Genesis 43-50 (Translated)

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Chapter 43

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And the famine was sore in the land. The famine was severe in the known world. The Hebrew for "in the land," Va-aretz, can easily mean "in the earth." There is no reason to use language that limits the scope of this famine to the immediate region.
2 And it came to pass, when they had eaten up the corn which they had brought out of Egypt, their father said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food. And so, when they had finished eating the victuals that they had brought from Egypt, their father (Jacob) said to them, "Return and buy us a little food."
3 And Judah spake unto him, saying, The man did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you. Then Judah spoke to him, and said, "The man-in-charge told us positively, 'You will not be allowed to see me unless your brother is with you." The Hebrew says, "to testify he testified," another example of repetition for emphasis.
4 If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee food: "If you will send our brother with us, we can go down and buy food for you."
5 But if thou wilt not send him, we will not go down: for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you. "But if you don't send him, there's no use in our going down. The man told us, 'You will not be allowed to see me unless your brother is with you.'"
6 And Israel said, Wherefore dealt ye so ill with me, as to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother? So Israel said, "How could you have done me so ill a turn as to tell the man that you had still another brother?"
7 And they said, The man asked us straitly of our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? have ye another brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words: could we certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother down? And they said, "The man asked us specifically about our status, and our kindred. He asked, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?' So we answered the questions that he asked of us. How were we supposed to know that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?" The brothers are clearly exaggerating. There's no reason to suppose that Joseph "grilled" them, because the text does not say that.
8 And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also our little ones. Judah said to his father Israel, "Send the lad with me, and we will get up and go. It's life or death for us, and you, and our own little children." Now Judah accepts responsibility.
9 I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever: "I will be his security. You can require him from my hand. If I don't bring him back to you, and set him before you, then I will take the blame for that all my days."
10 For except we had lingered, surely now we had returned this second time. "Because if we hadn't dallied, we could have gone and come back twice."
11 And their father Israel said unto them, If it must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds: Their father Israel told them, "If you must, then do this: take some fruit from the pruned trees in the land in your vessels, and bring the man a present of a little balm, and a little honey, and perfume, and labdanum, and pistachio nuts, and almonds.
12 And take double money in your hand; and the money that was brought again in the mouth of your sacks, carry it again in your hand; peradventure it was an oversight: And take twice as much silver in your hand, and take back also the silver that was returned to you in the mouths of your sacks; there must have been some mistake."
13 Take also your brother, and arise, go again unto the man: "And take your brother, and get up and return to the man."
14 And God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may send away your other brother, and Benjamin. If I be bereaved of my children, I am bereaved. "May God Who Suffices give you compassion in front of the man, so that he will release to you your other brother, and Benjamin. If I am bereaved, then I am bereaved." Jacob accepts the necessity when Judah makes an honest and responsible proposal.
15 And the men took that present, and they took double money in their hand, and Benjamin; and rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. The men took this present, and took twice as much silver in their hand, and Benjamin. They rose up and went down to Egypt, and stood in the presence of Joseph.
16 And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the ruler of his house, Bring these men home, and slay, and make ready; for these men shall dine with me at noon. Joseph saw Benjamin with them. He said to his household steward, "Bring these men to the house, and slaughter some livestock, and prepare a meal. These men will dine with me at noon."
17 And the man did as Joseph bade; and the man brought the men into Joseph's house. The man followed Joseph's orders, and brought the men into Joseph's house.
18 And the men were afraid, because they were brought into Joseph's house; and they said, Because of the money that was returned in our sacks at the first time are we brought in; that he may seek occasion against us, and fall upon us, and take us for bondmen, and our asses. The men were afraid, because they had been brought into the house of Joseph. They said, "It's on account of that silver that wwas returned in our sacks the first time that we have been brought here. He's going to find an excuse to arrest us, make us his slaves, and confiscate our donkeys." The conscience of those who have done wrong is never clear; such persons always "borrow trouble."
19 And they came near to the steward of Joseph's house, and they communed with him at the door of the house, They came close to Joseph's house steward, and spoke to him at the portal of the house.
20 And said, O sir, we came indeed down at the first time to buy food: They said, "O my lord, we came down to start with to buy food." They are speaking to the steward, not to Joseph himself.
21 And it came to pass, when we came to the inn, that we opened our sacks, and, behold, every man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight: and we have brought it again in our hand. "And it so happened that when we came to the lodge, we opened our sacks, and--what do you think!--we each of us found our silver in the mouths of our sacks, the full weight of our silver. We now would like to restore it to you personally."
22 And other money have we brought down in our hands to buy food: we cannot tell who put our money in our sacks. "We brought other silver down in our hands to buy food, and we don't know who placed our silver in our bags."
23 And he said, Peace be to you, fear not: your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure in your sacks: I had your money. And he brought Simeon out unto them. He said, "Peace to you; you mustn't be afraid. Your God, and the God of your father, gave you a treasure in your sacks. Your silver was received." And he brought Simeon out to them. The word rendered "treasure" is the word used of a treasure that has been buried. The steward is either acting on Joseph's prior instructions or else didn't know anything about any missing silver.
24 And the man brought the men into Joseph's house, and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he gave their asses provender. The steward brought the men into Joseph's house, and gave them water to wash their feet, and gave provender to their donkeys.
25 And they made ready the present against Joseph came at noon: for they heard that they should eat bread there. They were preparing the present until Joseph came at noon; they had heard that they would eat bread there.
26 And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in their hand into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the earth. When Joseph came to his house, they brought the present that they had into the house to him, and bowed themselves down to him, to the ground.
27 And he asked them of their welfare, and said, Is your father well, the old man of whom ye spake? Is he yet alive? He asked after their well-being, and said, "Is your father well, the old man that you told me about? Is he still living?"
28 And they answered, Thy servant our father is in good health, he is yet alive. And they bowed down their heads, and made obeisance. In answer they said, "Your servant our father is well, and is still living." They bowed their heads, and bowed down to him.
29 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said, Is this your younger brother, of whom ye spake unto me? And he said, God be gracious unto thee, my son. He lifted his eyes, and saw his brother Benjamin, the son of his mother. He said, "Is this your brother, the young one you told me about?" And he said, "May God be gracious to you, my son."
30 And Joseph made haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother: and he sought where to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and wept there. Joseph hurried, because he felt fervid compassions toward his brother. He looked for a private place where he could go and weep. He retired to his private chamber and wept there.
31 And he washed his face, and went out, and refrained himself, and said, Set on bread. Then he washed his face, and went out, and checked himself, and said, "Serve the bread."
32 And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, which did eat with him, by themselves: because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians. They set food before him alone in one place, and before his visitors apart in another place, and before the Egyptians who were dining with him in still another place. Egyptians would not eat bread with Hebrews; that is an abhorrence to Egyptians. Prejudice rears its ugly head.
33 And they sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth: and the men marvelled one at another. They were sitting before him, the firstborn as his birthright demanded, and the inferior ones according to their inferior station, and the men were amazed to have the privilege of eating with him. Because they were Hebrews, and Joseph was, they thought, an Egyptian.
34 And he took and sent messes unto them from before him: but Benjamin's mess was five times so much as any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him. He personally set generous helpings before them, but Benjamin's helpings were five times as generous as any of theirs. They were drinking with him, and their every wish was gratified.

