife. Now how do you expect me to violate his trust like that, and sin against God?"
10 And it came to pass, as she spake to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her. And so it was that, though she would repeatedly ask that of Joseph, he would not listen to her, and would not be intimate or even on any close terms with her.
11 And it came to pass about this time, that Joseph went into the house to do his business; and there was none of the men of the house there within. Then one day Joseph was coming into the house to do his work, and there was no man from among the household staff there in the house. A very dangerous situation, to be in the presence of this amorous woman without a chaperon.
12 And she caught him by his garment, saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out. On that occasion she grasped his cloak and said, "Be intimate with me!" He then left his cloak in her hand, and fled from her, and ran outside.
13 And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth, What happened next was that when she realized that he had left his cloak in her hand, and had run outside,
14 That she called unto the men of her house, and spake unto them, saying, See, he hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice: she called out to the staff, and told them this story: "He has brought us a Hebrew to make fun of us! He came to me and tried to be intimate with me. I shouted in a loud voice,..."
15 And it came to pass, when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled, and got him out. "...and when he heard me raising my voice and shouting, he left his cloak with me, and fled, and ran outside!"
16 And she laid up his garment by her, until his lord came home. She then kept the cloak by her side, until his master came home.
17 And she spake unto him according to these words, saying, The Hebrew servant, which thou hast brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me: Then she told the master the same story: "The Hebrew slave, whom you brought to us, came to me to make fun of me...."
18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled out. "...Look at this! I raised my voice and shouted, and he left his cloak beside me, and fled outside!"
19 And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto him, saying, After this manner did thy servant to me; that his wrath was kindled. And so, when his master heard what his wife had to tell him, saying, "This is what your servant did to me," his anger grew hot.
20 And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison. Joseph's master had him seized, and put him into the House of the Curve, the special prison where the king's prisoners were confined. So Joseph found himself an inmate of the House of the Curve. The literal expression "House of the Curve" appears to be the special name assigned to this prison, similar to "Château d'If" during the Napoleonic era, or Lubyanka Prison in Moscow, Russia in the days of the old Soviet Union. The "Curve" might have been a bend in the Nile River, and specifically a crocodile-infested stretch of it. If so, the message would be plain: even if a prisoner escaped, he would be crocodile bait.
21 But the LORD was with Joseph, and shewed him mercy, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison. But the LORD was with Joseph, and extended kindness to him, and gave him favor in the sight of the officer-in-charge of the prison.
22 And the keeper of the prison committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it. And so the warden of the House of the Curve placed all of the prisoners in the House of the Curve under Joseph's authority. Whatever was done in that prison, Joseph was in charge of it. In short, Joseph became the ultimate "trusty" in a prison meant for very special prisoners—quite a distinction indeed. Thus, far from punishment, Joseph received the next level of administrative and executive training, though he probably did not realize it yet.
23 The keeper of the prison looked not to any thing that was under his hand; because the LORD was with him, and that which he did, the LORD made it to prosper. The warden of the House of the Curve took no account of anything that was in Joseph's hands, because the LORD was with him, and everything he did, the LORD made to succeed.

Chapter 40

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt. It happened after these things that the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and his baker, had each committed a separate offense against the king of Egypt.
2 And Pharaoh was wroth against two of his officers, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers. Pharaoh was angry with these two eunuchs, the chief cupbearer and the chief baker.
3 And he put them in ward in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was bound. So he placed them in the custody of the chief executioner, and committed them to the House of the Curve—the same place where Joseph was now an inmate.
4 And the captain of the guard charged Joseph with them, and he served them: and they continued a season in ward. The chief executioner ordered Joseph to take charge of them. Joseph tended to their needs while they were in ward. A clear indication that the warden of the House of the Curve answered, probably directly, to Potiphar. Despite all that had passed between them, Joseph had by then earned enough trust for Potiphar to give him a special assignment. This would be equivalent to the head of the Federal Bureau of Prisons giving an extra-special job to the most trusted inmate at Leavenworth Federal Prison to take charge of two fellow inmates.
5 And they dreamed a dream both of them, each man his dream in one night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, which were bound in the prison. Each of the two men dreamed a dream, each man his own dream in the same night, each dream requiring a different interpretation—that is, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were confined in the House of the Curve.
