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Name Germanium
Symbol Ge
Atomic number 32
Atomic mass 72.6
Classification Metalloid
Crystal structure Cubic
Color Gray
Date of discovery 1886
Name of discoverer Clemens Winkler
Name origin From the Latin word Germania, meaning Germany
Uses Semiconductors
Obtained from Refining of copper, zinc, lead

Germanium (jer-MAY-ni-em) is a brittle, silvery-white semi-metal (metalloid).[1]


Germanium was first proposed to exist by Dmitri Mendeleyev in 1871. He had recently created a Periodic Table of Elements, and identified gaps which where unknown elements. Germanium was officially discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler, a German chemist. He found it in the mineral argyrodite (Ag8GeS6).


Melting Point: 1720.85 °F (938.25 °C or 1211.40 K)

Boiling Point: 5131 °F (2833 °C or 3106 K)

Density: 5.323 grams per cubic centimeter

State of Matter at Room Temperature: Solid


Germanium is primarily used as a semiconductor. With arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, it is used to make transistors. Another major use for Germanium is lenses. It is used in the manufacture of wide-angle camera lenses and objective lenses for microscopes.[2] It is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps.[3] Additionally, adding 1% germanium to silver prevents tarnishing.[4]



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