Chapter 44

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money in his sack's mouth. He (Joseph) gave these instructions to his household steward: "Fill the men's bags with as much food as they can carry, and place each man's silver into the mouth of his sack."
2 And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken. "And put my beaker, my silver beaker, into the mouth of the sack belonging to the youngest one, together with the silver he brought to buy food with." And the steward followed Joseph's instructions to the letter.
3 As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their asses. As soon as the day broke, the men were sent on their way, they and their donkeys.
4 And when they were gone out of the city, and not yet far off, Joseph said unto his steward, Up, follow after the men; and when thou dost overtake them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded evil for good? They had not yet gone very far out of the city when Joseph told his steward, "Rise and pursue those men! When you catch up to them, you say this to them: 'Why have you repaid evil for good?'"
5 Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth? ye have done evil in so doing. "'Isn't this the vessel from which my master drinks, and by which he takes the auguries? That was a wicked thing to do.'"
6 And he overtook them, and he spake unto them these same words. The steward overtook them and spoke those very words to them.
7 And they said unto him, Wherefore saith my lord these words? God forbid that thy servants should do according to this thing: They said to him, "Why does my lord say these words? Far be it from your servants to do anything like this!"
8 Behold, the money, which we found in our sacks' mouths, we brought again unto thee out of the land of Canaan: how then should we steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold? "Look! We gave you back the silver that we had found in the mouths of our sacks; we brought it back all the way from Canaan! Now why would we want to steal either silver or gold from your lord's house?" Silver was the most commonly used money. Gold was reserved for something very precious. More to the point, silver is the metal of redemption, and gold is the metal of royalty.
9 With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, both let him die, and we also will be my lord's bondmen. "Now if you find this beaker with any of your servants, you may have him executed, and we will become my lord's slaves."
10 And he said, Now also let it be according unto your words; he with whom it is found shall be my servant; and ye shall be blameless. The steward said, "All right, I'll take your words on that. With whomever the beaker is found, that man will be my slave, and the rest of you will be held innocent."
11 Then they speedily took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. Then each man hurried to take his sack down to the ground and open it.
12 And he searched, and began at the eldest, and left at the youngest: and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. The steward, searching, began with the eldest, and finished with the youngest. And the beaker was found in Benjamin's sack.
13 Then they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city. Now they tore their clothes. Then each man reloaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.
14 And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph's house; for he was yet there: and they fell before him on the ground. Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house, and he was still there. They fell with their faces to the ground in front of him.
15 And Joseph said unto them, What deed is this that ye have done? wot ye not that such a man as I can certainly divine? Joseph asked them, "What is this deed that you did? Didn't you know that a man like me can take auguries?"
16 And Judah said, What shall we say unto my lord? what shall we speak? or how shall we clear ourselves? God hath found out the iniquity of thy servants: behold, we are my lord's servants, both we, and he also with whom the cup is found. Then Judah said, "What can we say to my lord? What shall we speak? How can we justify ourselves? God has found out the depravity of your servants. Look at us! We are my lord's servants, ourselves and the one in whose hand the beaker was found."
17 And he said, God forbid that I should do so: but the man in whose hand the cup is found, he shall be my servant; and as for you, get you up in peace unto your father. Joseph said, "Far be it from me to do such a thing. The man in whose hand the beaker was found, will be my slave. But you may go in peace to your father."
18 Then Judah came near unto him, and said, Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, and let not thine anger burn against thy servant: for thou art even as Pharaoh. Now Judah came close to him, and said, "If it please my lord, may I speak a word in my lord's ears, and please don't be angry with your servant. We know that you are like Pharaoh." Which is exactly what a viceroy is: one who acts in the place of the king.
19 My lord asked his servants, saying, Have ye a father, or a brother? "My lord asked his servants, 'Have you a father, or a brother?'"
20 And we said unto my lord, We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him. "And we said to my lord, 'We have a father, who is an old man, and a younger brother who is a boy of his old age. His brother is dead, and he's the only one left from his mother, and his father loves him.'"
21 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Bring him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him. "You said to your servants, 'Bring him down to me, so that I may set my eyes on him.'"
22 And we said unto my lord, The lad cannot leave his father: for if he should leave his father, his father would die. "We said to my lord, 'The lad cannot leave his father. If he were to leave his father, then his father would die.'"
23 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Except your youngest brother come down with you, ye shall see my face no more. "You said to your servants, 'If your youngest brother does not come down with you, you will never be admitted to my presence again.'"
24 And it came to pass when we came up unto thy servant my father, we told him the words of my lord. "And so it happened that we went up to your servant my father, we told him my lord's words."
25 And our father said, Go again, and buy us a little food. "Our father said, 'Return, and buy us a little food.'"
26 And we said, We cannot go down: if our youngest brother be with us, then will we go down: for we may not see the man's face, except our youngest brother be with us. "Then we said, 'But we can't go down. If our youngest brother is with us, then we will go down, because we won't be allowed into the man's presence unless our youngest brother comes with us."
27 And thy servant my father said unto us, Ye know that my wife bare me two sons: "Any your servant my father said to us, 'You know that my wife gave birth to two sons for me.'"
28 And the one went out from me, and I said, Surely he is torn in pieces; and I saw him not since: "'The one went away from me, and I said, "He must have been torn to pieces." And I never saw him again.'"
29 And if ye take this also from me, and mischief befall him, ye shall bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. "'If you take this one also from me, and anything bad happens to him, you will bring down my gray hairs in evil toward the Unseen Place.'" That is, Sheol.
30 Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad be not with us; seeing that his life is bound up in the lad's life; "So if I come back to your servant my father, and the lad is not with us, given that his life is tied so closely to the lad's life,..."
31 It shall come to pass, when he seeth that the lad is not with us, that he will die: and thy servants shall bring down the gray hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow to the grave. "...then what will happen is that, when he sees that the lad is not with us, he will die--and your servants will have brought down the gray hairs of your servant our father in affliction to the Unseen Place."
32 For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my father, saying, If I bring him not unto thee, then I shall bear the blame to my father for ever. "In fact, your servant pledged himself as a security for the lad to my father. I told him, 'If I don't bring him back to you, then may I bear the blame for my father for all my days.'"
33 Now therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord; and let the lad go up with his brethren. "So please, let your servant dwell as a slave to my lord instead of the lad. Let the lad go up with his brother."
34 For how shall I go up to my father, and the lad be not with me? lest peradventure I see the evil that shall come on my father. "For how am I to face my father, if the lad is not with me? If that happens, I will see the affliction that will come upon my father."