6 And Joseph came in unto them in the morning, and looked upon them, and, behold, they were sad. Joseph came to see them the next morning, and when he looked at them, he noticed that they were sorely troubled. The literal word translates as "turbulent." This is a lot worse than being merely "sad."
7 And he asked Pharaoh's officers that were with him in the ward of his lord's house, saying, Wherefore look ye so sadly to day? He asked these men, these eunuchs of Pharaoh who were his fellow inmates in his lords' house, "What's wrong? You men look terrible today."
8 And they said unto him, We have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter of it. And Joseph said unto them, Do not interpretations belong to God? tell me them, I pray you. And they told him, "We have each dreamed a dream, and there is no one around to interpret them." So Joseph said back to them, "Dream interpretations belong to God, do they not? Please tell me your dreams."
9 And the chief butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was before me; So the chief cupbearer told his dream to Joseph: "In my dream, a vine grew in front of me..."
10 And in the vine were three branches: and it was as though it budded, and her blossoms shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe grapes: "...And in the vine were three intertwining branches. And then they seemed to bud out, and blossoms came up, and their grape clusters ripened...."
11 And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand: and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand. "...And then Pharaoh's cup was in my hand, so I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and then I gave the cup into the palm of Pharaoh's hand."
12 And Joseph said unto him, This is the interpretation of it: The three branches are three days: Joseph told him, "This is the interpretation of your dream: the three intertwining branches are three days."
13 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place: and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the former manner when thou wast his butler. "And furthermore, in three days Pharaoh is going to lift up your head, and restore you to your job, and you will be giving Pharaoh's cup into his hand, as was your former custom when you were his cupbearer."
14 But think on me when it shall be well with thee, and shew kindness, I pray thee, unto me, and make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house: "But I ask only that you remember me when it is well with you, and please do me the kindness of mentioning me to Pharaoh and bringing me out of this House."
15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews: and here also have I done nothing that they should put me into the dungeon. "In fact, I was stolen away out of the country of the Hebrews, and furthermore, I haven't done anything to merit my confinement in this Hole." Any prison is "The Hole" to an inmate, even to Joseph, the trusty of all trusties.
16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said unto Joseph, I also was in my dream, and, behold, I had three white baskets on my head: The chief baker saw that the cupbearer's dream had a good interpretation. So he said to Joseph, "I was also in my dream, and I had three wicker trays on my head."
17 And in the uppermost basket there was of all manner of bakemeats for Pharaoh; and the birds did eat them out of the basket upon my head. "In the uppermost tray I had all sorts of baked foods for Pharaoh. But the birds ate them out of the tray on my head."
18 And Joseph answered and said, This is the interpretation thereof: The three baskets are three days: Joseph, in answer, said, "This is the interpretation of your dream: the three baskets are three days.
19 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee. And in three days, Pharaoh will lift your head off your body, and will hang you on a tree, and birds will eat your flesh from your bones."
20 And it came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made a feast unto all his servants: and he lifted up the head of the chief butler and of the chief baker among his servants. And it happened in that way: on the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, Pharaoh made a feast for all his servants.
21 And he restored the chief butler unto his butlership again; and he gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand: He restored the chief cupbearer to his cupbearership, and once again he was giving the cup into Pharaoh's hand.
22 But he hanged the chief baker: as Joseph had interpreted to them. But he had the chief baker hanged, as Joseph had interpreted to them.
23 Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph, but forgat him. But the chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph, but forgot about him. He probably didn't dare mention these dreams, because he didn't want to risk angering Pharaoh all over again for his initial offense. Besides, he might have feared Joseph's ability more than he appreciated it. In any event, he would reveal the secret, but all in good time—that is to say, God's time.

Chapter 41

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed: and, behold, he stood by the river. One night, two full years later, Pharaoh was dreaming. He was standing at the Nile river. The Nile River made Egypt what it was, ever since the dispersal of humanity from the Tower of Babel. Its regular inundations enriched the soil and made Egypt's farmland highly productive.
2 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured kine and fatfleshed; and they fed in a meadow. He saw coming out of the Nile seven young and lovely and plump milk cows. They were grazing in the marsh grass.
3 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them out of the river, ill favoured and leanfleshed; and stood by the other kine upon the brink of the river. Then, seven other cows came out of the Nile after them. They looked sickly and lean. They stood beside the other cows at the river's edge.