Chapter 45

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren. Joseph could check himself no longer in front of all those who were standing next to him. He shouted, "Everybody go away from me!" Not a man stood next to him while Joseph made himself known to his brothers.
2 And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard. He even raised his voice in lamentation, so that the Egyptians could hear him, even in the household of Pharaoh.
3 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence. Joseph said to his brothers, "I am Joseph! Is my father still alive?" His brothers could not answer him, because they were flustered to be standing in front of him.
4 And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. Joseph said to his brothers, "Please come close to me." And they came close. He said, "I am your brother Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt."
5 Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life. "You mustn't be grieving, nor angry with yourselves for selling me here. It was to save a lot of lives that God sent me here."
6 For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest. "For two years the famine has been in the land. Five years remain in which the barley will neither ripen nor come to harvest." An idiom making direct reference to the declaration of the new moon in the month of Abib, which means "earing," for that is when the ears of barley are ripe.
7 And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. "God sent me ahead of you, to place a remnant for you in the earth, and to save you alive through a great deliverance."
8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. "So you see, you didn't send me here; God did. He has placed me as a father to Pharaoh, and steward of all his household, and the ruler in all the land of Egypt."
9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not: "Now hurry up and go up to my father. Tell him, 'This is what your son Joseph says: "God has made me lord of all of Egypt. Come down to me, and don't wait."'"
10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast: "'"You will settle in the land of Goshen, and you will be near to me, you, and your sons, and your sons' sons, and your flocks, and herds, and everything you have."'"
11 And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty. "'"There I will sustain you, because five more years of famine still remain. I would not want you, and your household, and everything that you have, become destitute."'"
12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you. "Now look at me. Your eyes can see, and my brother Benjamin's eyes can see, that my mouth is speaking to you."
13 And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste and bring down my father hither. "Tell my father about all my glory in Egypt, and of everything that you have seen. Hurry and bring my father down here."
14 And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck. He fell on his brother Benjamin's neck, and was weeping, and Benjamin wept on his neck.
15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them: and after that his brethren talked with him. He kissed all his brothers, and was weeping on them. After that, his brother spoke with him.
16 And the fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, Joseph's brethren are come: and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants. The news spread to Pharaoh's house: "Joseph's brothers have come!" Pharaoh was glad to hear it, as his servants were.
17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say unto thy brethren, This do ye; lade your beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Canaan; Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Tell your brothers, 'Do this: spur your beasts on, and go back to the land of Canaan.'"
18 And take your father and your households, and come unto me: and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land. "'Take your father and your households, and come to me. I will give you good land here in Egypt, and you will live off the fat of the land.'"
19 Now thou art commanded, this do ye; take you wagons out of the land of Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and bring your father, and come. "Now you have your instructions. Do this: take carts from the land of Egypt for your little children, and your wives, and bring your father, and come yourself."
20 Also regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt is yours. "Don't worry about your chattels; the best part of all the land of Egypt will be yours!"
21 And the children of Israel did so: and Joseph gave them wagons, according to the commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them provision for the way. The Sons of Israel did this. Joseph gave them carts, as Pharaoh had ordered, and gave them provision for the road.
22 To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment. He gave them each changes of clothes, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred silver pieces and five changes of clothes." This must have been a standard silver piece, because the Hebrew mentions only the word for silver and not the name of a particular coin.
23 And to his father he sent after this manner; ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she asses laden with corn and bread and meat for his father by the way. To his father he sent the following: ten (jack) donkeys carrying samples of the good things of Egypt, and ten jenny donkeys carrying cereal grains, bread, and sustenance for his father for the road.
24 So he sent his brethren away, and they departed: and he said unto them, See that ye fall not out by the way. So he sent his brothers out, and they went. He told them, "You mustn't be disturbed by anything on your way."
25 And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their father, They went up from Egypt, and came into the country of Canaan, to their father Jacob.
26 And told him, saying, Joseph is yet alive, and he is governor over all the land of Egypt. And Jacob's heart fainted, for he believed them not. They told him, "Joseph is still alive! He is the ruling steward of all the land of Egypt!" Jacob's heart was torpid, and he couldn't believe them.
27 And they told him all the words of Joseph, which he had said unto them: and when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived: They told him everything that Joseph said to them, and he could see the carts that Joseph had sent to carry him. Then the spirit of their father Jacob revived,
28 And Israel said, It is enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see him before I die. and Israel said, "This is tremendous. My son Joseph is still alive. Well! I will go and see him before I die."

Chapter 46

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac. Israel journeyed with everything he had, and came to Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac
2 And God spake unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I. God spoke to Israel in night apparitions, and said, "Jacob, Jacob." And he said, "Behold me."
3 And he said, I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation: And He said, "I am God, the God of your father. You must not be afraid to go down into Egypt. I will place you there as a great nation."
4 I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes. "I will go down with you into Egypt, and moreover, I will bring you back up. And Joseph will set his hand upon your eyes."
5 And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba: and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. Jacob got up fro Beer-sheba, and the Sons of Israel carried their father Jacob, and their little children, and their wives, in the carts that Pharaoh had sent to carry him.
6 And they took their cattle, and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt, Jacob, and all his seed with him: They took their cattle, and their goods that they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and Jacob, and all his descendants with him, came into Egypt:
7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt. his sons, and their sons' sons with him, his daughters, and the daughters of his sons. He brought all his descendants with him into Egypt. The only named daughter of Jacob is Dinah. "Daughters" could mean "daughters in law."
8 And these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn. These are the names of the Sons of Israel who came into Egypt: Jacob and his sons: Reuben, his firstborn,
9 And the sons of Reuben; Hanoch, and Phallu, and Hezron, and Carmi. And the sons of Reuben: Hanoch, Phallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
10 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman. The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul (son of a Canaanitess).
11 And the sons of Levi; Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
12 And the sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zerah: but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul. The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, Shelah, Pharez, and Zerah. (Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan.) The sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul. Who were very likely born in the very year of the Great Immigration.
13 And the sons of Issachar; Tola, and Phuvah, and Job, and Shimron. The sons of Issachar: Tolah, Phuvah, Job, and Shimron.
14 And the sons of Zebulun; Sered, and Elon, and Jahleel. The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.
15 These be the sons of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob in Padan-aram, with his daughter Dinah: all the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty and three. All these were the sons of Leah, to whom she gave birth for Jacob in Padan-aram, with his daughter Dinah. Total count: 33. 33, that is, including Jacob himself. Leah does not count; she was dead by then; when, the Bible does not tell us.
16 And the sons of Gad; Ziphion, and Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli. The sons of Gad: Ziphon, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.
17 And the sons of Asher; Jimnah, and Ishuah, and Isui, and Beriah, and Serah their sister: and the sons of Beriah; Heber, and Malchiel. The sons of Asher: Jimnah, Ishua, Isui, Beriah, and their sister Serah. The sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel.
18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter, and these she bare unto Jacob, even sixteen souls. These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to his daugher Leah; she gave birth to these for Jacob. Total: 16. Subtotal thus far: 49.
19 The sons of Rachel Jacob's wife; Joseph, and Benjamin. The sons of Rachel, wife of Jacob: Joseph and Benjamin.
20 And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On bare unto him. To Joseph in the country of Egypt, Manasseh and Ephraim were born, to whom Asenath daugher of Poti-pherah priest of On gave birth for him.
21 And the sons of Benjamin were Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard. The sons of Benjamin were Belah, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard.
22 These are the sons of Rachel, which were born to Jacob: all the souls were fourteen. These are the sons of Rachel, who were born to Jacob. Total: 14.
23 And the sons of Dan; Hushim. The son of Dan: Hushim.
24 And the sons of Naphtali; Jahzeel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shillem. The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.
25 These are the sons of Bilhah, which Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and she bare these unto Jacob: all the souls were seven. These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Rachel; she gave birth to these people for Jacob. Total: 7.
26 All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threescore and six; So the total number of people who came with Jacob into Egypt, who descended directly from him, in addition to the wives of Jacob's sons, was 66. This total does not include Jacob.
27 And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten. The sons of Joseph, born to him in Egypt, numbered two. So all of the souls of the house of Jacob, who came into Egypt, numbered 70. That is: 33 + 16 + 14 + 7 = 70, Jacob included.
28 And he sent Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen. He sent Judah ahead of him to Joseph, to point the way toward Goshen, and they came into the country of Goshen.
29 And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself unto him; and he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while. Joseph hitched up his chariot and went up to meet his father Israel, toward Goshen, and appeared before him, and fell on hisneck, and wept on his neck for a long time.
30 And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let me die, since I have seen thy face, because thou art yet alive. Israel said to Joseph, "Now I can die, after I have seen your face, because you are still alive."
31 And Joseph said unto his brethren, and unto his father's house, I will go up, and shew Pharaoh, and say unto him, My brethren, and my father's house, which were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me; Joseph said to his brothers, and to his father's household, "I will go up and tell Pharaoh, and say to him, 'My brothers, and my father's household, who were in the country of Canaan, have come to me.'"
32 And the men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have. "'The men are shepherds, because they have been cattlemen, and they have brought their flocks and herds and everything they have.'"
33 And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation? "Now if Pharaoh happens to call for you and ask you, 'What is your occupation?'..."
34 That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians. "...you tell him, 'Your servants have been cattlement from our youth until now, both we and our fathers,' so that you will be allowed to live in the country of Goshen, because every man who takes care of sheep is an abhorrence to Egyptians."