4 And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine. So Pharaoh awoke. And the sickly and lean cows ate up the seven good-looking and plump cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.
5 And he slept and dreamed the second time: and, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, rank and good. He slept and dreamed a second time. He saw seven ears of corn springing up on one stalk, all plump and good. Or literally, seven "spikes."
6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind sprung up after them. Then seven thin ears, blasted with the east wind, came up after them.
7 And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream. The seven thin ears swallowed up the plump and full ears. Pharaoh woke up, and realized that it was a dream.
8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh. That morning, his spirit was agitated. He sent and called for all the sacred scribes of Egypt, and all her wise men. Pharaoh told them his dream, and there was no one present who could interpret them for Pharaoh.
9 Then spake the chief butler unto Pharaoh, saying, I do remember my faults this day: Then the chief cupbearer spoke to Pharaoh, and said, "I am reminded of my sins today."
10 Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in ward in the captain of the guard's house, both me and the chief baker: "Pharaoh was stirred to wrath against his servants, and placed me in ward in the house of the chief executioner, both myself and the chief baker."
11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he; we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream. "We were dreaming a dream in one night, I and he; each man of us dreamed according to the interpretation of his dream."
12 And there was there with us a young man, an Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard; and we told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each man according to his dream he did interpret. "We had a young Hebrew with us, the servant of the chief executioner. We told him, and he interpreted our dreams to us, to each man according to his dream."
13 And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was; me he restored unto mine office, and him he hanged. "And everything that he interpreted to us, came to pass: I was restored to my job, and the baker was hanged."
14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon: and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh. Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him out of "The Hole" as fast as they could. He shaved himself, changed his clothes, and came to Pharaoh. The literal word translates as "cistern." It is probably "The Hole," a common colloquialism by which all inmates know the particular prison where they are confined.
15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to interpret it. Pharaoh told Joseph, "I have dreamed a dream, and have no man who can interpret it. I have heard it said of you that you can understand a dream and interpret it."
16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me: God shall give Pharaoh an answer of peace. Joseph said in answer to Pharaoh, "I take no credit for this ability; God will give Pharaoh an answer to his well-being."
17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, In my dream, behold, I stood upon the bank of the river: Pharaoh said to Joseph, "In my dream, I was standing on the shore of the Nile."
18 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven kine, fatfleshed and well favoured; and they fed in a meadow: "As I watched, seven young cows came up out of the Nile, plump and lovely to look at. They were grazing in the marsh grass."
19 And, behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor and very ill favoured and leanfleshed, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt for badness: The next thing I saw were seven other young cows coming up after them, poor and extremely ugly to look at, and emaciated. I have never seen such bad-looking cows in all of Egypt."
20 And the lean and the ill favoured kine did eat up the first seven fat kine: "The emaciated and ugly cows ate up the first seven plump cows,..."
21 And when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them; but they were still ill favoured, as at the beginning. So I awoke. "...and when they had eaten them up, you wouldn't have been able to tell by looking at them that they had eaten up seven plump cows, because they still looked as ugly as they did at first. So I woke up."
22 And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears came up in one stalk, full and good: "Then I saw in my dream, seven ears coming up on one stalk, full and good."
23 And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them: "Then seven other ears, puny and thing and blasted with the east wind, sprouted up after them."
24 And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears: and I told this unto the magicians; but there was none that could declare it to me. "Then the thin ears swallowed up the seven good ears. I told this to the sacred scribes, but there was no one who could tell me what all this meant."
25 And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is one: God hath shewed Pharaoh what he is about to do. Joseph said to Pharaoh, "The two dreams of Pharaoh are one and the same. God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do."
26 The seven good kine are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is one. "The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears are seven years; the two dreams are one and the same."
27 And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that came up after them are seven years; and the seven empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be seven years of famine. "The seven emaciated and ugly-looking cows that came up after them are seven years, and the seven emaciated ears blasted with the east wind represent seven years—of famine."
28 This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh: What God is about to do he sheweth unto Pharaoh. "This is the word that I have spoken to Pharaoh: what God is about to do, he has shown to Pharaoh."
29 Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt: "Take heed: seven years of great satisfaction are coming throughout all the land of Egypt." Meaning seven years of absolutely optimal inundations, not too much, not too little.