Chapter 47

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 Then Joseph came and told Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brethren, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, are come out of the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are in the land of Goshen. Joseph came and told Pharaoh, "My father and my brothers, and their flocks, and their herds, and everything they own, have come from the country of Canaan. Behold them, in the land of Goshen."
2 And he took some of his brethren, even five men, and presented them unto Pharaoh. He took five of his brothes, from among those having the most extensive households, and presented them at court. The Hebrew word translates as "outstanding."
3 And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, What is your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and also our fathers. Pharaoh said to his brothers, "What is your occupation"? And they said to Pharaoh, "Your servants are shepherds, both we and our fathers before us." Joseph had encouraged them to lie. But when they were presented at court, they told the truth.
4 They said moreover unto Pharaoh, For to sojourn in the land are we come; for thy servants have no pasture for their flocks; for the famine is sore in the land of Canaan: now therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell in the land of Goshen. They also said to Pharaoh, "We have come to stay temporarily in the land. Your servants have no pasture for their flocks, because the famine is severe in Canaan. So please, let us live in the land of Goshen."
5 And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Your father and your brothers have come to you."
6 The land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle. "The whole land of Egypt is before you. Have your father and brothers live in the best of the land; let them live in the land of Goshen. If you know any man of aptitude among them, appoint them as foremen over my cattle."
7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh: and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. Joseph brought in his father Jacob, and presented him before Pharaoh. Jacob blessed Pharaoh.
8 And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, How old art thou? Pharaoh said to Jacob, "How old are you?" Or literally, "What are the days of the years of your lives?"
9 And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty years: few and evil have the days of the years of my life been, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage. Jacob said to Pharaoh, "I am 130 years old. My life has been short and bitter, and not nearly as long as the lives of my ancestors." True enough. Abraham lived to be 175, and Isaac 180. Their ancestors lived even longer, although after the Great Flood, the lifespan of man fell ninety percent, and in a hurry.
10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh. Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from Pharaoh's court.
11 And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. Joseph located his father and brothers, and gave them a landhold in the land of Egypt, the best of the land, the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had instructed him. "Ramses" = "Goshen."
12 And Joseph nourished his father, and his brethren, and all his father's household, with bread, according to their families. Joseph supported his father and his brothers, and all his father's household, with bread sufficient even for their little children. Literally, "for the mouth of the tot."
13 And there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very sore, so that the land of Egypt and all the land of Canaan fainted by reason of the famine. No bread could be found in all the land, because the famine was exceedingly severe. The people in the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan became frantic on account of the famine. And so it begins: the transformation of Egypt into a total despotism, in which the monarch owned all the land personally.
14 And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house. Joseph gleaned all the silver that could be found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the victuals that they bought. Joseph brought this silver into Pharaoh's house.
15 And when money failed in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, Give us bread: for why should we die in thy presence? for the money faileth. When the silver had been spent in the land of Egypt, and the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph, saying, "Give us bread! Why should we die in front of you? Our silver has reached its limit!"
16 And Joseph said, Give your cattle; and I will give you for your cattle, if money fail. Joseph said, "Grant your cattle [to Pharaoh], and I will give you food for cattle, if the silver has reached its limit."
17 And they brought their cattle unto Joseph: and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses, and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the herds, and for the asses: and he fed them with bread for all their cattle for that year. So they brought their cattle to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread for their horses, their flocks, and the cattle of their herds, and their donkeys. He fed them with bread for all their cattle for one year.
18 When that year was ended, they came unto him the second year, and said unto him, We will not hide it from my lord, how that our money is spent; my lord also hath our herds of cattle; there is not ought left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our lands: When that year came to an end, they came to him a ssecond year, and said to him, "We will not hide anything from my lord: our silver has run out, and my lord also has our cattle. We have nothing left to offer but our bodies and our lands."
19 Wherefore shall we die before thine eyes, both we and our land? buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants unto Pharaoh: and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, that the land be not desolate. "But why should we die before your eyes, we and our land? Buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be slaves to Pharaoh. Give us seed, so that we may live and not die, and the ground will not become desolate."
20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them: so the land became Pharaoh's. So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, because each man among the Egyptians sold his field, because the famine persisted. So the land became the property of Pharaoh.
21 And as for the people, he removed them to cities from one end of the borders of Egypt even to the other end thereof. He transferred the people to cities from one end of the frontiers of Egypt to the other.
22 Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests had a portion assigned them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave them: wherefore they sold not their lands. But he did not buy the land of the priests. The priests had a statutory dole assigned them from Pharaoh. So they ate their statutory dole that Pharaoh gave them, and so they did not sell their lands.
23 Then Joseph said unto the people, Behold, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh: lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land. Then Joseph said to the people, "Listen! I have bought you thisday, and your land, for Pharaoh. Here is seed for you; sow the land."
24 And it shall come to pass in the increase, that ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your food, and for them of your households, and for food for your little ones. "You will pay a fifth of your income to Pharaoh, and four-fifths will belong to you, for seed of the field, and for you to eat, and for those in your households, and for your little chiodren to eat." Joseph imposes the first income tax on record.
25 And they said, Thou hast saved our lives: let us find grace in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants. They said, "You have saved our lives. Let us find grace in the eyes of my lord, and we will become Pharaoh's slaves."
26 And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the priests only, which became not Pharaoh's. Joseph passed a statute to this day over the land of Egypt, that Pharaoh would receive a twenty-percent tax, except only for the land belonging to the priests, which did not become the property of Pharaoh.
27 And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions therein, and grew, and multiplied exceedingly. Israel lived in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen. They had landholdings in Goshen, and were fruitful and increased greatly in number.
28 And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years: so the whole age of Jacob was an hundred forty and seven years. Jacob lived for 17 years in the land of Egypt, so that the lifespan of Jacob was 147 years.
29 And the time drew nigh that Israel must die: and he called his son Joseph, and said unto him, If now I have found grace in thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt: Then the time drew close for Israel to die. He called his son Joseph, and said to him, "Please, if I have now found grace in your eyes, place your hand under my thigh and do me the kindness of giving me this pledge. Please do not bury me in Egypt."
30 But I will lie with my fathers, and thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their buryingplace. And he said, I will do as thou hast said. "I want to be buried with my father. You must carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their tomb." And Joseph said, "I will do everything you say."
31 And he said, Swear unto me. And he sware unto him. And Israel bowed himself upon the bed's head. And Jacob said, "Swear to me." And he swore to him. And Israel bowed himself down on the head of the couch.