30 And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land; "Then after them shall arise seven years of famine, and all the satisfaction in the land of Egypt will be forgotten, and the famine will finish the land." Probably seven inundations entirely insufficient to bring any of the rich river mud onto the land.
31 And the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following; for it shall be very grievous. "In fact, that satisfaction will be completely forgotten in the land on account of that famine that follows, because it will be exceedingly heavy."
32 And for that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass. "For that reason the dream was repeated to Pharaoh twice: this matter is established by God, and God is making haste to bring it about."
33 Now therefore let Pharaoh look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt. "Now Pharaoh must seek out a man of understanding and wisdom, and set him in command of the land of Egypt."
34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land, and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years. "Pharaoh must do this, and this commander must delegate authority to supervisors over the land, and take up one-fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt during the seven years of satisfaction."
35 And let them gather all the food of those good years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of Pharaoh, and let them keep food in the cities. "They must gather all the food of those coming good years, and store up cereal grains under the hand of Pharaoh, and keep food in the cities."
36 And that food shall be for store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt; that the land perish not through the famine. "This food will be under supervision in the land for the seven years of famine, that will come upon the land of Egypt, so that the land will not be destroyed by means of the famine." The literal Hebrew phrase is "cut off," an idiom that always means to destroy, to devastate, to execute, etc., depending on the context.
37 And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. This matter seemed good in the estimation of Pharaoh, and in the estimation of his entire staff.
38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the Spirit of God is? Now Pharaoh said to his staff, "Can any man be found like this one, in whom the Spirit of God rests?"
39 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art: Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Since God has shown you all of this, there is no one having as much understanding or wisdom as you have."
40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. "So you will be over my household, and your word will be law to my people. Only as touching the throne will I have more authority than you."
41 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. Pharaoh told Joseph, "Take note: I am giving you command over all the land of Egypt."
42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck; Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and placed it on Joseph's hand. He also had Joseph arrayed in robes of cambric-sheen, and had the knitted collar of gold placed around his neck. Which is to say, that Pharaoh ordered Joseph kitted out with the regalia, the symbols of his kingship. Thus Joseph became a ruling steward, a viceroy in every sense of the word. The most important symbol was the signet ring; with it Joseph could requisition anything, appropriate any funds, and issue any order without having to ask Pharaoh's authorization or permission.
43 And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. He had him ride in his second chariot, and they cried out in front of him, "Kneel!" And they gave him command over all the land of Egypt.
44 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt. Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, and no one will lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt without your permission."
45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphnath-paaneah, and gave him Asenath daughter of Potiphera the priest of On, to be his wife. Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. Zaphnath-Paaneah is Egyptian for "he shall show the way." The city of On is also known as Heliopolis, the city of the sun.
46 And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt. Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. Joseph went out from before Pharaoh, and passed throughout all the land of Egypt.
47 And in the seven plenteous years the earth brought forth by handfuls. In the seven years of satisfaction, the land yielded fistfuls of grain.
48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities: the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same. He gathered together all the food of the seven years that passed in the land of Egypt, and stored this food in the cities, the food of each city's rural district around each city, Joseph stored in the middle of that district.
49 And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number. Joseph gathered cereal grains in heaps that were like the sand of the sea, an exceedingly great quantity, until he gave up trying to measure it, because it was beyond measure.
50 And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On bare unto him. To Joseph, two sons were born before the years of famine came, sons to whom Asenath daughter of Potiphera priest of On gave birth for him.
51 And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: For God, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house. Joseph gave the firstborn the name of Manasseh, saying, "For God has made me oblivious of all my toil and all my father's household." Manasseh means "forgetful"; cf. amnesty, from a- + mnasthai to remember.
52 And the name of the second called he Ephraim: For God hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction. The second son he named Ephraim, saying, "God has made me fruitful in the land where I suffered humiliation."
53 And the seven years of plenteousness, that was in the land of Egypt, were ended. The seven years of satisfaction that came upon the land of Egypt were then concluded.
54 And the seven years of dearth began to come, according as Joseph had said: and the dearth was in all lands; but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. Then the seven years of famine began, as Joseph had said they would. The famine spread to all the lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread.