Chapter 48

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And it came to pass after these things, that one told Joseph, Behold, thy father is sick: and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. It happend after these things that someone told Joseph, "Sir! Your father is ill." He took his sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, with him.
2 And one told Jacob, and said, Behold, thy son Joseph cometh unto thee: and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed. Someone else told Jacob, "Sir, your son Joseph is coming to you." Israel then encouraged himself to sit up on his couch.
3 And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Almighty appeared unto me at Luz in the land of Canaan, and blessed me, Jacob said to Joseph, "The All-sufficient God appeared to me at Luz in the country of Canaan, and blessed me."
4 And said unto me, Behold, I will make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will make of thee a multitude of people; and will give this land to thy seed after thee for an everlasting possession. "He said to me, "'Look at Me! I will make you fruitful, and increase your numbers, and I will make you into an assembly of peoples, and I will give this land to your descendants after you as a landholding forever.'"
5 And now thy two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, which were born unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. Now your two sons who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, will be my sons. They, Ephraim and Manasseh, will be as much mine as are Reuben and Simeon."
6 And thy issue, which thou begettest after them, shall be thine, and shall be called after the name of their brethren in their inheritance. "Any descendants that you generate after them, will belong to you, and will be call after the name of their brothers in their allotment." Which is to say, allotment in the context of probate.
7 And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem. "Now about me: when Icame from Padan, Rachel died by my side in the land of Canaan, on the road, still a little distance away from Ephrath. I buried her there on the road to Ephrath--I mean, Bethlehem."
8 And Israel beheld Joseph's sons, and said, Who are these? Israel saw the sons of Joseph, and asked, "Who are these?"
9 And Joseph said unto his father, They are my sons, whom God hath given me in this place. And he said, Bring them, I pray thee, unto me, and I will bless them. Joseph said to his father, "They are my sons, whom God gave me in this place." Jacob said, "Please bring them to me, and I will bless them."
10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim for age, so that he could not see. And he brought them near unto him; and he kissed them, and embraced them. Israel was farsighted, as old man's eyes become, and he could not see very well. Joseph brought the boys close to him, and he kissed them and embraced them.
11 And Israel said unto Joseph, I had not thought to see thy face: and, lo, God hath shewed me also thy seed. Israel said to Joseph, "I never thought I'd see your face again. I prayed, and what do you think! God has shown me your descendants in addition to you!"
12 And Joseph brought them out from between his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth. Joseph brought them out from between his knees, and bowed himself with his nose to the ground.
13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel's left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel's right hand, and brought them near unto him. Joseph took both of them, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel's left hand, and Manasseh in his left toward Israel's right, and brought them close to him. So that Jacob would give the ranking blessing with his right hand to Manasseh.
14 And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh's head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the firstborn. But Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, the younger boy, and put his left hand on Manasseh's head. He knew exactly whom he was touching with which hand, this although Manasseh was the firstborn. But Jacob blessed Ephraim ahead of Manasseh--because Jacob was a prophet.
15 And he blessed Joseph, and said, God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, He blessed Joseph, and said, "God, before Whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God Who shepherded me all my life to this day,..."
16 The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth. "The Messenger Who redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads. Let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them be prolific to a multitude within the earth." Or simply "the land," that is, Goshen, from then to the Exodus of Israel.
17 And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's head. Joseph saw that his father was setting his right hand on Ephraim's head. This did not please Joseph, and he held up his father's hand to move it from Ephraim's head to Manasseh's head.
18 And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father: for this is the firstborn; put thy right hand upon his head. Joseph said to his father, "Wait a minute. This is the firstborn; set your right hand on his head."
19 And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations. His father refused, and said, "I know, son. I know. And furthermore, he will become a people, and he will be great. Nevertheless his younger brother will be greater than he, and his descendants will become a fullness of nations."
20 And he blessed them that day, saying, In thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh: and he set Ephraim before Manasseh. He blessed him on that day, saying, "In you Israel will bless, by saying, 'May God make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh.'" So he placed Ephraim ahead of Manasseh.
21 And Israel said unto Joseph, Behold, I die: but God shall be with you, and bring you again unto the land of your fathers. Israel said to Joseph, "Look: I'm dying, but God will be with you, and will restore you to the land of your fathers."
22 Moreover I have given to thee one portion above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow. "And I have given you the mountain-slope ahead of your brothers, the slope I captured from the Amorites with my sword and my bow."

Chapter 49

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days. Jacob called his sons, saying, "Gather 'round, because I'm going to tell you what's going to happen to you in the future."
2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father. "Gather 'round, and hear, sons of Jacob, and listen to your father Israel."
3 Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power: "Reuben, you, my firstborn, my vigor, the beginning of my manhood, the surplus of dignity and surplus of strength,..."
4 Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch. "...are ebullient, like water. You will not have a surplus. You went up to your father's bed, and then profaned it; you went up to my berth." Referring to Reuben's affair with Bilhah.
5 Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations. Simeon and Levi, brothers: your broadswords are implements of wanton violence." Not just any violence, but violence without good cause; referring to the massacre at Shechem.
6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall. "My soul must not enter into their deliberation, nor my honor be united in their assembly. In their anger they killed a man, and in their presumption they lamed an ox." Literally, "the approval of them," often rendered "self-will."
7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel. Let their anger stand accursed, for it was fierce; and their rage, because it was obstinate. I will apportion them in Jacob, and will scatter them in Israel." Simeonite territory would be surrounded entirely by Judah-ite territory. The Levites would never have a discrete territory, but would have cities to call their own within the territories of other tribes.
8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee. Judah, you are the one whom your brothers shall acclaim. Your hand will be on the nape of the neck of your enemies; your father's sons will bow down before you."
9 Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? "Judah is a lion's whelp. From the prey, my son, have you gone up. He bows and reclines like a lion, and like a parent lion, who will make him get up?" Male lions are well known for their totally relaxed repose--until someone dares awaken them.
10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. The scepter shall not be withdrawn from Judah, nor a lawgiver's staff from between his feet, until he comes to Shiloh. To him will belong the Expectation of peoples. Jesus Christ is, of course, that Expectation.
11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes: "He is tying his colt to the vine, and his donkey's colt to the yellow muscatel grape. He launders his clothing in wine, and his coverlet in the blood of grapes." A direct reference to Jesus' entry (in peace) into Jerusalem and the role of the blood of Christ in washing away a man's sins. Muscatel grapes were the most expensive grapes then available.
12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk. "His eyes will be flushed with wine, and his teeth white from milk."
13 Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon. "Zebulun will encamp at the seaport. He will serve as a seaport, and his flank will stretch to Sidon." The Zebulunites were to be a seafaring tribe.
14 Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens: "Issachar is a ribbed donkey reclining between the hearthstones."
15 And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute. "He sees that good resting place, and the land, that it is pleasant, and will stretch out his shoulder blade to bear a burden, and will become a servant and pay tribute."
16 Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. "Dan will adjudicate his people, as one of the tribes of Israel."
17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward. "Dan shall become a serpent by the road, a horned snake on the path, one that bites the horse's heels, so that its rider falls backward."
18 I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD. "I have waited for Your salvation, O LORD."
19 Gad, a troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last. "Gad: a raiding party will raid him, but he will win in the end." Literally, "he will raid the heels of the raiders."
20 Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties. "From Asher, his bread will be nutritious, and he will yield luxuries fit for a king."
21 Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words. Naphtali is a hind set free: he gives seemly sayings."
22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall: "Joseph is a fruitful son, fruitful by a spring; his daughters run over the barricade."
23 The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at him, and hated him: "The archers, being many, have been bitter toward him and begrudged him."
24 But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob; (from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:) "But his bow was located in the perennial stream, and the weapons in his hands were made supple by the hands of the Sturdy One of Jacob; from there comes the shepherding stone of Israel." The Sturdy One is God.
25 Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb: By the God of your father, and he will help you, and the All-Sufficient One will bless you with blessings from the skies above, and with blessings from the abyss that lies beneath, and the blessings of the breasts and the womb."
26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren. "The blessings of your father have won over even the blessings of my ancestors to the farthest boundary of the hills forever. They shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the scalp of the one who was sequestered from his brothers." All this is a reference to the bitter, and finally sweet, life of Joseph.
27 Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf: in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil. Benjamin is a ravening wolf. He devours the prey in the morning, and at night he apportions the loot." This could be a reference to an episode in the interjudicial period between Judges Joshua and Othniel.
28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spake unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them. All of these are the twelve Tribes of Israel. This is what their father spoke to them, and he blessed each man with a particular blessing.
29 And he charged them, and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people: bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, Then he gave them these instructions: "I want to be gathered to my people. Bury me with my ancestors in the cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite."
30 In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a buryingplace. "In the cave in the field of Machpelah, which fronts Mamre, in the land of Canaan, the one that Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite as a landholding for a tomb."
31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah. "There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, and there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and there I buried Leah," This must have happened during the twenty-two-year absence of Joseph from his family: he was 17 years old when he was sold as a slave, and was 30 years old when he accepted his viceroyalty (13 years later), and after that came the 7 years of surplus and 2 of the years of famine.
32 The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the children of Heth. "in the acquisition of the field and of the cave within it from the sons of Heth." That is, the Hittites.
33 And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people. When Jacob had finished instructing his sons, he gathered his feet into the couch, and expired, and was gathered to his peoples.