55 And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread: and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyptians, Go unto Joseph; what he saith to you, do. When all the land of Egypt was famished, the poeple cried out to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph, and do what he tells you to do."
56 And the famine was over all the face of the earth: and Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold unto the Egyptians; and the famine waxed sore in the land of Egypt. The famine spread to all the face of the known world. Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold food back to the Egyptians. The famine held fast in the land of Egypt. The Hebrew word translates as "retailing."
57 And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph for to buy corn; because that the famine was so sore in all lands. All the earth came to Egypt, to buy food from Joseph, because the famine held fast in all the earth.

Chapter 42

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Now when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons, Why do ye look one upon another? Jacob could see that victuals could be had in Egypt. So he said to his sons, "Why are you standing around looking at yourselves?"
2 And he said, Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt: get you down thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may live, and not die. And he said, "Look: I've heard that victuals can be found in Egypt. Now go down there and buy some for us from there, so that we can live, rather than die."
3 And Joseph's ten brethren went down to buy corn in Egypt. Joseph's ten brothers went down to buy cereal grains in Egypt.
4 But Benjamin, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brethren; for he said, Lest peradventure mischief befall him. But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's full brother, with the other brothers. He said to himself, "Perhaps something bad will happen to him if he goes."
5 And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came: for the famine was in the land of Canaan. So the sons of Israel came to buy food, among everyone else that were coming. The famine had affected the country of Canaan as well.
6 And Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to all the people of the land: and Joseph's brethren came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth. Joseph was the man in authority over the land, and he was the one selling food to all the people of the land. Joseph's brothers came, and bowed themselves down to him, noses to the ground. The word rendered "selling" here actually translates as "retailing."
7 And Joseph saw his brethren, and he knew them, but made himself strange unto them, and spake roughly unto them; and he said unto them, Whence come ye? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food. Joseph saw his brothers, and recognized him. But he represented himself as a foreigner to them, and spoke to them in an obstinate manner. He asked them, "Where have you come from?" And they said, "From the land of Canaan, to buy food."
8 And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew not him. Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.
9 And Joseph remembered the dreams which he dreamed of them, and said unto them, Ye are spies; to see the nakedness of the land ye are come. Joseph, remembering his dreams about them, said to them, "You are spying. You came here to see our country's weak spots." Literally, "see the nakedness," which here refers to a deficiency in a country's defenses.
10 And they said unto him, Nay, my lord, but to buy food are thy servants come. They said back to him, "No, my lord! Your servants have come to buy food!"
11 We are all one man's sons; we are true men, thy servants are no spies. "We are all the sons of the same man, and we are established men. Your servants are not engaged in spying." An "established man" is one having a household of his own. Their argument is that spying is something that ordinary lackeys do, and that established men do not act directly as spies, because they need not place themselves in anyone's employ.
12 And he said unto them, Nay, but to see the nakedness of the land ye are come. He said to them, "No, you came here to look at our country's weak spots."
13 And they said, Thy servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is not. They said, "Your servants are twelve brothers, all sons of the same man in the country of Canaan--except that the youngest one is with his father today, and our other brother is dead." Literally, "the one there is no him."
14 And Joseph said unto them, That is it that I spake unto you, saying, Ye are spies: Joseph said to them, "As I said before: you are spying on us."
15 Hereby ye shall be proved: By the life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither. "By this means you will be put to the test: by the life of Pharaoh you will not be allowed to leave this place, unless your youngest brother comes here."
16 Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, and ye shall be kept in prison, that your words may be proved, whether there be any truth in you: or else by the life of Pharaoh surely ye are spies. "Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother. In the meantime, you will be detained, and your words will be put to the test, to see whether there is any truth in you. If not, then by the life of Pharaoh, you are indeed spying."
17 And he put them all together into ward three days. He then put them all together in ward for three days.
18 And Joseph said unto them the third day, This do, and live; for I fear God: On the third day Joseph said to them, "Do this, and you will live. I have respect for God.
19 If ye be true men, let one of your brethren be bound in the house of your prison: go ye, carry corn for the famine of your houses: "If you really are established men, then one of your brothers will remain in detention. The rest of you may go and carry victuals to relieve the famine in your households."
20 But bring your youngest brother unto me; so shall your words be verified, and ye shall not die. And they did so. "But bring your youngest brother to me, and your words will be considered verified, and you will not be executed." And they did so.
21 And they said one to another, We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us. They said to one another, "We are indeed guilty in the matter of our brother, because we saw the distress of his soul, when he supplicated us, and we did not listen. So now this distress has come on us."
22 And Reuben answered them, saying, Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child; and ye would not hear? therefore, behold, also his blood is required. Reuben said in answer, "Didn't I tell you that you must not sin against the boy? Why didn't you listen? And furthermore, his blood is now required." A clear reference to Cain's cynical question about being a "brother's keeper," and God's answer.
23 And they knew not that Joseph understood them; for he spake unto them by an interpreter. They did not realize that Joseph could hear them, because he used a translator to communicate with them.
24 And he turned himself about from them, and wept; and returned to them again, and communed with them, and took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes. He turned his back on them, and was weeping. Then he returned to them, and communicated with them. He arrested Simeon and put him in bonds in front of them.
25 Then Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn, and to restore every man's money into his sack, and to give them provision for the way: and thus did he unto them. Then Joseph instructed his staff to fill their sacks with cereal, and to return every man's silver to his sack, and to give them provision for the road; this is how he treated them.
26 And they laded their asses with the corn, and departed thence. They loaded their donkeys with the victuals, and went away from there.
27 And as one of them opened his sack to give his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money; for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth. Then, as one of them was opening his sack to give some provender to his donkey in the lodging place, he was shocked to find his silver in the mouth of his sack.
28 And he said unto his brethren, My money is restored; and, lo, it is even in my sack: and their heart failed them, and they were afraid, saying one to another, What is this that God hath done unto us? He said to his brothers, "My silver has been returned! Look, it's right here in my sack!" Their hearts failed them, and they trembled. They said to one another, "What is God doing to us?"
29 And they came unto Jacob their father unto the land of Canaan, and told him all that befell unto them; saying, They came back to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan, and told him everything that had happened to them. They said,
30 The man, who is the lord of the land, spake roughly to us, and took us for spies of the country. "The man having lordship of the country spoke obstinately to us, and said that we were spying on his country."
31 And we said unto him, We are true men; we are no spies: "We told him, 'We are established men; we are not spying.'"
32 We be twelve brethren, sons of our father; one is not, and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan. "'We are twelve brothers, the sons of one father. One of us is dead, and the youngest is with our father today in the land of Canaan.'"
33 And the man, the lord of the country, said unto us, Hereby shall I know that ye are true men; leave one of your brethren here with me, and take food for the famine of your households, and be gone: "So the man in charge of the country told us, "By this means I will know that you are established men: leave one of your brothers here with me, and take food to relieve the famine in your households, and go away.'"
34 And bring your youngest brother unto me: then shall I know that ye are no spies, but that ye are true men: so will I deliver you your brother, and ye shall traffick in the land. "'And bring your youngest brother to me, and I will know that you are not spying, but are established men. Then I will deliver your brother, and you can be merchants in this country.'" That last part is an "interpolation" on the part of Jacob's sons; Joseph actually said nothing about granting them any sort of merchant's visa.
35 And it came to pass as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every man's bundle of money was in his sack: and when both they and their father saw the bundles of money, they were afraid. And as it happened, they all emptied their sacks, and found every man's pouch of silver in his sack. Both they and their father saw the silver pouches, and they were afraid.
36 And Jacob their father said unto them, Me have ye bereaved of my children: Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away: all these things are against me. Their father Jacob told them, "You have bereaved me of my children. Joseph is dead, and now Simeon is dead, and you want to take Benjamin away from me. Why should I take all the chances?"
37 And Reuben spake unto his father, saying, Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee: deliver him into my hand, and I will bring him to thee again. Reuben said to his father, "You can put two of my sons to death if I don't bring him back to you. Trust me with him, and I will bring him back to you."
38 And he said, My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone: if mischief befall him by the way in the which ye go, then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. And he said, "My son is not going down with you. His brother is dead, and he is the only one left to me. If anything happens to him in the road that you travel, then you will bring my gray hairs down in affliction to the Unseen Place." Literally, Sheol.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hirsch EG and Casanowicz IM, "Entry for Oak and Terebinth," The Jewish Encyclopedia, acc. 22 December 2009.
  2. "Entry for Terebinth," NETBible, acc. 22 December 2009.
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