Chapter 50

Verse King James Version Proposed Conservative Translation Analysis
1 And Joseph fell upon his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed him. Joseph was falling on his father's face, and weeping over him and kissing him.
2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel. Joseph instructed his servants the physicians to embalm hs father. The physicians embalmed Israel.
3 And forty days were fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days of those which are embalmed: and the Egyptians mourned for him threescore and ten days. Forty days were fulfilled for him, because that was the customary waiting period following embalming. The Egyptians lamented him for seventy days.
4 And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found grace in your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, When the days of lamentation for him had passed, Joseph spoke to the household of Pharaoh, and said, "If I have found grace in your eyes, please take this message to Pharaoh:"
5 My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I die: in my grave which I have digged for me in the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me. Now therefore let me go up, I pray thee, and bury my father, and I will come again. "'My father adjured me, and said, "Look, I'm dying. I want you to bury me in the tomb that I dug for myself in the land of Canaan."'"
6 And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made thee swear. Pharaoh said, "Go up, and bury your father, exactly as he adjured you to do."
7 And Joseph went up to bury his father: and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, Joseph went up to bury his father. All of Pharaoh's servants, the old men of his household, and all the old men in the land of Egypt went up with him,
8 And all the house of Joseph, and his brethren, and his father's house: only their little ones, and their flocks, and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen. together with the entire households of Joseph and his brothers, and his father's household. But they left their little children, their flocks, and their herds in the land of Goshen.
9 And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen: and it was a very great company. They had a chariot and cavalry escort, and it was an exceedingly large company.
10 And they came to the threshingfloor of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and there they mourned with a great and very sore lamentation: and he made a mourning for his father seven days. They came to the threshing-site of Atad, across the Jordan River, and they wailed with a great and exceedingly heavy wailing. He mourned for his father for seven days.
11 And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians: wherefore the name of it was called Abel-mizraim, which is beyond Jordan. When the Canaanites who lived in the land saw the mourning at the threshing-site of Atad, they said, "This is a great mourning for the Egyptians." So the place gained the name Abel-Mizraim-beyond-Jordan.
12 And his sons did unto him according as he commanded them: His sons followed his instructions exactly:
13 For his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a buryingplace of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre. his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham had bought with the field as a landholding for a tomb from Ephron the Hittite, facing Mamre.
14 And Joseph returned into Egypt, he, and his brethren, and all that went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father. Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers, and everyone who had gone up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.
15 And when Joseph's brethren saw that their father was dead, they said, Joseph will peradventure hate us, and will certainly requite us all the evil which we did unto him. Now when Joseph's brothers realized that their father was dead, they were saying to themselves, "Suppose Joseph holds a grudge against us! Won't he requite on us all the evil we did him?" "What goes around, comes around."
16 And they sent a messenger unto Joseph, saying, Thy father did command before he died, saying, They instructed someone to tell Joseph, "Your father gave this instruction before he died:"
17 So shall ye say unto Joseph, Forgive, I pray thee now, the trespass of thy brethren, and their sin; for they did unto thee evil: and now, we pray thee, forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of thy father. And Joseph wept when they spake unto him. "'Tell this to Joseph: "Please forgive the transgression of your brothers, and their sin, and the evil that they did you." Now please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father.'" Joseph wept when that message came to him.
18 And his brethren also went and fell down before his face; and they said, Behold, we be thy servants. Moreover, his brothers went and fell down in his presence, and said, "Look at us! We are your slaves."
19 And Joseph said unto them, Fear not: for am I in the place of God? Joseph told them, "You mustn't be afraid! Do I stand in God's place?"
20 But as for you, ye thought evil against me; but God meant it unto good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive. "What you devised as evil against me, God devised for good, so that I could be in this place, at this moment, to preserve so many lives."
21 Now therefore fear ye not: I will nourish you, and your little ones. And he comforted them, and spake kindly unto them. "So you mustn't be afraid of me now. I will sustain you, and your little children, too." So he comforted them, and spoke to their hearts.
22 And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house: and Joseph lived an hundred and ten years. Joseph continued to live in Egypt, both he and his father's household. Joseph lived for 110 years.
23 And Joseph saw Ephraim's children of the third generation: the children also of Machir the son Manasseh were brought up upon Joseph's knees. Joseph lived to see the sons of Ephraim in their third generation, and also saw the sons of Machir son of Manasseh, who were born on Joseph's knees. The generations of Ephraim were many, as told in 1 Chronicles. This verse provides good synchrony information for the genealogical annals of Ephraim.
24 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I die: and God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this land unto the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. Joseph told his brothers, "I am dying. God will certainly visit you and bring you out of thiscountry and into the land that he swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." The Hebrew says, "visiting he shall visit" for emphasis.
25 And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence. Joseph adjured the Sons of Israel, and said, "God will certainly visit you, and you will bring up my bones from this place."
26 So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt. And so Joseph died, at the age of 110. They embalmed him and placed him in a mummy-case in Egypt.
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